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///: £. /^. 







Qlazed vases oontinaed — Ornaments — Their nature and use — T^e Meander 
— Chequered bands — The fret or herring-bone — Annulets — Egg and 
tongue ornament — Scales or feathers — The Helix — Antefixal ornament 
— Wreaths — Petals — Vine branches — Acanthus, leaves — Flowers — 
Arrangement— Sources from which the vase-painters copied — Inscrip- 
tions — Form of the letters — Position— Dialects-^Orthography — Differ- 
ent kinds of inscriptions — Names x>^ 'figures ^d •'lobjects— Addresses — 
Artists' names — Potters' names — Laxidatory insQriptions — Unintelligible 
inacriptions — Memoranda . . . /• .^.' . 


Ancient Potters — ^Athenian Potteries — Names of Potters : Alides — Amasis 
— ^Andocides — Archicles — Bryllos — Calliphon — Chachrylios — Chao- 
restratos — Charinos — Chariteeus — Cephalos — Chelis — Cholchos — Cleo- 
phradas — Deiniades — Doris — Epitimos — Epigenes — Erginos — Ergo- 
timoB — Euei^getides — Eucheros — Echecrates — Execias — Euphronios 
— Euxitheos — Qlaucythes — Hermseos — Hermogeues — Hechthor — 
Hieron — Hilinos — Hischylos— Meidias — Naucydes — Ncandros — Nicos- 
thenes — Pamaphius — Phanphaios — Pamphseos — Philinos — PLstoxenos 
— Piiapus — Python — Simon of Elea — Smicylion — Socles — Sosias — 
Statius — Taleides — Theoxetos— Thypheitheides — Timagoras — Tlenpo- 
lemos — Tleson — Tychios — Xenocles — Xenophantos — Names of Vase 

VOL. IL b 




Painters : Unlades — Alsimos — Amasis — Aristophanes — Asteas — 
Bryllos, or Bryaxis — Clitias — Cholchos — Doris — Euonymos — Epictetus 
— Euphronios — Euthymides — Execias — Hegias — Hermonax — Hypsis — 
Onesimos — Pheidippos — Philtias — Phrynos — Pothinos — Praxias — Poly- 
gnotus — Priapos — Paiax — Sosias — Taconides — Zeuxiades . . . 42 


Uses of Vases — Domestic use — Vases for liquids— For the Table — for the 
Toilet — Toys — Decorative Vases — Prizes— Marriage Gifts — Millingen's 
division of Sepulchral Vases — Grecian usage — Names and shapes of 
Vases — The Pithos — Pithacne — Stamnos — Hyrcho — Lagynos — Ascos — 
Amphoreus — Pelice — Cados — Hydria — Calpis — Crossos — Cothon — 
Rhy ton — Bessa — Bombylios — Lecy thus — Olpe — Alabastron — Crater — 
Oxybaphon — Hypocraterion — Celebe — Psyctor — Dinos — Chytra — Ther- 
manter — Thermopotis — Tripous — Holmos — Chytropous — Lasanon — 
Chous — CSnochoe — Prochoos — Epichysis — Arutaina — Ary hallos — Arys- 
tichosy aryter, arytis, &c. — Oenerysis — Etnerysis — Zomerysis — Hemico- 
tylion— Cotyliskos— Cyathos— Louterion — Asaminthos — Puelos— Scaphe 
— Scapheioh — Ebcaleiptron — Lecane — Lecanis — Lecaniskos — Podanipter 
— Cheironiptron — Holcion — Peirrhanterion — Ardanion, or Ardalion — 
Excellence of the Greek cups — The Depas — Aleison — Cissy bion — 
Cy pellon — Cymbion — Scyphos onychionos — Ooscyphion — Bromias — 
Cautharos — Carchesion — Cylix — Thericleios — Hedypotis — Rhodiake — 
Antigonis — Seleucis — Phiale — Phiale Lepaste — Acatos — Trieres — 
Canoun — Pinax — Phthois — Petachnon — Labronia — Gyalas — Keras — 
Vases for Food — Canoun — Pinax — Discos — Lecanis — Paropsis — Oxis — 
Embaphion — Ereus— Cypselie — Cyminodokos — Tryblion — Oxybaphon . 66 


Sites of Ancient Potteries, and where Pottery has been discovered in Asia 
Minor — Grecian Islands — Continent of Greece — Athens — Solygia — 
Sicyon — A rgolis — Delphi — Corinth — Patrso — Megara — Laconia — Corfu 
— Italy — Classification of Lenormant and De Witte — Hadria — Modena 
— PoUenza — Gavolda — Mantua — Etruria — Vuld — ^Ponte dell' Abbadia 
— Castel d' Asso — Cometo — Toscanella — Chiusi — Orbetello — Perugia 
— Sarteano — Volterra — Bomarzo — Orvieto — Veil — Cervetri — Civita 
Vecohia — Theories respecting these vases — Arezzo— Selva la Rocca — 
Sommavilla — Monterone — Poggio— Central and l/ower Italy — Periods 
— Naples — Cuma — Terra di Lavoro — Nola — Acerra- St, Agata dei QoH 
— Cajazzo — Telese — Principato Citeriore — Pesto — Eboli — Battipaglia 
— St. Lucia — Sorrento— Principato Ulteriore — Capitanata — Basilicata 
— Anzi — Armento — Potenza — Grumento — Puglia — Polig^ano, Putig- 
iiano — Bori — Canosa — Ru vo — Ceglie — Calabria — Locri — Brindisi — 
Taranto — Castellaneta — Ischia — Sicily — Girgenti — Malta — ^Africa — 



Bengazi — NaucraUa — Alexandria — Kertch, or Panticapseum — Sites of 
Boppoeed Egyptian ware — Imitationa and forgeries of Greek vases — 
Prices - .... 113 




Etruscan terra-cottas — Statues — Busts — Bas-reliefs — Sarcophagi — Vases — 
Brown ware — Black ware — Red ware — Yellow ware — Painted vases — 
Imitations of Qreek vases — Subjects and mode of execution — Age — 
Vases of Orbetello and Volaterra — Vases with Etruscan inscriptions — 
Latin inBcriptionB—Enamelled ware — Other Italian sites 187 




Bricks — Lydia — Tetradora — Pentadora — Size — Paste — Use — Houses — 
Tombs — Graves — Tiles — Tcgulse— Imbrices — Antefixal ornamentation 
— Tile-makers — Flue tiles — Wall tiles — Ornamentations — Drain tiles — 
Tesseno or tessellse — Inscriptions on tiles — Stamps — Farms — Manufac- 
tories — Legionary tiles — Devices — Columns — Corbels — Spouts — 
Frieses 22 


Statues — Signa Tuscanica — Numa — Gorgasus — Cato — Possis and Arcesilaus 
— Size— Models — Sigillaria— Festival of Sigillaria— Fabric — Potters— 



Miscellaneous uses of pottery — Coinera' moulds — Crucibles — Toys — 
Lamps — Names — Parts — Shape — ^Age — Subjects — Qreat Gods — ^Marine 
deities — Hercules — Fortune — Victory — Foreign deities — Emblems — 
Poetical subjects — Fables — Historical subjects — ^Real life — Qames of 
Circus — Qladiators — ^Animals — Miscellaneous subjects — Christian lamps 
— Inscriptions — Names of Makers — Of places — Of pottery — Of propri- 
etors — Date of manufactures — ^Dedications to deities — Acclamations — 
Illuminations — Superstitions 258 


Vases — Roman pottery — Paste— Colours — Drying — Wheel or lathe — Model- 
ling — ^Moulding — Stamps — Inscriptions — Furnaces — Construction for 
glased ware — Heat — Smoke kilns — Northampton kilns — Chichester 
kilns — For gray ware — Dimensions — Prices — Uses of vases — Transport 
of eatables — Feet of tables — Sham viands — Dolia, or casks — Hooped with 
lead — Repaired — Inscribed — Doliarii — Amphorae — Inscriptions— Me- 
moranda — Use of amphorae — Size — Makers — Sarcophagi — Obrendaria 
— Colander— Early use of terra-cotta vases — Names of sacred vessels — 
Cadus — Diota — Parropsis — Patina — Patera — Patell a — Trulla — Catinus 
Lanx — Scutula — Gabata — Lagena — Crater — CEnophorum — Urceolus — 
Poculum — Caliz — Cotyle — Scaphium — Cantharus — Carchesion — Scy- 
phus — Rhyton — ^Acetabulum — Ampulla — Quttus — Matella — Olla^ 
Sinus — Obba — Places where made — Architectural use .... 299 


Division of Roman pottery — Black — Gray — ^Red — Brown — Yellow ware — 
Red ware — Shapes — Paste — Shapes — False Samian — Paste and shapes 
— Lamps of the Christian period — Ollae — Gray ware — Paste — Mortaria 
— Pelves — Trullse — Names of makers — Black ware — ^Paste — Colour — 
Mode of ornamentation — Brown ware — Paste — Shapes — Ornamen- 
tation 322 


Qlaeed Roman pottery — Proto-Samian — Samian — Crostae — Emblemata — 
Glaze — Aretine vases — Polish— Paste — Slip — Lead — Salt — Moulds — 
Composed — Separate figures — Master-moulds — Stamps of potters — 
Furnaces and Apparatus — Ornamentation — Use— Repairs — Makers — 
FalseSamian— Black ware — Glaze — Varieties — Inscriptions— Sites . 335 







Celtic pottery — ^Ptate—Fabric —Ornamentation — Size— Shapes — Sepulchral 
use — ^British — Basoauda — Ornamentation — Triangular pattern — BoBses 
— DiBtribution — Scottish — Colour — Peculiarities — Irish — Type of urns 
— Ornamentation— Distribution — Teutonic — Paste — Shape — Hut-vases 
— Ornamentation and distribution— Scandinayian Pottery — Type — 
Analogy with Celtic 877 


INDEX 417 



Athwiah Frizi Vabi. (From hear Bsnoazi) 

Orhaxevts of Vasbs 

Athrhuh Lrottiius. Blbotra at tbb Tomb of AaAXRMiioir 
Cantharus. Baoohantb. (From Melos) .... 
Ultsses and Foltpbbxus. (From a Ctlix, Vuloi) 

* PaRTINO of AdMBTUB and ALOESTIB. (YaSB from YlTLOl) 

. Poffe 8 






138 Incised inscriptions on vases . 41 

139 Stftmnos . . . .75 

140 Ascns 76 

141 Bacchic amphora . . .78 

142 Hydria 80 

143 Calpis 81 

144 Scyphos, or Cothon . . . 82 

145 Rhyton .... 82 

146 Bombylios . . . . 83 

147 Lecythus . . . .84- 

148 OIpe 85 

149 Alabastron . . .86 

150 Alabastron . . . .86 

151 Holmos 87 

152 Celebe 87 

153 Crater 88 

154 Crater 88 

155 Crater with Volute bandies . 89 
•156 (Enochoe .... 98 

157 (Enochoe 93 

158 Aryballos . . . .95 

159 Aryballos . . . . 95 

160 Epichysis . . . .95 

161 Late Aryballos or Lecythos . 95 

162 Cotyliscofl .... 97 

163 Cyathos 99 

164 Cyathos . . . .99 

165 Cantharos . . 104 

No. pack 

66 Carchesion . . . .105 

67 Early cylix . . . . 106 

68 Later cylix . . . .106 

69 Late cylix . . . . 106 

70 Early cylix with black figures . 107 

71 Jar of enamelled ware, Vulci . 179 

72 Lecythus, Triumph of Indian 

Bacchus .... 185 

73 Etruscan female bust. Yulci . 192 

74 Tugurium vase from Albano . 196 

75 Group of vases, one in shape of 

a hut, from Albano . . 197 

76 Cone. Vulci . . . .199 

77 Vase with moulded figures ftnd 

cover. Vulci. . . . 201 

78 (Enocho^ of black ware . . 202 

79 Tray, or table of vases of black 

ware 203 

80 (Enochoe of black ware, Perseus 

and the Gorgons . . . 206 

81 Painted ostrich egg. Vulci . 209 

82 Etruscan Canopus of terra-ootta 213 

83 Flange tile, London . . 229 

84 Flue- tile ornamented . . . 236 

85 Stamp on tile. British Museum 242 

86 Lamp, crescent-shaped handle . 274 

87 Lamp, with bust of Serapis . 274 

88 Group of lamps . . .275 




189 Mould of a lamp . . . 

190 Lamp, Mercury, Fortune, and 

Hercules .... 

191 Lamp, Games of the Circus 

192 Lamp. Monogram of Christ . 

193 Lamp with golden candle- 


194 Foot of Lamp, with name of 

SsBCular Chimes . . 

195 Terra-cotta amphora 

196 Proto-Samian -vase, encircled 

with an Amazonomachia, in 
relief. Prom Athens . • 

197 Patina of Aretine ware. British 

Museum .... 

198 Ciborium of red Samian ware, 

with the name of Diyix 









199 Master mould, with the name 

of the potter Liber . . 852 

200 Fragment of a mould found near 

Mayence .... 353 

201 Vase of red Samian ware, orna- 

mented with arabesques . 856 

202 Cups of black ware . . .* 364 

203 Group of vases of inscribed 

black ware . . . . 867 

204 Cup of black glased Castor 

ware .... 369 

205 Group of British vases. The 

one in the centre is that of 
Bronwen . . . . 881 

206 Anglo-Saxon Urn from Norfolk 889 

207 Group of German hut-shaped 

vases .... 891 

* From Mr. Dennises well-known work *'The Cities and Cemeteries of Btruria,'* 
from which are also taken No. 155, and No. Ill of Vol. L A few cuts of Vol. L are 
also from Sir G. Wilkinson*s *' Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians,** 
and Mr. Layard's ** Nineveh and its Babylon." 


Page 20, line 8, for "Erectheua," read "Erechthens." 
„ 21, line 8, for ^'Callirhoe," read *'CaUirrhoe." 
„ 27, note 4, for »*and," read " und." 
„ 28, last line but one, before '* artist," insert "the." 
„ 40, line 20, for ''Sivo,'' read *»5woi." 
„ 41, for "No. 126," read "No. 138." 
,, 46, line 1, for "Gycnus," read "Cycnus." Line 4, for "Archecles," read 

„ 50, line 6, for " is," read "are." 
,, 51, note 7, line 3, for "and," read "und." 
,, 60, note 8, for "introni,*' read "intomo i." 
„ 67, note 2, for "Fittilu, read " Fittili." 
,, 94, note 5, for " cu/A4>iiroAoSy" read " d^it^/iroXos." 
„ 96, note 6, for "Nab," read " Nub." 

,, 101, note 1, for "Isodorus," read "Isidorus." 

,, 122, note 2, for "Gerherd," read "Gerhard." 

„ 123, note 1, for "for," read "fur." 

„ 182, for "Kuntsblatt," read " Kunstblatt." 

„ 136, Une 7, for " citharsedi," read " citharcedi." 

,, 154, line 9, for " gynacceum," read " gynseceum." 

„ 174, note 2, for " Leyde," read " Leyden." 

„ 177, note 8, for "Ashit," read "Ashik." 

,, 218, line 23, for "scaraboei," read "scarabeei.'* 

,, 246, line 22, read "freedmen or of slaves." 

„ 297, line 15, for "sacilla," read "sacella." 

„ 303, line 11, for " rabbit," read " rabbet." 

„ 312, note 5, for "Psen," read "Poen." 

„ 880, line 5, before "burnt," insert " be." 

„ 382, note 4, for " T." read " R." 




QIazed yases continued — Ornaments — Their nature and use — The Mseander — 
Chequered bands — The fret or herring-bone— Annulets — Egg and tongue 
ornament — Scales or feathers — The helix — Antefixal ornament — Wreaths — 
Petals — Vine branches — Acanthus leaves — Flowers — Arrangement — 
Sources firom which the vase-painters copied — Inscriptions — ^Form of the 
letters — Position— Dialects — Orthography — Different kinds of inscriptions: 
painted inscriptions ; names of figures and objects. — Addresses — 
Artists' names — Potters' names — Laudatory inscriptions — Unintelligible 
inscriptions — Memoranda. 

Subordinate to the subjects in point of archaeological 
interest, but intimately interwoven with them, are the 
ornaments which helped to relieve and embellish the 
representations on pictures, and, so to speak, to frame 
them. Numerous vases, indeed, are decorated with orna- 
ments only, whilst many smaller ones are entirely black, 
from which circumstance they were nicknamed " Libyes " 
or "Moors." The ware of Nola is richest in vases of 
this class ; and amphorae, hydriae, stamnoi, cylices, phialae, 
pyxides, and lamps, of this unomamented description, are 



found in the Campanian sepulchres. Others have only 
the simplest kind of ornaments, consisting of plain bands 
or zones passing round their body and feet. A very 
common decoration is two bands or zones concentric to 
the axis of the foot of the vase. This is, however, found 
only on the black vases of the best period. Other vases, 
both of the earliest and later classes, are painted with 
ornaments, consisting of wreaths of laurel, myrtle, or 
ivy, helices, egg and tongue borders, maeanders, waves or 
the cymation moulding, chequers, guilloche, spirals, den- 
tals, and petals. These are artistically disposed upon 
them according to certain rules of great syxLetry Ld 
taste ; and that the artist prided himself upon his talent 
in this way is certain, from some vase-painters having 
attached their names to vases only decorated with orna- 
ments. On the whole, there is a poverty in the variety 
of ornaments employed, very different from the fruitful 
caprices of the Teutonic races, amongst whom, from 
religious motives, ornaments were often employed in pre- 
ference to representations of the human form. It is on 
the earliest vases that ornament is most employed : as the 
art developes itself, it is gradually lessened, till at the best 
period it almost disappears. But on the later efforts of 
the potters it again rises like a noxious weed diminishing 
the intent of, and ultimately superseding the subjects. It 
must be borne in mind that originally the ornament was 
either the normal mode of representing certain things 
extraneous to the subject, or a symbol introduced into 
it. Hence in the arrangement of ornaments different 
principles were called into play. The wreaths and bands 
of artificial ornaments or helices^ appear for instance to be 


imitations of the crowns and fillets which it was the custom 
of the Greeks to tie round the vase at festive entertain- 
ments, whilst the hdij; at the handles seems to have 
represented the flowers attached to that part of the vase. 
Mseanders, ovolos, and astragals, on the other hand, were 
either architectural adaptations to the vase or accompani- 
ments of subjects originally selected from the difierent 
members of buildings, such as the pediments, metopes, 
and friezes. Other ornaments were conventional, or 
symbols to denote particular conditions or places, which 
originally they defined, and were subsequently retained 
from habit. Thus the cymation or wave moulding, repre- 
sented the sea or marine compositions, the niseander a river 
on the land, and a fleurette (fig. 30) the carpet of nature 
on which the figures walked, The ornaments, indeed, ex- 
hibit great monotony, and are repetitions of a typo not 
diversified like the arabesque ; but they are distinguished 
by an airy lightness and an extreme simplicity which 
harmonise exquisitely with the human forma with which 
they are associated. They are well adapted to the shape 
and colour of the vases, and afford great relief to the 
subject depicted. We will now proceed to consider them 
in detail. 

The tn^eander ornament differs very considerably on 
the various vases on which it is found. On the early fawn- 
coloured ones it predominates generally in the simplest 
forms like those depicted in figures 1, 2. 

The pattern (fig. 3), indeed, a more complex variety, 
sometimes occurs. It occupies the most prominent places 
of the vases, as the neck, body, handles, and other parts. 

On those with yellow grounds, in the rare instances in 



which it appears, it is employed for bands round the neck 
(fig. 4) ; whilst on vases of a more advaAced style of 
art it reappears in a more complete and connected form, 
intermingled with flowers, and represents the ground upon 
which the animals walk (fig 5). 

At the foot of the amphorse with black figures, the 
ornament appears in the form represented in fig. 5. 
This type is finally superseded by one resembling that 
represented by fig. 3. On the early vases with yellow 
grounds, it consists of three, four, or five maeanders, with 
a flower at the end, treated in a very conventional style, 
generally as a square with diagonals, sometimes with 
pellets in the sections (fig. 7), while at other times it re- 
sembles a quadrangular fort (fig. 6). On some of the late 
Apulian vases, on which this style of ornament first 
appears, the flower is treated as a cross on a black back- 
ground, bearing some resemblance to a Maltese cross 
(fig. 8). In the last style of all it appears as a square 
divided at right angles, with pellets, and is probably 
intended for a flower with four spots (fig 7). 

Chequered panels, disposed either horizontally or verti- 
cally, are extensively used on the fawn-coloured vases, and 
on those with yellow grounds (fig. 10, 11). They also 
appear on the vase of Capua, already cited, on vases with 
black figures, and on the shoulders oilecythi^ (fig. 12). 

The fret or herring-bone (fig. 13) is of common occur- 
rence on vases of the oldest style, disposed in horizontal or 
vertical bands, either in a single or triple line. It occurs 
rarely on vases of the style called Phoenician, and still more 
so on vases with black figures. A remarkable employment 

» See V. L. ii. xlix. 1. 61. 


of tliis Giiiament oeciira on the early hydritB -with black 
figures, on which it is used as a boundary to the picture, 
and being knotted at the points of union, forms a reticu- 
lated pattern (fig.29). 

On the earlier vases bands of annulets (fig. 14) occur, 
as on the foot of a vase in the British Museum.' This 
ornament does not appear on vases of the later styles. 

Egg and tongue (fig. 15) ornaments are employed on 
vases of all periods. On the earlier ones they are much 
elongated, and principally appear on the shoulder of the 
vase. They are never placed below the handles, but are 
sometimes found at the place of insertion. On the hydria, 
or water vase, this ornament occurs between the frieze 
and body, its position on vases of a later style, where it 
sometimes divides the subjects. It is introduced with 
graceful effect at the hp. This ornament is of the Ionic 

Another ornament imitated overlapping scales or 
feathers like the opus pavonaceum in tile work. It occurs 
only on vases of the early Doric style. Many examples 
occur on vases I'ound at Nola.^ 

The development of the helix or ornament of the 
antefixte is very remarkable ; on early vases of the inter- 
mediate style between the Phoenician and early Greek, it 
a8sumes the shape of a mere bud (fig. 1 6). On the cupa 
with small figures it developes itself (fig. 1 7) from the handle 
on a single stem either with the petals closed or detaclied, 
and curling upon a spiral stem, like the leaf of a creeping 
plant. On the oldest vases, when it is emplo3'ed in a 
bud, it sometimes assumes an abnormal appearance. 


The helix is also extensively employed as a frieze or 
scroll on many hydrisB and vases both of the earlier and 
later styles. When it appears alone it resembles the leaf 
of an aquatic plant, with seven petals ; but in combination, 
it follows the scroll (fig. 18), like the leaf of a creeping plant, 
the points of which are either in one direction, or half of 
them one way and half the other (fig. 1 9), or alternately 
upright and pendent. This ornament is often intermingled 
with spurs and other portions of plants. On the earlier 
vases with red figures it forms a rich ornament when inter- 
mingled with other emblems — being then often disposed 
in red bands, on which it is coloured black. Sometimes 
it is seen as a frieze, with a kind of flower like the 
hyacinth interposed, in which it represents as it were the 
foliage to the flower (fig. 20), often treated in this way. 
On the neck of the later Nolan amphorae, and on vases of 
the fine style with red figures, this ornament (fig 21) be- 
comes more floral and picturesque, and fills up the whole 
space of the neck. The accompanying form of the leaf 
(fig. 22), which is seen in a wreath or collar of a vase of 
Etruscan style, bears so much resemblance to the antefixal 
ornament that it may be an early development of it. On 
the neck of some of the late crater es with red figures it is 
elegantly disposed in an oblique manner (fig. 23). It con- 
tinued in use till the latest period of the fictile art — ^but 
on the vases of the style of the Basilicata and St. Agata 
dei Goti, it has more petals, becomes more splay, and the 
spiral tendrils are often altogether omitted (fig. 31). It 
is profusely employed, and generally in combination with 
the flower. 

One of the earhest ornaments on the vases is a com- 



posite form of the antefixal oraament' called helices, 
interiningleJ with flowers. A very old arrangement is to 
place the flower and leaf alternately {fig. 24), by making 
an ornament, each part of wliicli has a leaf at one end and 
flower at the other, so as to convey the idea of a double 
row of leaves and alternate flowers united by a broad band. 

On the early Bacchic amphora; with black figures this is 
the prevalent and most important ornament ; arranged 
generally, however, as a doutle wreath, the antefixal 
ornaments inversely to each other, and also tlio flowers, 
which are connected by a twisted cord or chain. On a 
vase made by Nicosthenes, this ornament assumes with its 
flowers a remarkable shape. 

This helU- or antefixal ornament is the same as that 
which appears in the Doric entablatures, but the ovolo, or 
egg and tongue, belongs to the Ionic order. Both are 
found united upon early vases with red figures. The 
combinations of helices and flowers at the handles of the 
Bacchic amphora; will give an idea of the elegant appear- 
ance of this ornament. 

A light and elegant arrangement of the helix ia dis- 
played on the necks of certain lecythi.' 

Tlie flower intermingled with these ornaments has been 
supposed by some writers to be that of the clematis 
cirrosa,^ to which plant some varieties of the form of the 
antefixal ornament have also been referred. 

On some of the Bacchic amphorai of the later style 
the flowers are more elegantly turned, and their shape 

' VarionB idcu have bcoQ put forth helicsB, see V. L, ii. < 1 . 

with regard to thU ornamBot See * Ho]^, TrauB. Roy. Soc Lit., Now 

AtuuU, ]St3, pp. 380, 384. Series, u. p. 171), and foU. 

' For ttVaae entirely omsmonted with 


approaches to its appearance on the red vases, the 
antefixal ornament having a trefoil. 

A very common ornament of the necks of amphorae 
and other vases is a wreath of interlaced flowers and 
buds (fig. 28). Such wreaths often occur on vases of the 
old style or that called Egyptian. 

On vases of the transition style the flower gradually 
becomes more like a bud and less enclosed. The manner 
in which it appears mixed up with the antefixal ornament 
has been shown in the preceding examples. This orna- 
ment is seen on the shoulders of the amphorae called 
Tyrrhenian, and on the feet of the Bacchic ones with the 
points turned up. On the later vases it entirely disappears. 
It is uncertain what flower it is intended to represent. 
Some persons take it to be the hyacinth. 

Ivy wreaths (fig. 25) appear on some of the pale vases 
of the Etruscan style, and on some of the fine vases from 
Athens ; and on the necks of some of the lecythi with 
black figures. Sometimes the leaves only are seen, inter- 
mixed with the helix ornament. 

On the hydncB, or water vases, the boundary Unes of 
the pictures are sometimes formed by upright festoons of 
ivy wreaths (fig. 26), which are also seen arranged ver- 
tically round the lips, and undulating with the contours of 
the handles of the so-called Tyrrhenian amphorae ; re- 
lieving by their light and graceful contrast the sombre 
monotony of the body of the vase. 

On the necks of the calpides, and later vases of the 
fine red ware, this ornament becomes more gracefiil and 
the stems of the foliage more entwined (fig. 27), while 
flowers or berries are introduced. 


SMgffI ^iil 15151515] 

o oo o 



On the late celeb(e,-ov craters with columnar handles 
of the style of the Basilicata, the whole neck of the 
vases is oflen occupied by an ivy wreath in black upon a 
red ground, having aa many flowers or berries as leaves. 

The feet of the early vases, and of most of the hydria 
and amphorce, are ornamented with the representation of 
petals of flowers in black upon a red ground, la some 
instances this ornament is doubled. 

Vine branches appear only on the later vases. Such 
an ornament will be seen on an ascos of pale yellow 
clay with brown figures, iu the British Museum. 

In the same class of vases acanthus leaves are found 
grouped in a floral style, with antefixal ornaments at their 
sides. In the centre generally appeara a full-faced head 
either of Aphrodite or Victory, 

On these vases the floral ornaments become more 
elegant and architectural. The accompanying example 
(fig. 28), will show how the convolvulus was represented 
at thia period. Sometimes there appeara a small low 
flower rising from the earth — probably the asphodel. On 
some vases the floral ornaments assume the form of the 
architectural scroU, and are imitated from friezes or other 



Nor is the manner in which these ornaments are grouped 
on the early vases less instructive. The hydrice con- 
stantly has its frieze, or upper picture, surmounted by the 
egg and tongue ornament.^ The picture on the body is 
separated by a band,^ maeander,' single or double * chequer,^ 
or net ; ® the sides are bahded by ivy wreaths,^ or bands 
of the heliw ; ^ while the lower zone has interlaced buds,^ 
the lielix^^ or a frieze of animals," about If in. broad ; 
all which, however, are wanting in some examples." The 
bases are always decorated with petals,^' and the rest of 
the body is generally black ; yet some hydrice have red 
lips,^* and others the feet either half or entirely red.** 
The inner half of the handle, and sometimes the whole, 
is generally red, while at the place of insertion of the 
long handle is a modelled head. 

The old craterSy with columnar handles, have the floral 
ornament round the lip, the ovolo ornament round the 
edges, and the ivy leaves at the sides, which in the later 
vases of the style of St. Agata dei Goti occupy almost the 
whole of the neck. 

On the craters, or the so called oxyhapha^ the lips are 

1 B. M., 464. » B. M., 464. 

2 B. M., 485. w B. M., 468. 
« B. M., 468. " B. M., 486. 

* B. M., 476. " B. M., 458. 
» B. M., 486. " B. M., 468. 

• B. M., 467. " B. M., 480. 
7 B. M., 486. J» B. M,, 470. 
» B. M., 487. 


usually ornamented with a wreath of myrtle or olive, or 
else with the band of oblique antcfixal ornaments. On 
those of the best style and finish, the lips and places of 
insertion of the handles have the ovolo. 

The (Pitochoce, or jugs, with black figures of the earliest 
style, have an ovolo round the neck, or sometimes an ante- 
fixal ornament. The pictures are generally handed with 
ivy wreaths. 

On the Bacchic hydrits, the monotony of the pre- 
dominant mass of red colour is broken up by the pro- 
fusion of ornaments. The frieze, for example, for the 
most part consists of the floral ornament, with the points 
generally upwards, but sometimes downwards ; or else of 
the ovolo fringe or border. The same ornament and the 
mseander is generally repeated below, and sometimes with 
a band of animals. On the neck are usually disposed the 
double antefixal and floral ornaments. At the feet are 
the petals.' 

On the lecythus, the upper and lower parts of the 
picture are commonly ornamented with a ra;eander border, 
while the neck is either decorated with a series of rays 
or petals, or else with antefixal or heli,v ornaments, dis- 
posed in an inverted frieze. The band round the foot is 
usually left of the colour of the clay. 

The rare hydriee, with red figures, have their friezes 
enriched at the sides with bands of the heliv or antefixal 
ornament, and their pictures are bounded by a helix wreath 
reticulated ornament. 

by ; 


kydruB, which have no frieze, have their lips and the 
lower part of their subject bordered with an egg and 

' Brit MnB. Vmbb, No. fi 4 9, -70, -7 1.-66, -97. 


tongue ornament, and sometimes with antefixal ornaments 
and maeanders. Wreaths of ivy, myrtle, or laurel, are 
tastefully disposed round the neck.^ 

On Panathenaic and Bacchic amphorae the arrangement 
is as follows : — 


1. Double antefixal 

2. Ovolo 

3. Subject 

4. Petals 

) B. M., 671. 


1. Double antefixal 

2. Ovolo 

3. Frieze 

4. Meanders 

5. Lotus flowers 

6. Subject 

7. MsBanders 

8. Petals 

B. M., 649, 555." 


We will now proceed to consider the different works of 
art from which the vase painter may have derived some of 
his ideas. These works were ever present to his eye in 
great nmnber and variety, and he reproduced them in 
accordance with the spirit of his age, without making 
servile imitations ; for vase-paintings cannot be considered 
as mere mechanical copies, scarcely any two of them being 
alike. The treatment of the subjects generally resembles 
that observed in the mural paintings of the oldest sepulchres, 

1 See the vasos, B. M., 716-20. 

3 For the deUlls of a late amphora, cf. T. V. (I.), 40-41. 


The fresco paintings of the sIo*b, or porticos, and of the 
leschfE, or ancient picture galleries, must have been most 
instnictiTe to artists, as well as the votive pictures of the 
principal shrines. On the oldest vases, however, may be 
decidedly traced an architectural manner, derived from 
the contemplation of metopes, friezes, and pediments. 
Some of the very oldest vases having numerous bands, or 
zones, of subjects, suggest the idea of their being copies 
from celebrated pieces of sculpture, such as the chest of 
Cypselus, or the throne of Bathycles at Amyclie. The 
Bubjects on the later vases of the fine style recall to mind 
the descriptions of the pictures of Polygnotus ; whilst in 
those of the decadence the treatment resembles that 
adopted by Zeuxis, Apelles, and other artists of the 
Khodian school, such as Nicias, from whose works they 
may have been copied. Yet it is ahnost impossible to 
identify vase-paintings with any particular works of anti- 
quity, although it is evident fi'om Pausanias that their 
subjects were to be found in all the principal shrines of 
Greece. Few, however, present such entire compositions 
as occupied the time of the greatest painters. The greater 
part contain only portions of subjects, although some 
striking examples show that the whole argument of an 
Epos was sometimes painted. Hence their importance 
both to the study of ancient painting and to the recon- 
struction of the lost arguments of the Cyclic and other 
writers ; for, as in the so-called RafFaele ware, may be 
traced the arguments of the Scriptures and of Ovid ; so 
in the Gfreek vases may be found the subjects of the 
Cypria, and the Nostoi, and of the lost tragedies of the 
Athenian dramatists, together with traces of Comedies of 


all styles, and even Allegories derived from the philosophical 
schools, all of which had successively engaged the pencils of 
the most celebrated artists. That these vases were copies 
from pictures or sculptxu^es, is maintained by one of the 
most acute connoisseurs, who cites the celebrated vase at 
Naples of the last night of Troy, as an evident copy of 
a frieze or picture, and the procession on a Vulcian cup 
as taken from a sculpture. But it is impossible, at the 
same time, not to admit that, in so vast a number, there 
are some, if not many, subjects which were invented by 
the vase painters. These are detected by the corrections 
of the master's hand, and by the composition, with its 
accompanying ornaments being adjusted to the character of 
the vase. Such works are supposed to be the production 
of the vase painters, Archicles, Xenocles, Panthaeus, Sosias, 
and Epictetus.* 


The inscriptions which occur on vases are limited to 
those produced at the middle period of the art. On the 
earliest vases they are not found at all ; on those with 
pale straw-coloured grounds they are of rare occurrence ; 
on vases with black figures and red ground, they are often 
seen ; and on these with red figures they are constant 
accompaniments, and continue to be so till the decadence 
of the art, as seen in the ware of the BasiUcata and 
Southern Italy, when inscriptions again become compa- 
ratively scarce. Some of the last inscriptions are in the 
Oscan and Latin language, showing the influence and 

> Annali, 1880, p. 244. 


domination of the Eomans in Campania. The inscriptions 
follow the laws of palaeography of the period in which 
they occur. The oldest insciiptions are those of the fol- 
lowing vases : the Corinthian vase of Dodwell, with the 
hunt of the boar of Calydon ; a cup of the maker TIeaon, 
with the same subject, and the nuptial dance of Ariadne ; 
the vase of the Hamilton collection, found at Capua ; a vase 
with the subject of the Geryon ; the so-called Fran9oi8 
vase at Florence ; another with the combat over the body 
of Achilles ; and a cup, on which is seen Arcesilaus, King 
of Cyrene. Of these, the Dodwell vase has been supposed 
by some archa;ologists to bo of the seventh century d. c. 
None, however, date earlier than Olympiad xxx. = b. c. 
660, when writing is known to have been used in Greece. 
The date of the Arcesilaus vase cannot be prior to 
Olympiad xlvii-li., when the first of the Battiads ruled at 
Cyrene, nor much later than the lxxx. Olympiad — b. c. 
458, when the fourth of the hne wag in power.^ 

The inscriptions are disposed in the bouslrophedon 
manner. B is used for E, M for S, X for A, C for r, H for 
the aspirate, ® for in a case where the T is not used, 
9 for K, i for I, R for p. At a later period the letters 
which are more cursive are not distinguishable, except by 
the context. Thus A O O > are confounded, and the O 
often resembles them ; A and V are alike, so are r and 
n, M and 2 ; v is much like I-, A itself is written L, 
£ like $,Tas V. The aspirated letters ©and +, the 
invention of which was attributed to Palamedes, arc 
found on vases of the second class. The form which 
subsequently became H is used for ^. The four letters 


Z 4^ H il, said to be invented by Simonides, are only 
found on later vases, ^ being represented by n 2, H by 
E, and X2 by O. H erroneously attributed to Palamedes, 
is represented by K2, or X ; but all these double letters 
are found on the later vases. ^ As compared with coins, 
appears on the earlier coins of Athens, struck before 
the Persian war, B on the helmet of Hiero I., 01. lxxv.-viil 
B.C. 474-467, and on the ancient Boeotian coins, erroneously 
assigned to Thebes. The M for 2 occurs on coins of Posi- 
donia and Sybaris, struck about the seventh century B.C. ; 
f for I on those of the first-mentioned city ; X for the 
E, resembling the Etruscan B on uncertain coins of Cam- 
pania ; H for the aspirate is seen on the coins of Himera^ 
and in the names of the Boeotarchs about the fifth cen- 
tury B.C., and the S on the currency of the ThespisB.^ 
No numismatic examples are known of T for 0, or of n for 
4>, K2 for H, or n2 for ^ ; but Q is the usual initial of 
the name of Corinth ^ on its oldest coins, and E for r on 
the later one of Phaestus in Crete ; all which proves the 
high antiquity of the potter's art, and that it was far 
older than the currency. Considerable light is thrown 
upon the relative age and the local fabrics of the vases by 
the forms of the letters seen on the vases of different 
styles. The letters on the vases of the Archaic Greek 
style resemble those of the oldest inscriptions found at 
Corcyra, and show their Doric character by the use of the 
koph.^ This agrees with their probable Corinthian origin, 
their art, and oriental types of certain figures. The words, 

> Gerhard, Rapp. Vole, p. 68. ^ Jahn, Beschreibung der Vasensam- 

' Kramer, ueber den Styl und die lung zu MUnchen, 8vo. Miinch. 1854. 

Herkunffc, b. 64. Einleit, s. cxlvii. 
» Annali, 18S7. 


however, with which they are inscribed are sometimes 
^olic,' and the antiquity of the alpliabet undetermined. 
The alphabet obtained from examining the letters on the 
style transitional from this to that with black figures, 
which is for the most part Doric, as evinced by the presence 
of the digamma and the kopk, is found in words not of the 
Doric dialect. Its age is also not certain." The letters on 
the vases with black figures of the old style are those of 
the oldest Attic alphabet, which wa.<i in use about Olym- 
piad LXXX., and the words on these vases, although some- 
times abnormal, are generally Attic. On the vases of 
black figures of the later style the letters are those of the 
Attic alphabet current about six Olympiads later.^ The 
letters on vases with red figures of the strong style are 
nearly identical in form and epoch ; while on the vases 
of the fine style are found tlie letters of the Attic 
alphabet winch was admitted into official employment in 
the second year of the xciv. Olympiad, in the memorable 
archonship of Eucleides,* after wliich the alphabet under- 
went no change. The use of tlie digamma, however, is 
continued on Doric vaaes, both of this and even of a 




There is no rule for the position or the presence of the 

inscriptions on vases.^ In some instances the field or 

ground of the figures is completely covered, in others they 

do not appear at all. The general position is governed 

' Aa 3AEV2 far ZEVi, on > 
tLe CauipuiBCollectiiiii. 
' Jaha, 1. c, cilii. 

3 JikhD, L c, '^Iti' 

*■ Jahn. 1. ft, cxvil 
'' Gerliard, I. c. 69. 


by the figures to which they refer ; but they are also 
found on the figures themselves, and often upon objects, 
such as fountains, shields, discs, and even the legs of 
figures,^ or on the handles, borders, and feet of the 
vases. Sometimes they are written from left to right, at 
other times from right to left, and often, especially upon 
the old vases, perpendicularly to the vase, but not, except 
on the Panathenaic amphorae from the Cyrenaica, in that 
order called by the Greeks Kiovihhv, or vertically as to 
themselves. Boustrophedon inscriptions are not imcom- 
mon, and sentences are often divided into two; as, 
HO nAI2, " the hoy^' on one side of a vase, KAA02, " is 
handsomel^ on the other. Even names are sometimes thus 
divided, as, ANAPO on one side, and MAXE on the other 
side of a celebrated vase, for the name Andromache. 
This chiefly occurs on the older vases, as when the art 
reached its culmination more care was taken. 


Inscriptions occur in all the three dialects, principally, 
however, in Ionic Greek, as ANTIOITEIA for Antiope, 
A0ENAIA for Pallas Athene, HEPAKAEE2 for Hercules ; 
and sometimes the contractions, as, KAMOI for KAI EMOI, 
MENEAE02 ^ and I0AE02,^ XATEP02 for KAI ETEP02. 
Vases with Doric inscriptions, which are comparatively rare, 
principally come from south Italy and Sicily. Such forms 
as HAPA, for Hera or Juno, A122 KAAE,* for Aurora^ 

* Cf., the one on the thigh of a youth ; ' Q. A. V., ocxxvii. 

and the name of the artist on the diadem ' Q. A. V ., cxlviii. 

or beard of a figure ; A Z., 1844, b. 317. ^ M. A. U. M., vi. 


TAAEIA for 0AAEIA, the name of the Muse,' and ASHEPl AS 
for the Hesperidte.'* XPHSAN MOI TAN S*AIPAN, "give 
me the Ball." The .^olic digamma is prefixed to such 
names as FEPAKAE2 and FV*inVAH ;^ and is found in 
tlie middle of others, such as, AIFAS and 2I2IF02:,* and 
jEoiic forms are found, as :;at2 for ZET2. The 
old form of the aorist, with tiie final N, generally occurs, 
as, EFPA't'SEN and EOOIESEN, although its use is not 
constant. The derivation of + and s from ^S and KS 
is shown by such words as, Eri'A<t>2EN * and EK2EKIA2. 
The old diphthong OE for 01, as KP0E202 for KPOISOS, 
and the Archaic O for OT, as NEAPXO matcad of NEAPXOT, 
are found on vasea of the earliest period ; or, EI for l, as 
EI0AE02 for I0AE02 (lolaus).^ The aspirate is also 
applied to words iu which at present it does not appear, 
as, HIAKX02' for lAKXOS, and HA<l>POAITE for A^PO- 
AITE. The N instead of the r before K, as, ANXinoS" 
for APKinnOS, or for M, as 0ATNniOAi2PO2 ' for OATM- 
niOAiiPOS. Double letters are represented at all epochs 
by auigle ones, as, nmOAAMElA for HinnOAAMEIA, 
*ATrA ;"■ but the S is often reduphcated, on vases of 
late style, as, OPE22TE2 for 0PE2TES," KA22TilP for 
KA2TOP,'" riE2£0E for niE20E.'^ Letters are often 
omitted, as, AAnos for AAMno£, in the name of one of 

' A.Z., 1848, ».2i7- 
: MiUiu., Dub. UgJaon. I. 
D-HmncMviUo, i. 27 ; iii. 19* ; P, 

> Kramer, ibid. ; M. A. U. M.. : 

• O. A. v., civ. 

' Oorliard, Rapp, Vole. p. BT, i 

* U. I., liiili. 


> Oerharc!,!. D.,p. 6B0, Braiio. Annal 

• Cat. Dur., p. 88, No. 3B6 ; Bircl 
C1bb<.Mub. 1818, p. 208. 

* Oarhard, 1. c„ p. 109, n. 641. 
'■ Birch, ClaM. Mag., !. c 

n B. A. B., 1007. 

" Oerluird, Vase de Ucidias. 

" Oerhard, Kapp. Vulc, p. 6B. 



the horses of Aurora ; TYTAPE02 for TTNAAPET2, the 
father of Helen; ©EPTTAI^ for 0EPTETAI, "is taken;" 

KPHNH, the fountain of Callirhoe; 2Ano for 2An4>0,^ the 
poetess ; XAN0O2 for EAN0O2,* the name of a horse. 
The A on the old vases is always single, as, AITOAONOS* 
for AnOAA12N02. So also, B0PA2 for BOPE A2 ; OPEI0YA, 

for Oreithyia ; EPEX2E2, for Erectheus ; KEKP02, for 
Cecrops ; ® HEMES, for Hermes^ 


Inscriptions are divisible into two classes, — those painted 
and those incised. 

I. Painted inscriptions, which are the most conspicuous, 
are generally small in size, the letters being ^ inch high. 
They are in black varnish on vases with black or maroon 
figures ; on vases of the earliest style, with red figures, 
they are in crimson upon the black back-ground, or else in 
black varnish upon some of the red portions ; on the later 
vases with red figures they are in white. In the last 
style they are engraved with a pointed tool through the 
glaze into the paste itself They are divisible into the 
following subordinate elates :— 


No particular law seems to have guided the artist as to 
the insertion of the names of the figures represented on 

* Gerhard, A. V., ccxxxviii * G. A. V., xx. 

2 Cf., Gerhard, A. V., clviiL clxiU. « C. C, p. 67, n. 105. 

» mil. Anc. Uned. Moii.,pL xxxiii. 7 R a. B., 849. 

* G. A. v., cxcL 


his vase. The greater number of vaaea are without 
them ; yet it would appear that vases of the veiy finest 
class were thus inscribed at all periods. The design of 
them was to acquaint the public with the story repre- 
sented. Sometimes not only every figure is accompanied 
with its name, but even the dogs, horses, and inanimate 
objects, such as B0M02,* or altar, where Priam is killed ; 
KAAIPE KPENE,' or fountain of Callirhoe ; HEAPA,^ or " the 
throne" of Priam ; ATK02,* the altar of Apollo Lyciiis ; 
and the IITAPIA.' or water-pitcher, which Polyxenalet fall 
in her flight from Achilles ; ATPA, " the lyre," over that held 
by Ariadne in her hands, at the death of the Minotaur ; 
HT2, "the sow," over "the Calydoniau hoar;"* and 
AHM02IA, the "public" baths, on a laver.^ Those names 
are generally in the nominative, as, ZET2,* Jupiter ; 
HEPiMES." Hermes : but occasionally in the oblique ciise, 
aa, AnOAONO^.'" of Apollo ; nOSElAONOS, of Neptune ; 
A<I>POAITE2," of Aphrodite ; the word EIAliAON, 
"figure," or AFAAMA, "image," being understood. In 
a few instances from dramatic subjects expressions such as, 
EIAfiAON AHT0T2, "the shade of Leto," show the origin 
of the genitive." nTPPOil, Pyrrhus; ArAME[MNi2N]," 
"Agamemnon;" IAA2, "Idas;"'* occur over the sepulchres 
of these heroes. These names are sometimes accompanied 
with epithets, such as, HERTOP KAjVOS,'* "Hector tho 

Gerh«rd.AQ, 1831,183. 7*1. 

■ S. M., fi87. 

BrQndBKJ, De«!r. of 32 Viues, p.fifl. 

»• Q. A. v., xiJ, ; Oerliira 

PnuifoiB VuHi. 


Q. A. v.. cciiv. 

" L. D.. iii. IV. 

Franfoig Vise. 

" A. Z., 1852, .. la*. 

Oerhanl. A. V., coiuvi. 

" M. v. a., liT. 

" G. A. V,,cl« 



handsome;" nPIAM02 HO nOAIOS, " the hoary Priam ;" ^ 
2IAAN02 TEPni2N, " Silenus rejoicing :''^ or with a de- 
monstrative pronoun, as, 24>IX2 HEAE, "this is the 
Sphinx;''^ MENE20EY2 HO AE, "this is Menestheus/* 
In some instances the name is replaced by a periphrase 
or by a synonym : as HAAI02 FEPON,* " the old man of 
the sea/' instead of Nereus ; TATPOS 4>OPBA2 and 
AAIAAH2,* "the feeding'' and "sea-going bull" over Jupiter 
metamorphosed into a bull, and carrying Europa ; HANO^', 
" all eyes," instead of " Argos ;" XPT2H <I)IAOMHAH, or 
" golden smiler," for " Venus ; " ^ AI02 n AI2, " the son 
of Zeus," for "Hercules;"® AA2TA2 HMI,® "I am a 
pirate " • on a dolphin ; AI A02, " Modesty," instead of 
Leto ; AAKI2, instead of Cupid ;>*^ AI02 4)122, "the light 
of Zeus," for Diana or Dionysos;" AEEAMEN02, " the 
receiver," instead of Nessus.^^ Some of the later vases 
have the titles of the subjects, especially the dra- 
matic ones, whence the pictures were derived; as the 
n ATPOKAIA, or funeral poem about Patroclus ; *^ KPEON- 
TEIA. " the affairs of Creon ; "^* TP12f2N lEPEA, "the sacred 
places of Troy,""* on a subject representing the ill-usage 
of Cassandra ; NAHI12N, " the Naxians," on a vase repre- 
senting Ariadne and Dionysos at Naxos ; "^ and the sup- 
posed XEIPONEIA."^ Even on the older vases are found 

G. A. v., 1. c. olxxviii. M. A. I., xii. 

G. A. v., 1. c. ; cc. 185. >« C. M., 58 ; M. V. G., xiv. 

G. A. v., oczxzv. " M. A. I., i. 

G. E. v., xiii. » Mu8. Borb., v. x, 

G. A. v., cxxii. cxziii. " G. A. V., ccxxvii. 

G. A. v., xc. " A. Z., 1847, tof. iii. ; M. I., clii. 

v. F., cclvi. ; B. A. N., iii. 61 ; Adh., ** V. L., ii. xxiv. 

V. 149. »« M. A. U. M., xxvi. 

M. A. U. M., xxxviii, 92. »7 Micali, Storia, ciii. i., pp. 101, 163 ; 
A. Z., 1852, 165, for AHXTHS HMI ; C. C, 24. 


the inscriptions 2TAAI0N ANAPON NIKE, "the victory of 
men in the stadium," over a foot-race of men ; nENTA0AON, 
for the Pentathlon ; ' HOAOI A0E[NAIAl:,Atlieuiau roads.* 

Besides the names of figures and objects, there are 
several inscriptions containing the addresses or speeches 
of the figures represented, like the labels affixed to the 
figures of saints in the Middle Ages. These vary in length 
and purport, but in most caacs they are extracts from 
poems, or expressions well-known at the period, but which 
are now obscure, or have perished in the wreck of 
Hellenic literature. They are distributed over the early 
vases of the black or hard style, and often appear on 
vases of the Archaic style, with red figures ; but they are 
very rare on vasea of the earliest and of the latest styles. 
They are often colloquies. Thus, on a vase on which the 
contest of Heracles and Cycnus is depicted, the hero and 
his opponent exclaim, KA01E, " lay down," KEOMAI, " I 
am ready." In a boxing-match, is nAT2AI,^ " cease." 
Ulysses says to his dog, MH AITAIH2,* "do not ask;" 
Silcnus, gloating over the wine, exclaims, HATS 0IN02,^ 
"the wine is sweet," or, KAAE onoi; niESOE, "it is so 
good, that you may drink it." ' On a vase representing 
a man standing and singing to an auletris, the song is OAE 
Ai2Tli nrplSOl, " Let him play to the flute."' Sileuus, 
who swings a Bacchante, says, EN AAEIA ANH, " rise at 


' C. C, p. 93, D. 1*6. 

» C. C, p. 100,159. 

' Oerfakrd. llnpp. Vole, p. 7B, 778. 

• MEAITAIE oroi, B., ISSl, p. GB. 

' O. A. V. 

' Qeclisrd, Bapp, Vole, p. 187, i 



pleasure/' " In the scene of the capture of Silenus, one of 
the attendants exclaims, 0EPYTAI 2IAEN02 0PEI02, " the 
mountain-hauntmg Silenus is captured ! '' ^ The Greek 
who lights the pyre of Croesus exclaims, EY0TMO, 
"farewell!''^ The old Tyndareus exclaims, XAIPE 
0E2EY, " hail, oh Theseus ! '' * and the females, EIA02- 
0EMEN, " it is known/' XAIPE, " hail ! " often occurs in 
such a manner as to show that it emanates from the 
mouth of figures, although it is frequently an address from 
the potter. ELA ELA,* " drive, drive ! '' is placed in the 
mouth of a charioteer ; and nOAYMENE NIKA2,^ " thou 
conquerest, oh Polymenos ! '' in that of another. A paido- 
tribes says to one of his pupils, AnOAOS TO AIAMEPON, 
"pay me my day's salary.''^ On another vase, if correctly 
transcribed, may possibly be read a gnomic sentence, 
20A0N OXAOKNOIAON KAA02 I20AA02.® A cock 
crows, nPOSAroPEYO, "how d'ye do."® A herald or 
brabeus announces, Hin02 AYNEIKETY NIKA, "the 
horse of Dysneiketes conquers." ^° (Edipus, interpreting 
the enigma of the Sphinx, says, KAI TPI n[OVN], " which 
has three feet."^^ On a vase having a representation of 
olive-gathering, the proprietor of the grounds — ^perhaps 
the merchant and sage, Thales, — says, in the Doric 
dialect, and in Iambic trimeter catalectic verse, o 


Jove, may I be rich ! " a prayer responded to on the 

1 B., 1851, p. 185. ■ Staokelberg, Die Graeber, tav. xii. 8. 

2 G. A. v., oozzxviii. ^ Stackelberg. Ibid. xxiv. 
' Mon. i. PI., Uv.-lv. ; Tr. R. Soc, Lib. » G. T. C, xxiv. 

4to, ii., 1834, p. 28. »» Class. Mus., 1849, p. 296 ; B. M. 

* G. A. v., clviii. " M. G., ii. ii. Ixxx. 1 b.; Arg. Phceo. 

* St. ; Rap. Vole, p. 78. Eurip., Ac. ; Aristid. Pau.. p. 193-245 ; 
' Ibid. Brunck. Anal., ii. 321. 


reverse by the representation of a liberal harvest, and the 
13 already more than enough." On another vase, on which 
are depicted youths and old men beholding the return of 
the swallow in Spring, the following colloquy occurs^ — 
lAO XEAIAON, "behold the swallow ;" NE TON HEPAKAEA, 
"by Hercules," ATTEI, "it twitters ; " EAP HEAE, "it is 
already Spring," — wliich is spoken, apparently in a metrical 
manner, by a company of men. On a terminal figure, or 
stfile, at which a winged youth plays at ball with Danaids, 
is the speech, XPH2AN MOi TAN 2<i>;a;ipan— 

"SendinoUio ball."^ 

On another vase, ME AITATE, "do not ask," is the supposed 
reply to a beggar, who says, lOPOPOl, an unintelligible 
word, reading the same both backwards and forwards.* 

In order to enhance their ware in the estimation of the 
public, the potters painted on their vases, at an early period 
of the arti certain expressions addressed to the purchaser 
or spectator. One of the most usual is XAIPE "hail!"* to 
which is sometimes added XAIPE KAI niEI, "hail, and 
quaff,"* XAIPE KAI niEl ET, "hail, and drink well;"' 
or XAIPE KAI niEl TENAE, " hail and drink this [cup]." ^ 
NAIXI, "just 80."* On one remarkable vase was supposed 

^m p. 302 

' M., 1837, tnv., xliv. B. ; Rilaohl, 
Annkli., U., 1837, p. 183, Uermann 
Zeitechr. AltertbuniK., 1837, no. 103, 
I>. 6G1, 85& ; Bull., mo, {>. 48. 

« M., ii. ixiv. 

> HilUugen, Aac Unedlt. Hon., PL 
xii., p. 30; Blrcli. Clusic Hiu., 1849, 
p. 303;Krimer, ueberdi;nStjl.,>. 183; 

Neapeln kntik. Bild. Z.. 
M71; Mus. Borb., m. xii. 

* Aq., 1862. P1.T. 

' G. A. V.,iii.p. leo. 

< H. Q. IL, livi. 3 b. 

' De Baugnot. Cat., j>. fil 

" B. A. B.,169i. 

» C. C, H7. 


to be found OT nANT02 E2TI KOPIN0O2, "every one 
cannot go to Corinth/' ^ a familiar erotic proverb. The 
Athenian prize vases are inscribed TON A0ENE0EN 
A0AON [" I am] a prize from Athens/' ^ to which is some- 
times added EMI, "I am.'' This inscription is also found in 
the abridged form, A0ENE0EN.^ Sometimes the address 
was to some particular individual, as AEM02TPATE XAIPE, 
" Hail, oh Demostratus/' * 


Inscriptions upon representations of objects are much 
rarer thL any o' tho Ld, juat mentioned, and. in ca^ 
where they appear, seem to have existed on the object 
represented. Some few are those found on stales, or 
funeral tablets, as TPI2IA02,* on the stele of the youthful 
Troilos, lamented by his sisters ; AFAMEMNON,* on that of 
the King of Men; 0PE2TA2^ on that of his "fury- 
haunted son ; " IAA2, on that of Idas.® The most 
remarkable of these is an elegiac distich, inscribed upon 
the st^le of (Edipus, a copy of that recorded by 
Eustathius, from the poem called the Peplos, or " Shawl/' 
written by Aristotle — 


" On my back is grass and spreading-rooted asphodel : 
In my bosom I opntain (Edipus the son of Laiua." 

On the base of a statue of Pallas Athene is the imintel- 

^ On the cup of Aurora and Tithonos, * Millingen, V. G., PL xvii. 

Braun in Bull., 1848, p. 41, reads, • M. V G., xiv. 

nANTOHENA KAAA KOPINeOI ; both 7 Vase, B. M. 1559. 

readings are doubtful. ■ I. S. V. T., xxxL xxzvi. 

3 Millingen, Anc. Uned. Mon., PL L; ' Millingen, Anc. Un. Hon. Vases, 

' Thiersch. 1. c, s. 68. PI. xxxvi. Mus. Borb., iz. xziz. 

< G. A. v., xxil L s. 82, 83. 


L'^ble inscription K0*T2T.' while AHM02IA,' "Public"' 
[baths] appear on a laver. Certain bucklers used for the 
armed race, the hopUles dromos, bear the inscription 
A0E,' either to show that they belonged to Pallas Athene, 
or that thej were Athenian. The often-repeated expres- 
sion KAA02, "beautiful," appears on lavcrs, discs, a wine- 
akin held by Silenus, and other objects ; and on a column is 
inscribed HO OAIS KAAOS NAIXI * " the boy is handsome 
forsooth;" while the ioscriptiou AAXE2 KAA02.* "Laches 
is handsome!" inscribed down the thigh of a statue, recalls 
to mind the expression, "Pantarces is beautiful," which 
Phidias slily incised on the finger of his Olympian Zeus 
at Elis, and the numerous apostrophes which covered the 
walla of the Ceramicus, and other edifices of Greece. 

Other inscriptions are such as were taken from pedes- 
tals, and one remarkable example, reading AKAMANTIS 
ENIKA *TAE. " the tribe of Akamantia has conquered," 
is on the base of a tripod dedicated by that tribe for a 
victory in some choragic festival.* AlOS, "the altar of 
Jove," occurs on that of the Olympian god at Elis, at 
which Pelops and (Enomaus are depicted taking the oath. 
On the supposed tessera, or ticket of hospitality, in the 
hands of a figure representing Jason, is 2121*02.' 


The artists who designed and painted the subjects of 
the vases often placed their names upon their finest 

> MilllBgm, Ano. Vo. Mon., i.Pl. 26. Mub, i 

• PuiDrka, Hiu. Blsc., i 
f Ann., 1S48, p. IGS. 


productions, accompanied with the words ErPA4>2EN, 
ErPA2<I)EN, EFPAH'EN, or ErPA<I)E; which words, from 
their preceding the formula, KAnOE2EME, "and made 
me,'' show that the painter ranked higher and was more 
esteemed than the potter ; unless, indeed, they were placed 
in this order with the view of forming a kind of Iambic 
trimeter. Sometimes the artist's name alone is placed on a 
vase ; at other times it occurs with those of the potter and of 
the figures represented ; and is accompanied with speeches, 
and addresses to youths. None of the older artists used 
the imperfect, ErPA4>E, " was painting," which was that 
adopted by the followers of the later Athenian school, in 
order modestly to aflFect that their most elaborate labours 
were yet unfinished, but always the more decided aorist, 
indicating completeness. These inscriptions do not occur on 
the early vases, attributed to the J)oric and Ionic potteries, 
but commence with the vases with black figures, and ter- 
minate with those of the style of the decadence. Some 
of the earUest artists appear to have used a kind of Iambic 
verse, as : — 


'E,$fj\x^ds\€ypd\lf | c Kct | irorjs \ € fxe 
£xecTa8 It was whd made and painted me. 

In the next chapter, describing the principal artists 
and their works, a further account will be given of the 

An attempt has been made to connect the choice of 
subjects on vases bearing artist's name, with allusions to the 
name of the artist ; ^ but the connection, if it exists, is too 

^ Panofka, Abb. d. k. Akad. d. WiBsenscbaften, 4to, BerL, 1848| & 153, 241. 


vague to assist the interpretation of them. It is possible 
that such secret allusions may have been occasionally 
intended, but the subjects of vases inscribed with the 
names of artists are comparatively unimportant, and some- 
times merely ornamental. 


A few vases have the potter's name inscribed upon them, 
accompanied by the expression EITOIESEN, "made," or 
MEnoiESEN, " made me," which is rarely, if ever, 
replaced by the EFIOEI, " was making," of the later 
school of artists. A rarer form of inscription is the word 
EPrON, "work," instead of En0IE2EN. The potter always 
wrote his name in the nominative, generally simply as 
NIKO20ENE2 EnoiESEN, " Nicosthenes made," me or 
it. To this he sometimes added the name of his father, 
either to distinguish himself from rivals of the same name, 
or because his father was in repute. Thus Tleaon, a cele- 
brated maker of cylices, or cups, uses the plirase TAE20N 
HO NEAPXO EnOIESEN, " Tleson, son of Nearchus," 
made it ; while Eucheros, another potter, employed the 
of Ergotiraus, Eucheros, made it." EPrON. of course, has 
the genitive ; as 2TATI0(Y) EprON, "the work of Statius." 
These inscriptions are generally placed in prominent 
positions, where they could readily be seen by purcbaBers. 
In this respect the potters only imitated the painters, 
sculptors, and architects, who inscribed their names 
on some part of their works, and even clandestinely intro- 
duced them inside their statues. The potter, who was 


evidently exposed to an active competition, prided himself 
upon the fineness of his ware, and the elegance of the 
shapes which he produced. The vases with straw-coloured 
grounds have no potters' names, which first appear on 
vases of the old style, with pale red grounds, and are most 
common upon cups. They continued to be placed upon 
vases till the latest period, but with decreasing frequency. 
The art, in its decay, ceased to be either honourable or 

Like the artist, the potter arranged his inscriptions 
often in a kind of Iambic trimeter, and the final N, which 
is a poetic form, shows that he had an eye to a Uttle 
doggerel, as in the inscription— 


Eucheros, son of Ergotimus, [this vessel] made 

in which, in frohcsome or sarcastic Iambi, some potter 
addresses his purchasers. In another, the following forms 
the end of a choriambic asclepiad. 


(i5<r\ov bi TTOT\Ev<l)p6vX\os 
Such never made Euplironios. 


An accoimt of the potters and their labours, derived 
from the inscriptions, will be found in the next chapter. 
Besides the names of the principal figures, and of the 
artists and potters, a third name, either male or female, 
accompanied with the adjective KAAGS,^ or KAAH,^ " the 

^ O. A. v., oxcv. oxovi. ; M. Q., IL ' G. A. V., budx. IxxzL 

IxxxY. 2, a ; v. C. xzx. x. 


noble, beautiful or lovely, is found on several vases ; whicli 
epithet is also sometimes found without any name. The 
archa?ologista who first studied the sul'jcct, imagined that 
these were laudatory inscriptions of the works of the pot- 
ters. On many vases is HO nAIS KAA02, " the boy is 
handsome ;" ' sometimes with a repetition of KALOSj' with 
certain anomalies, as HO HAIS EAAE,^ or HE nAIS KAAE/ 
sometimes abridged to HO HAIS. " the hoy ;" * or nAl2/ or 
even with KAAOS NAIXI KAA02, " handsome — handsome 
forsooth." ' The name, however, of some youth is generally 
understood, and in some instances expressed, as AOPO0EO2 
HO HAIS KAA02 HO HAIS KAA02, " Dorotheos~the 
boy is handsome — the hoy is handsome."^ One remarkable 
cup has, interlaced with the foliage painted upon it, 
"Nicolaus is handsome, Dorotheos is handsome, seema to 
me that the one and the other is handsome. Memnon 
to me is handsome and dear."' A lecjthus has oniS0E 
ME KAI EvnOAE2 EI KAA02, "behind (after) me even 
thou Eupoles art noble." '" Once is found 0102 DAIS, 
" what a boy." " 

The most usual form, however, is a proper name, 
accompanied with KAA02, as ONETOI'IAES KAA02, 
" Onetorides is beautiful ; " 2TP0IB02 KAA02, " Stroiboa 

' M. G., ii. Ik. 1, b, b ; G. a. V., 
xxiii. Ivii. IxxTi. I a; M. Q. ii. IxU. 
■ : Q. A. Tt ooiiii. ; V. D. C. xiii. ; 
. Q. ii, elxii. 1 b ; O. A. V., ciciii. 
* T.D.C.,xui.IiU.0.u.luuul3>. 
> U Q., U. Uxiii. 2 b 1 V. O. ixiL 
< H. O., ii. liixT. 2 b. 
' H. a, iL la. Izzj. 1 b. ; Q. A. T.. 

< it. Q., it. lui. 1 >. 
' R, 1851. 68. 

» a. A. v., oiL 

• An. 1833,238.237; Mon.i, 
10 Campuia CoIleDdon. 
" Tub ftt ITaplea; M, A 
sixTiiL B2. 



is beautifiil ; " for which, on later vases, is substituted the 
form O KAA02, "the beautiful," as NIK0AHM02 O 
KAA02, " the noble Nicodemos/' * One youth, indeed, 
Hippocritos, is called HinOKPITOS KAAI2T02, " Hip- 
pocritos is the most handsome." ^ 


Besides the names of youths, those of females, either 
brides, beauties, or hetairae, are found, accompanied with 
the expression KAAE, as OINAN0E KAAE " QEnanthe 
is lovely ! " ^ Often, however, the names of females are 
accompanied with those of men. The most elliptical form 
is KAA02, " he is handsome ; " KAAE, " she is fair 1 " * 
One vase of the Canino collection had AY2inTAE2 KAL02 
POAON KAAE, " Lysippides is beautiful, Rodon is fair," 
apparently a kind of epithalamium. Before a lyrist 
is written on one vase, KAAE A0KE2,* "thou seemest 
fair." This, however, might be part of the song. Of 
the nature of an Agonistic inscription is that cited by 
M. Bockh, reading KEAHTI AAM0KAEIAA2.* " Damocleidas 
(was victor) in the horse race," which throws much light 
• on the use of KAA02 in the others already cited. 

The import of these inscriptions has excited much con- 
troversy, for while some have taken them to be the names 
of the possessors of the vases,^ others have considered that 
they were those of the persons for whom the vase was 

> G. A. v. civ. Cf. ; Panofka, 1. c. 
s G. A. v., bu.-lxiL 
8 G. A. v., oli. 
* G. A. v., Izxxi 
& MuB. Borb., iiL xiL 

« M. Bookh. in the Bull., 1832, p. 95; 
Walpole, Memoirs, p. 382; Bockh. 
Corp. Inscr. Gr»c.. do. 33. 

7 Panofka, Eigennamen mit icaXos, 
8. 1 ; Gerhard, AnnalL 1831| p. 81. 


made, or to whom it was sent as a present,' or those of 
youths and maidens beloved or admired by the potter." 
This last hypothesis is supported by the fact of lovers 
writing the name of the beloved object upon the walls 
of the Cerainicus.^ In allusion to this, the same epithet 
of "handsome, or beautiful," is applied aarcastically by 
Aristophanes to tlie Demos, Pyrilampous,* and the same 
poet, speaking of the Thracian, Sitalcas, as a devoted 
admirer of Athens, describes him as writing upon the wall 
"the beautiful," or "handsome Athenians."* "He is an 
exceedingly good friend to Athens," says the poet, " and 
loves it so exceedingly, that often he scrawls upon the 
walls, ■ The Athenians are beautiful ! ' " Females were 
repeatedly called "the fair,"^ and their names inscribed on 
walls. Even dogs found their devoted masters, who 
called them koKos on their sepulchral monuments.' The 
case, however, most in point for tlie artists of antiquity, is 
that of Phidias inscribing the name of Pautarces, in the 
case already mentioned.^ According to this hypothesis, 
where the word koAoj is found alone, the name was in- 
tended to be supplied, as in a blank formula,^ wliich, 
however, appears doubtful. It is generally supposed, in- 
deed, that the word is intended to express tho personal 
beauty of the individual named,'" although it is by no 

I MiJlingea, Feint. J. Vaaes Qrec., 
fol. Romx, 1813. p. iii., p. li. 

' Utiuoohi, Tab. Hemol., 138; Biit- 
tiger, TMcngsiD., iii. 20. 

> Suidaa, Toro, i ti;ra naAoi ; Eohol. 
Aristoph. Aaliam., 143; EusUth. ii. 
p. (133. 

' Ariatopb. Veip., 97, Sa. 

* Aohnrn., 143. 

* ArislKinet i. 10; Luciuii, Amor, 
c 10; Xeaoph. Epb., i. 2. 


' TliBophraal., Toup on Suid., Oion., 
17flO, t, iip. 12U. 

^ Clemeos, Alex., p. 33 ; Aruob. adv. 
OeoL. ri., p. 199; Greg. NuieiL,ivlii.; 
Pauum., V, 11. 

' ViMontl, Mus. Pio. Clem. V. ; Uv. 
xiii., p. 25, n. f. 

1" MUller, Getting. geUUrto Au- 
Ecigen, 131, 135; St, d. So, Aug., 1381 
e. 1 331-1 S34. 


means improbable that it was applied to those who 
excelled in the games of the youths in the Stadium. These 
names, which no doubt were the popular ones of the day, 
were adopted by the potter, in order to induce the 
admiring public to purchase objects which recalled their 
idols to mind ; and the prominent manner in which the 
names are placed upon the vases, shows that they were 
not less essential than the subjects to their sale. The 
influence which the beauty of boys, and the charms of 
beautiful and accomplished women, exercised over the 
Greek mind ^ is quite sufficient to account for the use of 
the epithet, without supposing that it resulted from the 
admiration of the potter. Above seventy names of men, 
and about ten names of women, have been found with this 
epithet, besides those of several deities. These names are 
all Greek, many of them traceable to Athenian families ; 
and as the vases bearing them were found amidst the 
Etruscan sepulchres of Vulci and of Northern Italy, the 
Campanian tombs of Nola, and in Southern Italy and 
Sicily, it is plain that they could not have been those of 
the possessors or donors.^ A most ingenious attempt has 
been made by M. Panofka to trace a connection between 
the subjects of vases and the names which appear 
upon them. Bearing in mind the apparent remoteness 
of the allusions in the odes of Pindar to the victors 
celebrated, and in the Greek choruses to the plot of the 
drama, it is possible that such allusions may be intended, 
although, whether the connection can be always satis- 

* Bergk. Allgemeine Liieratur Zei- ^ Th. Bergk., loc. cit.; Panofka, 

tuDgf n. 182, Juni, 1846, s. 1049- Eigennamen, 8. 84-85. 


factorilj traced, is open to doubt.' A list of the names 
of persons mentioned, taken from M. Panof lea's dissertation, 
is appended. (Appendix, No, I.) 

A considerable number of vases are covered with in- 
scriptions,' the meaning of which is quite unintelligible, 
although the letters can be distinctly read. This is not 
peculiar to vases found in Italy, but is of common occur- 
rence on those of Greece itself. Nor can it be charged to 
the ignorance or barbarism of the potter, as such inscrip- 
tions are often found intermingled with others in good 
Greek. In some few cases these inscriptions can be 
traced to forgeries, as for instance of the names of potters ; 
while in otliers a certain resemblance is observable 
between the illegible inscriptions, and the more correctly 
written names of the figures represented. Some few 
also may be intended for the sounds of animals, especially 
where there ia a repetition of the same syllabic placed 
near them, such as, 


like the twittering and gibbering of the birds in the 
" Birds" of Aristophanes. Some few, perhaps, are 
vulgarisms, or owing to the abnormal state of the language 

' Tbii subjact b»a been diacuwed at 
coiuddBnble length by H. Puiafk^, 
Dia OrieoliiBcbea EigennuDan mit 
KAAOa, (to, Berlin, 1860; Abbuid. 
d. K. Akadeoiie der WiijUQiMibaflsii, 

1849, p- 89-19] ; Thierscli. ueber 
dia helleaiBoheii bomtlteD Vuen, 4ta, 
Munich, 44. 
' Owhard, Rapp, Vole, p. 173. n. flOB. 



at that time.^ But many, especially those which are a 
series of words commencing with the same letters, and 
which often consist of agglomerations of consonants with 
few vowels, are the mere images of words, written down 
^ only to show that an inscription is intended.^ Others 
may be meant for the imperfect words uttered by excited 
persons, such as drunkards ^ and revellers. Several of these 
unintelligible inscriptions occur on the early cups, such as, 


KN2.* Some of them have lately been conjectured to be 
a kind of cipher/ These inscriptions are found on vases of 
the earlier style with black figures, and occasionally on 
those with red ; and they continue till the time of the later 
vases of Nola,^ and of Apulia,® when names were incised 
by possessors ; the names of the potters Andocides and 
Hieron occur in this manner on two vases. 


The second class of inscriptions is those which are 
engraved on the vases. Sometimes they have been 
incised before the vase was sent to the furnace, at other 
times after it was baked. On the vases of the later style 
the names of figures and objects are executed in this 
manner, the letters being incised through the black glaze 
on the red clay of the vase. On the older ones they 

* Qerhard, Rapp. Vole, p. 71., who Qerbard. A. V., clxxxviiL 
Bupposes the artists wished to give anap- * B. M., 678 ; C. D., 335. 

pearanceofgreat antiquity to their vases. ^ C. D. 335; B. M., 667*8. 

2 Ibid., p. 173, n. 670; Q. A. V., « B. A. B., 1599. 

cxxiv. olxv. 7 De Witte, Penelope, Annali, 1841, 

3 Cf., the expression, EAEOO, EAE- p. 264, pi. i. 

AEM, with the word, KOMAPXOX, » De Witte, Annali, 1841, 268. 


have generally been incised before the vases were con- 
signed to tbe furnace. They are found distributed in 
different places, as the handles, border, feet, and especially 
at the bottom of the vase under the foot ; having been 
written when the vase stood upon its mouth, or on the 
detached foot before it was united. Those on the body 
of the vase relate either to the figures represented, or else 
haye the name of the possessor of the vase, or of the 
person for whose ashes it was used. Some few, however, 
relate to the potters.' A vase in the Museum at Naples' 
has incised upon its neck the name of Charminos, son 
of Theophamides — XAPMINOC 0EO*AM[AA KillOC — a 
native of Cos, and came from Carthage. A hj/dria, or 
pitcher, from Berenice, has in like manner the name of 
Aristarchos son of Ariston.' Such formulae are not 
" ( I am) the leci/this of Dionysius, the son of Matalus ;"* 
— ^TPEMIO EMI," I belong to Tromioa ;" KAP0N02 EMI, 
"I belong to Charon;"* 202TPAT0 EMI, "I belong 
to Sostratos;"^ TATAIUS EIMI AHKT02 OS AAN ME 
KAE+LHj ©T'&AOS E2T0, " I am the le(ythis of Tataies, 
and may whoever steals me be struck bUnd."' On a vase 
in the Museum of Naples ia NIKA HEPAKAH2, "Heracles 
conquers," but it is doubtful whether it is antique.* In one 
instance a scratched inscription, reading HEMIKOTTAION, 
indicated the capacity of a vase with two small handles, 


' Ai Ihat of Huron. Bull., 1S33, 
p. 114 

' M, B.. iv. 6, 1: N«»pal«. Ant. 
Bild.,l. £48. 

' Fonnerl; ui Mr. Bid*«irB Collec- 
turn, Aroh. Zeit, IStB, p. 219, 

7 B. Arch. Nap., torn. ii. t«v. i., fig, i. 
■ lughiTMji!, S. V. T., »!ii. 



found at CorfA ; another of these inscriptions,* ATAIA 
MEZn KE AEnA2TIAE2 KZ, supposed to refer to 
the capacity of some vase, holding 25 lydians 
and 27 lepastides; under another^ IX0TA, "dishes for 
fish." ' 

On the foot of a crater from Girgenti is the word 
XAPIT12N, Chariton, probably a proper, name.* 

The most interesting inscriptions, however, are those on 
the feet of the vases of the earlier style, of which a 
considerable number have been discovered. They are 
very difficult to decipher, being chiefly contracted forms 
of words, and often monograms, or agglomerations of 
letters and ciphers. The greater portion are con- 
sequently unintelligible, and probably were understood 
only by the potter or his workman. Many of them, 
however, are evidently memorandums made by the work- 
man, about the number of vases in the batch ; and others 
those of the merchant, respecting the price to be paid. 
Such are the abridgments as TE* HVA, HVAPI Hv6pto,^ or 
in a fuller form HVAPIA2 AHK or AHKV krjKvdos,'' OET for 
03TBA4>A,® oxyha'pha, another kind of vase, XTTPl, for 
" pots." The examination of these inscriptions under the 
feet of vases leads to some curious results as to prices. On 
one in the Louvre is : 

1 Arch. Zeit, 1846, s. 871. 

> A. Z. 1848, B. 248. 

3 Collections of these will be found 
in Pr. de Canino, Mus. Etr. ; Gerhard, 
Neuerworb. Ant Denk. 8vo., Berlin, 
1886, Taf. ii. ; Cat. Greek and Etr. 
Vases in Brit. Mus., pi. A. and B. 

^ Millingen, Vases de Coghill, pi. xi. 
Tl^e word also means " of the Graces." 
Le. "the crater of the Graces." 

« M. E., 212. 

« M. E., xxxviL. 1650. 

7 Panofka, Recherches, p. 8. 

8 Panofka, 1. c; Lctronne, Joum. 
des Sav. 1887, p. 750; NouvellesAn- 
nales, i., p. 497 ; Journal des Sav., 1849, 
p. 427; Bockh. Staatsh. i., p. 451; 
Jahn. Bcrioht, d. k. Sachs. Gesellaoh., 
8yo., Feb. 1854, p. 87. 



TIME ; hhl-l-OEIAES : mil 


That is/ 

Six crateres 

value 4 drachmsB : 8 oxides. 

20 baphea. 1 dracbmaB . 1 obolos. 

On another vase was inscribed^ — 


5 craters, 40 oxides, value 8 drachmsB 
13 oxybapba . . . 

10 Cyathea (for Cjatboi).' 

30 arysides, or " ladles," 

VPIA2 nil (for Hvbpias) 
make " 4 hydrisB." 

It is supposed that these inscriptions were placed on 
the feet of vases while being turned for the potter, and 
before they were united with the vase.* 

Present value 
of money about 

1 Cylix cost 1 dracbma = 3 shillings. 

1 Grater cost 4 obolos = 2 sbillings. 

1 Lecytbus cost 1 obolos = 6 pence. 

1 Small pot cost ^ obolos = 3 pence. 

1 Saucer (fiacpiov) cost ^ obolos = 2 pence. 

* Letronne, sur lea noma trac^ k ^ Ibid., 502. 

la pointe; Nouyellee Annalee, 1836, * Ibid., 502, 503. 

p. 492. ^ Ibid, 506. 


The following were the prices of lecythi, or oil-flasks : — 

• AHKT : AA : AH 20 lecjtbi are worth 27 drachmae 
AHKT : ir : lA 13 „ „ 11 

AHKT : K0 : AH 29 „ „ 27 


This was probably reckoned by obols, for according 
to Aristophanes,^ an obolos would purchase a very fine 
lecythus, while an earthenware cask, or cadus (/cafios), cost 
3 drachmae.^ In an inscription published by Bockh,* one 
Cephisophon Values his cj/lis, or cup, at one drachma. 

On another small vase at Berlin is — 

32 vases value 2 dr. 4} oboli. 

5 elpi, value 30 drachme, or 1 elpos = 6 dr.* 

n • KAAIA. 
6 cadi = 12 dr. or 1 cados = 2f dr. 

The two annexed engravings will illustrate the nature 
of these inscriptions completely. The first, which is at 
the base of a small two-handled vase, called pelike^ found 

at Nola, reads ApaxfJi-ai bivo rifirj oPo\oi T€(r(rap€s Kai rjfiiav, — 

" two drachmae, value four oboli and a half," — which is 
supposed to refer to the value of this by no means fine vase. 
The second is evidently a memorandum, beginning, XVTPIA 
Kr,^ "Twenty-three pots," — hpaxiJMLs rpiaKovra cttto, "thirty- 

* Jabn. 1. o. p. 87, 88. eio Topferei yorstellt in the Bericht 

* Ranae, 1267. d. SaclisUch. Gesellsch. 1854, p. 87. 

* Pax. 1291. « Gerhard, Neuerw. Denkm., b. 80, 

* Corp. Art. Insor. Qrsec, No. 545. No. 1605. 

* Jahn, Ueber ein Vasenbild welches 


seven drachmae " — OHY 08a<^a) E,^ " Five oxybapha,^' or 
"vinegar vases." In a similar manner are written 

^ T 





No. 126. — Inciaed inscriptions on vases. 

memoranda of the prices of cylices,^ or cups, and other 
products of the kiln,^ as A KVA0EA, " four cyathi." * 

Inscriptions on vases are mentioned by the ancients. 
The scyphos of Hercules, on which was seen the fall of 
Troy, had on it certain illegible characters.® A cup at 
Capua was said to have an inscription declaring that it 
belonged to Nestor. Athenseus^ also mentions the 
inscribed cup of a youth who had thrown himself into 
the sea after a girl beloved by him, declaring that he had 
carried with him a cup of Zeus Soter. 

> Mu0. Etr. xl., No. 1821 ; Cat. of ' B. A. B., 1660. 

Gr. ind Etr. Vaa. in B. M., pi. A. -• C. B. L., p. 21, No. 22. 

459. ^ Athenseus, p. 493, C. 

« B. A. N. N. S., iT. p. 182, BAN. u. « xi. 466, C. 
tav. I 6, p. 23. 



Ancient Pottera — ^Athenian Potteries — Names of Potters : Aliden — Amasis — An- 
dooides — ^Archides — Bryllos — Calliphon — Cliachrylios — Chariteeos — Cleo- 
phradas — Cholchos — Chelia — Charinos — Chserestratos — Cephalos — Deini- 
ades — ^Doris — Epitimos — Epigenes — Erginos — Ergotimos — Eueigetides — 
EucheroB — Echecrates — Ezeciaa — Euphronioa — Euxitheos — Qlauoythes — 
Hermaeua—Hermogenes— Hechthor^Hieron— Hilinos — Hischylos— Meidiaa 
— Naucydes — Neandros — Nicosthenea — Oinieus — Pamaphius — Phanphaios 
— PampbsBos — Philinos — Pistoxenos — Priapus — ^Python — Simon of Elea — 
Smicylion — Socles — Sosias — Statins — Taleides — Theozetos — Thyphei- 
theides — Timagoras — Tlenpolemos — Tleson — Xenocles — Tychios — 
Xenophantos — Names of Vase Painters: ^niades — Alsimos — Amasia — 
Aristophanes — ^Asteas — Bryllus, or Bryaxis — Clitias — Cholchos — Doris — 
Euonymos — Epictetus — Euphronios — Euthymides — Exedas — Hegias — 
Hermonaz — Hypsis — Onesimos — Pheidippos — Philtias — Phrynos — Pothi- 
nos — Praxias — Polygnotns — Priapos — Psiax — Sosias — ^Taoonidee — Zeuxi- 

Having thus described the chief pecuUarities of the 
painted vases, and of the circumstances connected with 
them, it now remains to say something respecting their 
makers — the potters of antiquity. Unfortunately, how- 
ever, Uttle is known of their condition, except that they 
formed a guild, or fraternity, and that they amassed vast 
fortunes by exporting their products to the principal 
emporia of the ancient world. The oldest establishments 
appear to have been at Samos, Corinth, and iEgina, and 
it was not till a later period that the Athenian pottery 
attained any great eminence, or became universally 
sought after. The existence of two kerameikoi, or pottery 


districts, at Athens, and the fact that some of the prin- 
cipal men were connected with the potteries, show the 
great commercial importance of the manufacture. 

By the Athenians, potters were called Prometkeans,^ 
from the Titan Prometheus, who made man out of clay, 
— ^which, according to one mytlios, was the blood of the 
Titans, or Giants, — and who was thus the founder of the 
fictile art. It was not, however, much esteemed, although 
without doubt the pursuit of it was a lucrative one, and 
many of the trade reahsed large fortunes ;^ in proof of 
which may be cited the well-known anecdote of Aga- 
thocles,' who, at a time when the rich used plate, was in 
the habit of mixing earthenware with it at his table, 
telling his officers that he formerly made such ware, but 
that now, owing to his prudence and valour, he was 
served in gold, — an anecdote which also proves that the 
profession was not highly esteenaed. However, the com- 
petition in the trade was so warm as to pass into a 
proverb, and the animosity of some of the rival potters 
is recorded upon certain vases.* To this spirit is also 
probably to be referred many of the tricks of trade, such 
as forgeries of the names of makers, and the numerous 
illegible inscriptions. When the potter's estahlishment, 
— called ifyyairnipiov — was large, he employed under him 
a number of persons, some of whom were probably free 

' Kol ofriii Si 'ASnnuai Toiis xvTp<i" 
Hoi ivrowaiots Koi irctin-iii Sirai injKoupyol, 
nfO)ii)iiti iitKiAotir triaiiitwToirrts is 
rlir ■n^ii' (al ti)* ir irup\ ol/iai rir 
nitwr Smgirir. Luoiau. Prooisth. m 
Terbii, Dlndorf. Svo., Ftiia, ISID, p. 6, 
B.S., 1.11 Md foil. 

' SfUXiAuH' Euur^Kilau ik Kipait-tay, 

Aroh. Zeit, ISfiS. 

* Plutoroh, Apophthegm., vol. vi., p. 
679. Loipi. ed. 1777. 

' Heaiod, Opor. et Dier.jV. 2B; Aria- 
totlo, Rop., v.lO; Rhet, u. 4; Ethic, 
«U. 2; PlBto. Lyi., p. 215; Plutarch, 
de oapieud. ex hoate util., p. 342, 
Leipz. ed. 1777. 


but poor citizens, whilst others were slaves belonging to 
him. How the labour was subdivided there are no means 
of accurately determining, but the following hands were 
probably employed : — 1. A potter, to make the vase on 
the wheel ; 2. An artist, to trace with a point in outline 
the subject of the vase ; 3. A painter, who executed the 
whole subject in outline, and who probably returned it to 
No. 2, when incised lines were required ; 4. A modeller, 
who added such parts of the vase as were moulded ; 5. 
A fireman, who took the vase to the furnace and brought 
it back ; 6. A fireman for the furnace ; 7. Packers, to 
pack up the vases for exportation. Hence it may readily 
be conceived that a large establishment employed a great 
number of hands, and exhibited an animated scene of 
industrial activity. 

Some slight insight into the nature of the trade is 
gained from the inscriptions which the potters placed on 
their vases. The fullest form ^ of inscription is when 
both the potter and the artist placed their names on the 
vase ; and there is some doubt whether, when the name 
of a potter is found alone, he did not paint as well as 
make the vase. Nearly fifty names of potters have been 
found, but they only occur on choice specimens of art, 
perhaps on samples or batches, and the far greater pro- 
portion of vases have no name at all. It is so difficult to 

^ For the lists of these names see blatt, 1880, No. 83, 84 ; Weloker, in the 

Panof ka, Von den Namen der Vaseu- Rheinisoh. Mus. Bd. vi. 1 847, s. 889-97 ; 

bildner, 4to. Berlin, 1849. s. 153, 241; De Witte, sur les noms des Dessina- 

R Rocbette, Lettre It M. Schorn., 8vo, teurs et Fabricants des Vases Peintea, 

Paris, 1832 ; 2nd edit. 8vo. Paris, 1845 ; Revue de Philologie, 8vo, Paris, Tom. ii. 

Clarac, Cat. d. Artist. d'Antiq., 12mo, p. 387473 ; Gerhard, Rap. Vola, p. 74, 

Paris, 1849; Welcker, in the Kunstblatt, 75. 
1827, No. 81-4 ; Osann, in the Kunst- 


assign to each potter his reLitire position in the history of 
the art, that it is as well to take the names in alphabetical 

The name of the potter AUdes has been found upon a 
vase with red figures, of the strong style, found at St. Maria 
di Capua, having the subject of Pelops, surnamed Plexippus, 
with two horses.' 

AmuMs, a potter, wliose name is apparently of Egyptian 
origin, may have had a factory at Corinth, as his works 
are of the early rigid school. His vases have boen found 
only in Italy. He exercised the art of painter as well as 
potter, and on certain vases he states that lie painted 
the subject.* Ho painted for the potter Cleophradas.' 
Whether he subsefjuently set up for himself does not 
apptjar, but he is known in connection with several vases 
with black figm-es ; as. an amphora, on which is seen the 
dispute of Poseidon and Athene for the soil of Attica,* and 
Dionyaos and his cohort ; a small jug, olpc, with the 
subject of Pereeus killing Medusa ; ^ and an amphora, 
with that of Achilles and Pcuthesilea, and the arrival of 
Memnon at Troy.^ Generally he writes on his produc- 
tions MEFIOIESEN, " made me," but on this last-mentioned 
vase appears the blundered form noiHSN, Anacles 
is known from a cup on which is a hind.' Andocides, 
another maker of the same khid of vases, is known from 
an amphora, on which is represented the contest of 

' Bull Arob, Nap, xov.; Pauofka * Oerbard Aociili, 1S31, 178, Ho. 

VMeDbildner, «. 43. This U tbe Bame 702. 

pune tB»d Euergetides. * Cat. Diib. No. 32; Cat Va». B. M., 

' RmuI Rochetto, p, 31 ; Ciarac. p. p. 1T2, 641*. 

248. ' a.A . v., oDvii. ; Campaiiari. p. 87. 

» Oerbard, I. c, No. 703 ; R. RochotW, ' PaUDflES, B. 32 ; Bull. 1836, 127 ; 

Bull Per, 1831, p. 101. De Wit», Ker. 392. 




Hercules and Gycnus, and Bacchus and satyrs/ and 
another with black figures on a white ground, having 
for its subject Nereids and Amazons,^ the style of 
which is fine. He employed no artist. Archedes^ who 
also inscribes upon his vases " made me," or " made," is 
known fi-om a phicde, a cup of a very old style, with tall 
foot, and small handles of figures, with the subjects of the 
hunt of the Calydonian boar, and the death of the 
Minotaur.* Another of his cups has a goat and satyr.* 
He employed the artist Glaucythes,^ by whose aid he pro- 
duced the celebrated vase found at Csere, one of the most 
remarkable for size and decoration, and which belongs 
to the oldest period of the fictile art. Bryllos is known 
as the maker of a cylia: found at Vulci, painted with red 
figures, and having for its subject the last night of Troy ; ^ 
and of another, with Triptolemus, the family of Celeus, and 
the rape of Proserpine, also in red figures.® The name of 
the potter CaUiphon was invented to deceive the celebrated 
archaeologist Millin, in which it was entirely successful.^ 
ChachrylioSy was a maker of a cup with red figures, of the 
fine style,'^ representing Amazons and the Bacchanalian 

Can. leCent, 1840; Ann., 1887, 178,No 
700; Clarac, Cat, p. 87, 287-249 
Mus. Etr. 1881 ; C. Dub., 79 ; C. D., 22 
Campanari, p. 88; B. 1845, p. 25; 
PftnofkA, Taf. iii. 2, 8. 28. 

3 His name is inscribed on the foot, 
which renders it suspicious. Campana 

» C. D., No. 999 ; R. V., p. 178, n. 

^ O. A. v., ccxxxv.; Panofka, s. 
82, 33. 

' Panofka, s. 31, reads this artist's 

* Panofka, M. Bl., xvi. 47 ; Gerhard, 
A. 1831, 178, No. 694 ; Clarac, Cat p. 

7 Panofka, s. 13, B. 1848, p. 71, 

8 A. 1860, pLO. p. 109. 

' Coll. Can. 51 ; Joum. des Savans., 
1830, p. 121; Raoul Rochette, Boll. 
F6ru8, 1831, p. 149; Clarac. p. 70. 

10 Coll. Can. 51 ; Cat Can. 81 ; Ger- 
hard, Ann., 1831, 179, No. 705; Cam- 
panari, p. 88 ; XAXPTLI02 EOOIESEN ; 
Cat. Vas. Brit. Mus., p. 262, No. 


eorlige ; and of anotber, with Theseus bearing off Antiope. ' 
A vase found at Ca;re, with biack figures, had the name of 
the potter Charitmtis, representing the subject of Hercules 
and the Nem^an Uon.'^ Of Cleophradas, the employer of 
Amasis, mention has been already made.^ Cholchos, 
another maker of vases with red figures, of the strong 
style, appears to have worked for Euxitheos* An asnoc/ioe 
of this maker has been found, with the subject of the 
contest of Hercules and Cycnus.* Chelis manufactured 
a/Hces with black figures, sometimes intermixed with red, 
representing Bacchanahan and athletic subjects ; and one 
with Apollo and Hermes contending for the lyre. He 
belongs to the transition period.^ 

A jug of fine shape, having a wreath of a vine laden 
with grapes depicted in black on a white ground, bears the 
name of the potter Charinos, with which is combined that 
of Xenodoros, but whether that of an artist or of a youth 
is uncertain.' Cluereslratos is only known from some 
verses of Plirynichua, " Then, forsooth," says he, " Chie- 
restratos, soberly pottering at home, burnt about a 
hundred canthari of wine every day." ^ A person of the 
name of Cephalos, if it be not a fictitious one, is 

' Cat. Vaa. Brit. Mua., p. 273, No. 
827; Cut. Can.. 116- 

TA103 EIIOIEZEN : EME : ET, ViBOoati. 
Intonio gli Houuineab wpolciirali seo- 
psrti Del ducata <li Core, in tha Die- 
■rrtuioni della Pontificia AccodenUDi 
RoQUDR di AccheolQgia, 4to. Koma, 
183a, Taf. ii. 

■ Qerbard. Auaali, 1S31, p. ITS, Ho, 
703; PaDofka, a. 37: Cue de Lujnci, 
Choix dsVa»ea, pi, iliv. 

' Rochette, Lettre h H. Sehorti, p, 
44; Clarac. Cat, p, 273; Camponari. p. 
83, X0AX03 MEnOIEJEN. 

^ Q. A. v., cuii. culiii pRDorics, 
s, H, Taf. i. 6. 

' XEAUZnOIESEN.Gerhard,A.,lB31, 
p. 17S;No.T06;Clarao.,p.74i Cat-Dur. 
ISO; Cat. Can, 224 ; Panofka, a. 5, 37. 

' Brit. Mus. No, 90. 

■ Meineke, Frag. Com. Grsc, il 386 : 
AthenaiiiB, xL, p. 474, B. There is a 
play oti the iTord Kt^ja^iini'. 



sarcastically alluded to by Aristophanes,^ bs making 
wretched dishes, but tinkering the state well and truly. 

The name of Deiniades,^ another potter, is recorded on 
a cylix, with red figures, having for its subject Hercules 
killing Alcyoneus. Doris, better known as a painter, ap- 
pears as the maker of a dish, on which is a seated figure 
of Athene.^ Epigenes, another potter, is only known from 
a cantharus, or two-handled cup, of peculiar shape and 
mediocre style with red figures, on which is painted 
Achilles at the ships, receiving a draught of wine from the 
Nereid, Cymothoe, and attended by Ucalegon, while 
Patroclus, attended by Nestor and Antilochos, has the 
same honour accorded him by Thetis. Both Achilles and 
Patroclus are armed, and departing from the ships.* 
Epitimos made vases with red figures ; as, for example, a 
cup of ancient style, on wliich is a warrior mounting his 

ErginoSy a potter, employed the painter Aristophanes, 
and fabricated vases with black figures.^ 

Ergotimas, another potter, is known from the Fran9ois 
vase, and a qy/i> with black figures, representing the capture 
of Silenus in the gardens of Midas, found at iEgina,^ of which 
island Ergotimos was probably a native. He was perhaps 
the father of the next potter, Eucheros, or Eucheir, in whom 

» Eccl. V. 252. 

3 AEINIAAE2 EnOIESEN, Coll. Can., 
le Cent., No. 74 ; Gerhard, Ann. 1831, 
p. 179, No. 709 ; p. 180, No. 728 ; 
Campanari, p. 88. 

' Qerhard, Femerer Zuwachs der K. 
Mus., No. 1853 ; Qerbard, Trinkscha- 
len, Taf. xiii. 

^ Ann., 1860, p. 143, pi. H. i.; B. 1846, 
p. 69 EnirEN£:g EHOESE (€iro<77(rcy) ; 

Panofka, s. 40, 1. 

« EniTIMOS EnoiESEN, Clarao, Cat 
240, m; Dub. Not de8cr.,56, No. 208; 
Campanari, p. 88. 

« Clarac, Cat., p. 204, c, EPHNOS 
EnoIE2E ; Qerhard, Trinkschalen, Taf. 
ii iii. ; Panofka, b. 8, Taf. i. 3. 

ccxxxviii; Bull. F^r., 1831, p. 168. 


some recognise the celebrated Eucheir, brought by Dema- 
ratus from Corinth to Tarquinii, who made a cyli^?, with 
black figures, of the oldest style, with a representation of 
theChimtera, and on which he inscribes himself the son of 
Ergotimos.' He is a maker of the oldest school. 

Muergeiides made a cup with red figures, found at 
Capua," representing Pelops, Plexippos, a dancer, and a 
Palajstric subject. 

The potter Eiiphronios, wsjs probably the most cele- 
brated of his day. He belonged to the epoch of the 
"fine," or to the latter days of the "strong" style, cha- 
racterised by red figures, or by polychrome figures on a 
white ground,^ and ptroduced vases, mostly a/lices, of the 
finest style of art. The only vase-painter whose name 
appears on his works, is the artist Onesimus,* who painted 
for him a ci/liv with the subject of a race. Only a few of 
his works remain, as a cylix^ with the subject of Hercules 
and the Erymantliian boar, a quadriga ; Akieus and 
a Sappho ; ^ another with the fate of Troilus,' a horse- 
man,^ Phrygians,^ and heroes arming ; '" one with Death 
and Sleep bearing off Sarpedon," and Dolon seized by 
Ulysses and Diomedes ;'' and another with a triclinium of 

' EYXEPOS EnOtE3EN HOPfOTl- ' V»a. Cat. Brit. Mua., p. 270, No. 

MOT HTIHTS, Clurao. Cat. Art. ]Bl j 823; Panoikm p, U, 

Bull, lS4e, p. 78 ; Cat. Vas. E. M., p. • Cat. Dur., 61. 

18fl, No. 701 ; Db Witte, Cat. Can., ' Uus. Etr., 683 ; Cat. Cnn., 87, No. 

No. 121, p. 70, M. M. L, iliL 568 ; Ann., 1S31, 403, 824 ; Clanu:, 272 ; 

* Ana., 1S4&, p. U5, pi. B., ETEPrE- G. A. v., oouv. 
TUEX Enoi. " Cat. Dub., p. 200. 

> Q. T. C, iiT. • Cat. Cm.. 81 ; Mus. E 

* Annali, 183!, 180, No. 723 ; Bull. 1931, Ann.. No, 723. 
TinMC., 1831, p. 163 ; Clarao. Cnt, p, '" Q. A, V., oc«v. 
109; Dobou, Cat. d. Pr. <Je Canmo, 87. " Panofta, p. 9. 
tor; Panofka, die TaMamxler Eulhj- '' IliUI. 
Diidea UDd Euplironioa, p, 13, 




hetairae.^ He also painted vases on which occur the name 
of Panaetios, an amphora with Hercules and the Eryman- 
thian boar, and Acamas and Demophon with their horses,* 
and a jar with recumbent undraped females.^ 

He has also left a cylia? with figures in black outline, like 
the later Athenian school, on which is Diomedes and a 
female, or Achilles and Pontomeda;* and a crater^ with Her- 
cules and AntsBus of remarkably fine and grandiose style.® 
This potter placed on his vases the names of several 
celebrated youths of the day. His vases are, perhaps, the 
very finest known of the strong style. 

EuantheoSy who belongs to the period of vases with red 
figures, was a painter as well as a potter. He is known 
from an amphora representing Achilles and Briseis,* and 
fi'om a cyltjp with the subject of Patroclus. For the last 
he employed the vase-painter Cholchos.^ 

Ea?ecias was both a maker and painter of vases,® with 
black figures, of the early style. He is known from 
amphorae on which are represented Hercules killing 
Geryon, the chariot of Anchippus,^ Achilles and Pen- 
thesilea,'® Bacchus," and OEnopion, and a deep cyliv with 
small figures of a winged female and stag.^' On cups, 

1 n)id. 8. 10. 

2 Ibid. 8. 16. 

' Campan. Coll. 

* Gerhard, Trinksc. imd Gefasse, taf. 
xiv. 5, 6, 7 ; Paoof ka die vasenbildner, 
taf. iy. 7. 8. 11 ; Welcker, Rhein. Mus., 
vi. Bd. 1847, 8. 894. 

* Mon. V. pi. 88, 1865. 

886; G. A. V., clxxxvii.; Panofka, 


7 Vases d. Pr. d. Canino, pi. 5 ; 
Gerhard, Ann., 1831, p. 180, 729, No. 

729; Campanari, p. 88; Brit. Mas., 
Vas. Cat., p. 246, No. 80 3; Inghirami, 
Gall. Om., ii 254. 

^ EX2EKIA2 EOOIESE, Panofka, s. 
8. 19, Taf. IL 1, 2. 

» Cat. Dur., 296 ; G. A. V., cvii. 

'» Cat. Dur., 889 ; G. A. V., cctL ; 
Cat. Vas. Brit. Mus. p. Ill, No. 564. 

»> G. A. v., ccvi.; Panofka, s. 19, 
Taf. ii. 6, 6. 

13 ekiekia:: MEnOIESEN. Cam- 
pana. Coll. 


a/lices, and amphora; he painted the subjects of Acamaa 
and Demophon bringing back ^Ethra,' Achillea and Ajax 
playing at dice,' the contest for the body of Achilles, and 
Dionysoa and the Tyrrhenian pirates.^ 

Ecliecraies is known by a single cylij; the subject of 
which ia a Gorgon's head.* 

Ghua/lhes ^ has been already mentioned. His name 
appears on the cup, with small figures, representing the 
death of the Minotaur, and of the Calydonian boar, now 
in the Museum at Munich, and on another cup in the 
Berlin Museum, He must have flourished about the same 
time as Tleson and Nicosthenes, and he placed on his 
wares the name of Hippocritos, a youth styled " the most 
beautiful."' He flourished at the early period of vases with 
black figures. 

Other potters were Hermtpos, the maker of a cup on 
which is represented Hermes making a libation / Iler- 
tnogenes^ one of the early school, who only made cups 
with small figures and ornaments ; and the supposed 
Hecthor.^ Hieron, a remarkable name, perhaps of a 
contemporary with the old Sicilian tyrant, is chiefly known 
from the a/lices he made, and which are found at Vulci, 
and in the Sabine territory, with the name scratched upon 
the handle. He appears to have been a partner with 

' Ann. iii. p. 179, No. 709; Cat. Dur., 
Lc; O. A. V.covi. 

> Panotka, b. 10, taf ii. 10-13 ; H. O., 
ii liii,, 1 a. ; Etr. Vnt, Uf. lii, 

» O. A. v.. Mx. 

* Ann., 184B. b. i;o, EXEKPATES K 

KVEl EnOIE2VEN, OerhaTiJ, Berlins 
Neuenr. Vasen., No. 1GS» ; Bull, 1S<7. 

p. lie. 

Cat., p. 240 r BuU, 1842, p. 167. 

' HEPMOfENES CnOtESEN, Qerhiirrl 
Ann. 1831, 178, No. 690; Cst. Dur. 
11)00; Berlins and Bildw., No. SS3; 
Cat, Can,. 159 ; R U.. p. 180. fl86 ; 
Ruchette. p. tS; Campanari, p. SB; Cat 
Va«, B, M.. 685. 

" HEXeOF ErPAAZEN. MiU. Etr., p. 
121 ; Bull, 1830, p. 134 ; Bull. Mr, 
1831, p. 16S ; MonuEaeos, iitu. 46. 



Andocides. The subjects of his cylices are Bacchanalian,^ 
Peleus and Thetis,* the Judgment of Paris,^ Achilles 
hearing the death of Patroclus,* and festive scenes.* His 
orthography is not always correct,* and his inscriptions 
are scratched under the handle. 

The name of Hilinos has been found as one of the 
lecythopoioiy or makers of lea/thi, on a vase with red 
figures, of that shape, discovered at Athens. He employed 
an artist named Psiax.^ A potter named Lysias has re- 
corded his name on a plain vase.® . 

Hischyhs, another potter, belonged to the period of 
the transition from black to red figures ; his vases have 
been found only at Vulci.^ His wares were chiefly cups. 
He employed one Pheidippus to paint his vases ;*° besides 
Epictetus, who surpassed all the other artists of the strong 
style " of red figures," and Saconides, whose name appears 
on a cup with the subject of Hercules and the lion. 

The potter Meidim is known by the celebrated Hamilton 
vase, of the style of Ruvo, a perfect chef d!(Butrey of 
the florid style, with red figures, and gilding in the 
accessories ; the subject being the rape of the Leucippides, 
and the Argonauts.^^ 

1 Can. 1 e. Cent., No. 23 ; Mus. Etr. 
565, 1188. 

' Depolletti Coll. Clarac, Cat., p. 128; 
Annali, 1831, p. 179, No. 710. 

' Campan. ColL 

< Cat. Dur., 768. 

' Gerhard, Trrnksohalen, taf. xi.-xu. 
Panof ka, taf. i. 9. 

1837, p. 71 ; BuU, 1832, p. 114 ; Cam- 
panari, p. 88; Panofka, l 7, 8, s. 22, 
23 ; Men., ii. zxzviii. 

7 HIAIN02 EHOIESEN. Creuzer, 
Alt Athen, Gkfass, s. 53. 

on a yase in the Campana collection at 

9 HCgKVAOS EOOIESEN, Canino, 1 e., 
Cent, No. 6. 

w Clarac, Cat, 130. 

" Panofka, 8. 30. 

» Annal., 1831, p. 179, 725 ; Cam- 
panari, p. 88. 

" D'Hancarville, i. p. 180 ; Millin, 
Qall. Myth., No. 385; MEIAIAl 
EOOIESEN; Gerhard, Abh. d. K. 
Akad., Berlin, 4 to, 1840, die Meidiaa 
vase ; Notice sur le vase de Meidias. 


There Js a supposed Naucydes,^ who flourished during 
the age of the vases with black figures. Neandros is 
known from a cup with black figureSj having for its 
subject Hercules strangling the Nemean lion.' 

An important and extensive manufacturer waa N'lco- 
sthenes^ probably one of the earliest makers of vases with 
black figures. He is known from a phiale with ornaments,* 
and cilices with the subjects of Dionysus, Hermes, and 
Hercules.' .iEneas," Theseus, and the Minotaur,' Acamas, 
and Demophon,^ athletic subjects.^ A Gorgouiura;*" a 
scene of ploughing;" a man running, having on one 
greave ; " and a satyr and youth, painted for him by 
Bpictetus ; '^ also from a CT/Iiar of black and white figures, 
having on it Ulysses and the Sirens.'* A cantharus of this 
potter with a dance of figures of fine style exists," and 
an cenochoc or jug, with Marsyas playing on the flute. '^ 
He made amphorie of peculiar shape with broad flat 
handles, which have for their subjects, combats, a boxing 
match," and another is ornamented with a Bacchanalian 
thiasos.'* Others have satyrs and mjenads, sphinxes, 
Achillea and Penthesilea, the adieu of the Dioscuri, youths 

1 CIbthd, CaL, 284-286 ; CuLCan. Tli 
Ouaptuu Cullectioa. 

> NEANAPoa EnOtEZEN, Cluac, 

p.1»6: Coll, CRD.,1816;CUnM3,.p, 2ST. 

> NIK02eENE2en0lE2EN,P(aiufka. 
*. 23 1 Ann.. 1831, 180, No. 727. 

' Ana., 1831, p. 178, No. 6B1 ; U. 
O. iL 17; iii-u. ; Visconli. Monum, 
Sepolohr. di Cera., taf. ii.; Hiuquis of 
Konbaropton, Obaervationa od a Greek 
*aHa ducovcred in Etrurii, Arobeeol. 
«i«iL,pl.lfl, pp. 225.262, 

* Puofkii,s.23, 2». 

•Mai. Etr. S6T ; Ann., 1831, Hi. 
N«. 71L 

r. 1616. 

t Kldw., 

' AuD., 1. c; MuB. E 
s Cot. Cnn., 217. 
' Mui. Etr., 273; Berl. i 

'0 CoU. d. Pr. Cfto., 238 ; Paaofka, e. 

" Gorbard, 
TA-axie de Berlin, pt. 

'" Cat. Dub., ie. 

» An. 1831, 18(1, i 

" Cut Dur., (18. 

" C«t, Dur. 

I" Cat. Dur., 147. 

If BLQ.,xiviL 

" Vh. <J«t, B. M., 


riding on Hippalectryons, warriors, old men, and youths, 
the supposed Eris, Zeus, and Heos, with friezes of animals.^ 
The most remarkable vase of this potter is one entirely 
black, with a female figure and a dog in opaque white, 
having lines cut through to the black background. He 
also made a crater^ differing from the usual shape, and 
ornamented with a frieze representing a gigantomachia.* 

The supposed name of Panthseos appears to be more 
correctly read Pamaphius, or Panphseus. 

Pamaphios, a potter, who flourished during the strong 
style of red figures, employed the artist Epictetus.^ He 
was a cup maker. His name has either been confounded 
with, or mistaken for that of P/ianphaios, which is itself 
supposed by some to be a dialectical variation of Pam- 
phaios. It occurs on a stamnos with red figures, 
representing Hercules and the Achelous, and Marsyas 
and Oreithyia.* 

The maker Panphieos has left his name on no fewer 
than seventeen cylices, and is by far the most common of 
all the makers. He belongs to the period of vases with 
red figures. The subjects on his productions are, a 
horse ; * Bacchanal scenes ; ^ warriors and Pegasi ;^ Sarpe- 
don borne off by Hypnos and Thanatos ;® the arming of 
Memnon ; Hermes, Nomips, and Maenads ; * a crowned 

' (Gerhard, Neuerw. Denk., 8. 18, * Panofka, s. 2, der VaaenbildDer 

1 59, 6 ; Campanari, p. 88 ; Gerhard, Pamphaos ; Gerhard, Berl. Ant. Bild. 

Trinsch., L 1, 2, 3 ; Panofka, iii. 11, s. 27, No. 1625. 

B. 24. * Panofka, taf. ii. ; taf. ilL ; CSat. 

s B. M., 560 ; BuU., 1843, p. 59. Dur. 17. 

> OAMA^IOS EOOIESEN. 7 Panofka, s. 4. 

^ Trans. R. Soc. Lit., N. Ser., vol. i., " ArohaBol., xxxiz., p. 139. 

1848, p. 100 ; G. A. V., oxv. ; Panofka, ' Be Witte, Desc. de Vases Peints. 

Namen, p. 153-241, taf. v. No. 17. 


youth ; ' a scene of a cotnos ; * a stamnos, with the contest 
of Hercules and the Achelous ;^ Hercules destroying 
Hippolyte, painted with black figures ;* a cj/lu; with a man 
crowned seated on a rock, and holding a pedum ;* Pelops, 
or Achilles, boiled in tlie cauldron ; ^ goats and great eyes ; ' 
athletic scenes;* sihydria, with black figures, with Dionysus 
and his crew;' and Hercules and tho other gods of 
Olympus ; '" and a cyli^, with the head of Medusa." There 
are also amphorce, with flat side handles like those of 
Nicosthenes, of this potter, one with tlie subjects of satyrs 
and mffiuada ; and another with that of Chiron and 
Achilles, Menelaos and Helen, found at Cervetri,'* Hia 
style is more developed, and rather later than that of the 
rigid school. There is some doubt whether hia name 
should not read Pantha^us,'^ 

The name which some read as Hilinus others consider 
to be more correctly PUlinos}* Pistosenos occurs as the 
name of a maker on a vase found at Csere,'^ 

Priapos 13 mentioned on a cup with black figurea, 
representing a lion running.'^ 

The name of Python is found on two vases, so different 

' iDghin 

, Mue. Cliina., t 

' Miu. Etr. du Pr. do Caniiio, 1110. 
' Trani. Roy. Soc. Lit,, lol. i,, p. 
100; Q. A. v., CIV. 

* Mill. Greg,, ii. livL 

* Uaa.Ktr„1513. 

' Dubois, Katies des Vsees rmerv^s, 
p. 104. 

' fireun. Bull. 1842. p. 167 ; Wolcker. 
Bhein. Hiu., ISIT, b. S9d. 

■ Mua. Greg. ii. liii. «. 

* DeWitle, Cat, Dur., No, 01 ; Brit. 
H<w. Cit., p. 43, No. 447*. 

'" Db Witta, Cab, Beugnot, 37. 
11 Micali, Storia, 11)2.1 ; Brauu. Bull,, 
1S44, p, 101. 
" Collection of M. Canipiuia st 

" Clorao. Cat., 164-5 ; PaQOfkn, 1, 0. 

" Creuzer. Etn alt, Atliauisclie Gefut, 
niLINOl EnOIESEN, Lsipzig, lB32,a. 
eS, SS : Dsutacli. SuhnTt, Bd. iii n. 1, 
a. 0. u. ff. 



panitri, lotomo i vaei. p. 92. J 

B. 31. Cat. Due. 882. J 



in style and eflFort, that there were probably two masters 
of that name. One employed the artist Epictetus * who 
painted for him in the strong style, a hydria of red figiures, 
representing the death of Busiris, and an entertainment ; 
the other made a vase of red figures, of the shape called 
lekanioriy at the time of the decadence.* 

Simon, of Elea, the supposed maker of a hydriay 
with black figures, having for its subject the chariot of 
Athene and the gigantomachia,' rests on very uncertain 

The name of Smicyliim^ a potter, and probably a vase- 
maker, occurs on an Athenian stele, and that of Socles on 
a plate found at Chiusi.^ Sosias was the maker of a cup 
with red figures, representing Hermes bringing the ram 
to heaven, and the healing of Patroclus.^ The name of 
Statius appears on a cantharus or carchesion, of plain 
black ware of late style, inscribed, " the work of Statius, 
a gift to Cleostratus/' ^ 

Probably one of the earliest makers was Taleides, 
known from an amphora with a scene of weighing ; ® 
a hydria, with Hercules and the Uon ;^ a cylix, with a swan 
in the same style of art ;'° and an omochoe, with Dionysos 

» nveON EnOIESEN. Ann. 1831, 
180, n. 726; Panofka, s. 86; Micali, 
Mon. Antich., zc. 1. 

'Clarao, Cat, p. 296; Millingen, 
Nouv. Ann. i., p. 495. 

NOV. Cat Can., 103. 

* Arch. Zeit, 1850, 226. 2MIKVAION 

* Bull., 1851, p. 171. 

* Mon., L ; pi. xxiii. — xxiv. ; Panofka, 
p. 38, taf., ill 6. 

7 Gerhard, Arch. Zeit, 1847, s. 190 ; 
B. A. N., iv. p. 104. An incised in- 
scription of doubtful authenticity. 

" TAAEIAE2 EUOIE^N, Millin. V. 
Peints, ii. pL 61; Gal. Myth., cxxi. 
490 ; Panofka, s. 7 ; G. A. V., ii s. 118. 
The subject perhaps referring to Tan- 

' Campana Collection. 
10 Gerhard, B. A. B., No. 685. 


and a flute-plajer." The name of the youths, Clitarchus 
and Callias, are found on his vases,' and be employed the 
artist Takouides, or Sakoiiides.^ 

Theoxetos is kuowii only from a cylix with black figures, 
representing a goatherd.* Thypheitkeides, from a cup 
with red figures, on which are represented a deer 
running, and large eyes.' 

Thnagoras is known by a hydria, painted with black 
figures, representing Theseus killing the Minotaur, and 
Hercules contending with Nereus. It is of the usual hard 
but not recherche style of Execias.* 

Tlenpolemos, another potter, manufactured vases with 
black figures. Only two of his work ' are known. He 
employed as his artist, Takonides.^ His productions 
have been chiefly found at Vulci. A maker, whose works 
are more often found is 2'leson, son of Nearchus, 
probably a Corinthian potter, as a cyliie of his fabric has 
been discovered in that city.^ He was a maker of cylices, 
or cups, and many of his works are indecent.'" His 
figures, which are black, are generally finely drawn, clear 
in colour, and of general excellence, but of small size. 
The most remarkable of his subjects is Orion carrying a 

' Bull, 18«,p.52. 

> The BilTer inw of Taleides, w 
tbe auaeClitarchusifl incredible. Bu 
IMS, p. 13. 

* OBri.»rd, lUpp. Vole. 180, 729., 

884 ; Panofko, a. 3*. 

Dur., 383 ; Via. Cut. Brit. Uui., p. S09. 
Ko. 86* ; Pulo^k^ h. 35. 



p. 172; p. ITS: No. 861, No. 8SB. 
' Gerhard. Keuorworb Vaaen, No. 
15B7; MuB. Etr., HS, [6612]; TAEN- 

' Bui!, 1849, p. 7*; TAE30N HO 
NEAFXO En0IE2EN ; Panofka, B. Si. 

'" B.M. C«t., p, 188, Ni>. fl82;CUnic, 
p.3(l3; Dub. Cat Can., 262; M. De 

Csmpana Witte. Coll. d, V. Ant de lo 
fouillea fut«B en £tru ~ 

, Puis, 

i^Qnrhard, Add. 1831, lS43,p. Tl,Na,lS2; Uiu.Etr.,lU0,tii«. 



fox and hare.* Others are a centaur,* an ape,' and two 
cocks.* The supposed name of Tychon on the cylix found 
at Hadria, is probably due to a learned blunder.^ Tychios 
made a cyKx found at Corneto,* also one now at BerUn,^ 
and a plain cup, and Apollo playing on the lyre.® His 
name is also found on a plain ct/luv. Xenodes, another 
maker of the oldest school, is known from a cylix of the 
most archaic treatment, with the subject of the Judg- 
ment of Paris,* and other cylices, with the departure 
of Poseidon ; ^^ the search for Poseidon, and a swan with 
sirens." The name otXenophantos, of Athens, which is not 
found amongst those of the makers of the cups at Vulci or in 
Greece, has been discovered at Kertch, or Panticapaeum, 
one of the utmost Umits where yases have been discovered, 
on one of coarse work with red figures.*^ 

An attempt has been made to connect the choice of 
subjects upon vases with the names of the potters or artists, 
but the connection, if it exists at all, is too vague to 
assist the interpretation of the subjects. It is possible, that 
such secret allusions may have been occasionally intended ; 
but there has arisen no shght difficulty to decide the real 
names of many of the artists which occur on the vases." 

1 Cat. Dur., 260. 
» Annali, 1881, p. 178, 694. 
» Cat. Dub., 262; Cat Vaa., B. M., p. 
189, no. 682. 

* Mus. Etr., 15, bifl. ; Cat. Dub. 71. 

TO AHAA; R.Rochette, Ail., 1834, p. 194. 

« Gerhard, Ann., 1881, 178, n. 701 ; 
Neuerworb. Vaa., 1664. TVXI02 EOOI- 

' Gerhard, Neuerb. Vaa. 1664. 

* A. Z., 1868, 402 ; TVXI02 EOOIEJEN. 
' Lenonnant and DeWitte, £lite, zziv. 

p. 2, 47; Mus. Blao. xix. K2ENOKAE2 

^° Gerhard, Aua. Vas. i x. 

" Gerhard,Zuwach8., 8. 26,1662; Brit 
Mus. ; Panofka, a. 40. 

Bull, 1841, p. 109-113; Ouvarof^ Ant 
d. Boaph. Cim. iii., pi. xIyL 

^' See Raoul Rochette, Lettre k 
M Schom., L c.; and Questions de 
I'histoire de Tart, Syo, Paris, 1846 ; 
Clarac. Manuel, 1. c. ; Panofka, Vasen- 
bildner, &o. 


From tlio potters, it is now necessary to turn to the 
consideratioa of the vase painters, many of whose names 
have been discovered ou vases, although none are known 
from the writings of the ancients. The passage of Aris- 
tophanes,' about these persons, the interpretation of which 
is doubtful, in which " the fellow who paints lecj/thi for 
the dead," is spoken of in terms of contempt, does not 
throw much light upon the condition of the painters. Nor 
is much more afforded by the vases themselves. The 
names of some, indeed, such as Polygnotus, Nicosthenes, 
and Hogiaa, correspond with those of artists of known 
fame ; but it is impossible that such persons should have 
practised an art held in such inferior estimation,' and if 
the celebrated Zeusis painted terra-cottas, it must be 
understood, that he first modelled and then drew his 
designs, not that he was engaged as a colourist of plastic 

On many vases the name of the artist appears along 
with that of the potter, of course to enhance the value 
of the production, as celebrated artists were sought after, 
both in the home and foreign market. On otliers, the 
name of the artist alone occurs, probably because the 
pottery was newly founded, and the proprietor, to esta- 
blish a reputation, employed the services of known artists. 
Some potters, such as Amasis and Euphronios, painted 
as well as made vases, which is natural enough, as the 
two arts were so nearly blended. It cannot be supposed 

I EooIbi., 991 ; Kramer Debar dis It to the deoontioD of gnvei. 
Harkunft, >. 20. Tba gcholiut Mfera ' P^Si '^^"- ''>> *3i Ktunar, L o. 


that the great artists of antiquity occupied themselves 
even in furnishing designs for works of this nature ; if it 
could, a sketch with the name of Polygnotus might be 
recognised as a production of that celebrated master. 
The names of artists follow the law which governs the 
other inscriptions. There are none on the oldest vases, 
and few on those of archaic style. They commence about 
the most flourishing period of the strong style, and 
continue till the florid style — ^gradually becoming rarer. 
One of the oldest painters is JEniades, whose name is 
inscribed on a ci/lia? found at Vulci,^ and now in the 
Berlin Museum. Like all the vase painters, he uses the 
aoristic form EFPA^EN, " painted," the affected imperfect 
not having been used by more than five painters. The 
name of Alsimos is now read on the celebrated vase found 
at Canosa in the Louvre, made during the decadence of the 
art, but excellent in its style, on which is represented the 
death of Astyanax.* AmasiSy a maker of vases with black 
figures of the most early and rigid style, much resembUng 
that of the iEginetan school, painted an olpe with the 
subject of Perseus killing Medusa,' and one of rather 
freer treatment.* 

The name oi Aristophanes^ better known as that of the 
comic poet than as the appellation of an artist, occurs on 
a cup with black figures representing a gigantomachia. 

» AINIAAE2 ErPA(«EN), Cat Dur., 1849, 80, 248 ; Panofka, 8. 87. 

1002 ; Gerhard, Neuerw. Denkm., 1663. ' AMA2I2 ErPA«2E KAI EOOIESEN 

3 AA2IM02 ErPAYE, Millin., Vases Cat Dub., 62; Campanari intron i yaai, 

Ant., i, p. 60 ; iL, p. 37 ; Visconti, p. 87 — 89. 

Opera. Var., iv. p. 258 ; Winckelman, « AMA2I2 ErPAYEN KAI EOOIESEN 
Hon. In., 143. This name has been . EME, Campanari, p. 88 ; Brit Mus. no. 

read Liaaimos or .^simos. Clarac, 641*. 
Catalogue dee Artistes, 16mo, Paris 


He worked for the potter Erginos." The name of Asteas 
occurs on a vase of the style of the decadence, as a painter 
of a subject representing the Garden of the Hesperidea.' 
An artist, whose name some read aa BiyUits, and others 
erroneously as Brya.vis, painted cups with red figures of 
the strong style,^ on which are the Judgment of Paris, 
Peleus and Thetis, scenes in a palace. The artist CUtias 
painted the celebrated Francois yase now at Florence, 
ornamented with black figures, and containing a complete 
Epos of subjects* connected with the history of Achilles. 

It is possible that Cholchos painted for the potter 
Euxitheos the cylix with the subject of Patroclus, in 
red figures of the strong stylo. He was, perhaps, a 
Corinthian.^ The name of the artist Doris is only found 
upon cups with red figures in a fine grandiose style of the 
beat period of the art, representing Diouysos and his 
crew ;* or the exploits of Theseus,^ Peleus and Thetis, 
the Paltestra and amatory scenes.^ 

Of the painters of the early rases with red figures, Epic- 
tetos is the most distinguished. His productions are more 
elegant than those of Doris, and the* esteem in which he 

1 APIZrO*ANES ErPA«E, Gerharcl, 
Trinluchnle und Orfisao, il ; Clarac, 
Cftt, p, 310 c ; Latronne, EipUc, p. 
28 ; Bull, ISae. p. S2, 53. 

' AZXTEAS EFPATE, MQlingen, Ana 
Unod. Men. i., p. 07, pi. 27; I'aiat 
d. Vwea Qrec, pi. 16 ; Onl., Mjlh, 
CWT,, iU : Piinofka, h. S7 ; ErPA*E 
Bueckh. Carp. Insor. Grec. i.. p. *2 r 
CUnc. Cat., .13; Panofka, e. 36. 

» BPTLOl EfPA+JEN. GBrhard, An- 
n»li. 1831. p. 17B, No. 701* . Cimipnn«ri, 
p. 88 : Clitrnc, p. 84 ; Campuuk Cull. 

' KAnlAX ErPAtSEN. Bcauo, An. 

1348,299; Man. iv.. liv.-lU. 

» [XJOAXOZ E[PA*]3EN, Hub. Etr., 
liaO; VawB tiu Vr. de Cmiino, PI. 5; 
OerhanI, Ann. 1831.. p. ISO, u. 729; 


, p. 88; ho c 

vmieB HI a potter, tbe Q fur tbe X. 

« Cat. Can., aerb«rd, Ann. III., p. 
179, D. 713 ; AOFIZ ErPA*EN. 

7 Cuupina CatlectioD. 

■ CUrac, CuL ArL, p. 09 ; Gerhard, 
Au». Tts., cratiiiv.; Csmpanari, p. 87; 
MuB. Etr., p. 10fl,no. 1181 ; R Rochotte, 
Lottre h M. Schom., p. 3 ; Cat. Yw., 
Brit. Hiu., p.272,llo. S21. 



was held is shown by the number of potters for whom he 
worked. He principally painted cylices, with the subjects 
of Athene,* Silenus, and a wine-skin,' the Bacchic thiasos,* 
Theseus and the Minotaur,* and erotic figures. 

He also painted pinaces, or plates, with the subjects of 
Marsyas,® an Amazon,* athletes,^ Ganymedes,® indecencies,^ 
Dionysos holding a cantharos,'® and a warrior." For the 
potter Hischylus he painted a cup, the subject of which is 
Hercules and the Centaurs ;" another with a Satyr ;" 
one with the subject of Busiris for the potter Python ; ** for 
the potter Nicosthenes, a cup with a Satyr.** Other cups 
have women ;** and a youth holding vases.*^ He also 
worked*® for Euxitheos. One of his cups has red figures 
on the outside, and black within.*® He also painted a 
pelike with the subject of a marriage.^ The name of the 
painter, EuonymoSy has been found on a vase with red 
figures, and of late style, discovered at Hadria." The potter 

^ Ghrhard, TrinkBchaleD|und GeflLsse, 
xiii.; EmKTETOS ErPA5*EN; Ger- 
hard, Rapp. Vole. Ann. III., p. 179. 
From his writing rypao-^cv jnstead of 
typa^ty, it is probable that Epictetos 
was an Aeolian potter. 4irtt9^ hrXatrft 
Briaaif ol AioXcZr Kork r^y irpo^ophf rh 
ivfhs cZvyhs ypd^vTfS niu rh ^i^s 
ckI^s rh \^i\toy ffx^Xioy. Cramer. Anecd. 
Grec. iv. p. 826. 

« Cat Dur., 133. 

' Vas Cat., Brit. Mus., p. 279, no. 

* Cat. Can., 58 ; Vase, Cat, Brit. 
Mas., p. 279, no. 828. 

« Cat Can., 68. 
« Cat Can., 117. 
7 Cat Can. 176, 178. 

• Cat Can., 177. 
9 Cat Can. 16. 

» Bull, 1846, p. 77. 

" Cat Can., 189. 

^ Cat Can., 178. 

" Cat Vas., B. M., p. 260, no. 814. 

" Gerhard, Ann. 1881, 162, n. 646; 
Cat Can., 12 Cent, no. 8 ; Vas. Cat, 
B. M., p. 271, no. 823; Micali, Storia, 
Tav., xc 1; Panofka, Taf. iii. 4. 

" Gerhard, Ann. 1881, p. 180, T27 ; 
Clarac, Cat, 108, 240 m.; Cat Dub., 

w Cat Can. 124. 

>7 Panofka, Cab. Pourtal^, PI. 41. 

» Gerhard, Ann., 1881, p. 180, 729. 

*» Gerhard, Neuerworb. Vasen., 1606 ; 
ColL Feoli, p. 113, No. 68. 

^ Gerhard, Neuerw. Denk., s. 81, no. 

2* Lanzi, Giornali d. Lett. ItaL zx. p. 
180 ; R. Rochette, Lettre p. 8 ; Welcker 
Kunstblatt, 1827, o. k. d. 


Euphronios also painted vases, as appears from the cup 
of Troilos, and females reposing.' Euthymides, another 
painter, whose name is found upon amphorae, with figures 
having for their subjects Hector arming,' and Paris,' 
was the contemporary of Euphronios, of whom he was 
jealous, since, upon one vase he has written, " Euphronios 
never did so well ;"* on the kt/dria with the subject of 
Paris is the name of the youthful Sostratus.* 

The potter Exedas also exercised the painter's art, and 
ranks, perhaps, as the beat known artist of vases with 
black figures. The most celebrated of his efforts are the 
amphora) found at Vulci, and now in the Vatican, repre- 
presenting Achilles and Ajax playing at dice before Troy,^ 
and the departure of Castor:' also one in the British 
Museum with the subject of Dionysos teaching (Enopion 
the art of making wine,* and the death of Penthesilea. 
His style, though rigid, is exceedingly elegant and finished 
in details, so as to become almost florid. The name of 
Onetorides, a youth, is mentioned on his vase. 

The name of Hermonax is known from an amphora, 
with red figures of the hard school representing a comos? 

The name of the painter Heqias is found upon a 
lecythus, with black figures, discovered in the sepulchres of 

' Cf- ET»P0N10E ErPA42EN. Civt. 
C>d.,8T,ilG68: Oer1iiird,ADii.]S31,no. 
*0S, S2t ; P.BotU T»f. iv. 3,p, 10, 11. 

'Mil*. Etr., ISSe; Oerhkrd, Ann. 
1831, p. ITS, no. 698; EveVMIAE3 
BO nOAIO ErPA*ZEN. PuDofka, a. 3 i 
Welcker. A- Litt. Zait.. 1830, L 626. 

> Oarhard, I. c, Rochstte, Bull. F^r- 
nim^ISSl, lfi3; Cat, Can., U«. 

* H02 OV4EnOT EV*pON102, Bull, 
1830, p. HO, H3; O. A. V., oUiTiii. ; 
S8 ; Rochette, Lettre & 

M. ScUoni., 8 ; Bull. Fi5r., 1831. p. 153. 

» Dubois, Notice d'uDe Coll. d. Vmbb 
du Pr. da C&niuo, no. 41 ; De Witte, 
Cut. du Pr. de Ciniao, 71. 


!■ M. Q. II„ IJiL 1 B. 

• CJerhnrd, Ann., 1833, p. 179, no. 
706* ; Cat Dur, 380 ; O. A.. V. covL 


pui* Colleotion. 



jEgina, and of the usual unfinished style of that island.^ 
That of the painter Hypsis occurs on some hydruB, with 
red figures, representing the arming of the Amazons, 
a race of boys on horseback, and a quadriga.^ 

A painter of the name of Onesimos^ decorated some 
vases with black figures for the potter Euphronios. In 
connection with the potter Hischylus, already mentioned, 
Pheidippus painted a cup of red and black figures in a 
style not remarkably fine, with subjects of youths and 
athletes.* Philtias, another painter of the fine style of 
red figures, worked for the potter Deiniades, for whom he 
painted scenes o^ hydriophorce, or water drawing.* 

Phrynos is known from a cup with black figures, on 
which is the bird of Athene, and a scene supposed to 
represent her reconciliation with Poseidon.^ Pothinos 
painted a cylis of black figures, the subject of which is 
Peleus and Thetis.^ 

Prcunas, another artist's name, is found on a small vase 
with red figures, representing Achilles delivered by Peleus 
into the charge of Chiron.® 

Polygnotos^ is known as a painter of vases with red 
figures, which are rather careless in their treatment, of 

» Stackelberg, Die Graeber, PI. 26— 
p. 21, 22; EFIAJErPA. 

« HV*2« ErPA*2EN, Gerhard, Ann. 
1831, 178, no. 697 ; Bull., 1829, p. 109 ; 
Clarac, Cat., 133 ; G. A. V., ciii ; Cam- 
panari. p. 88. 

s ONE2IM02 ErPA«2E, Cat Dub., 
87 ter. ; Clarac, Cat, 161 ; Mus. Etr., 
1611 ; Gerhard, Ann. 1831, p. 180, n. 
Campanari, p. 88. 

< Gerhard, Ann. 1831, p. 180, n. 718, 
722; Campanari, p. 88; «EIAin02 
ErPA«E, Cat Vaa., Brit. Mus., p. 295, 
no. 841. 

* Can. Ist Cent., n. 18, 74 ; Gerhard, 
Ann. 1831. p. 178, no. 719, 728 ; [♦lA] 
TIA2 ErPA*2EN, or rather [KPjITIAl ; 
Birch, Class. Mus., 1848, p. 99, 102. 

« ♦PTNO J ETPA*2EN, Cat. Dur. no. 21. 

7 UEieiNOS ErPA«2EN, Gerhard, 
Berl. Ant Bild., no. 1005; Panofka, b. 
5; Taf. I., 2; Gerhard, Trinksohalen, 
Taf. xiii — ^xiv. xv. 

B Panofka, s. 30 ; Hub. Etr., 1500, p. 
135 : Raoul Rochette,p. 57; HFAXIAJ- 

» noATrNnxos ErPAVEN. Cat 

Dur. 362 : Rochette, p. 66. • 


the commencemeut of the style and time of the Decadence. 
His name appears on a vase on which is represented the 
death of Cieneus.' and an amphora, on which is the 
sacrifice of a bull.' It is written in an indistinct, blotted 
manner, very different from that in which the names of 
the other artists are inscribed. Priapos, who has been 
recorded in the list of vase artists,^ is probably the same as 
the potter. 

An Athenian painter, named Psiaa;* who worked for 
the potter Ililinus, or Philimis, baa inscribed his name 
upon a lecythus, ornamented with black figures, repre- 
senting a Bacchanalian subject. Tlie artist Python is 
known from a crater with red figures, on which is depicted 
the apotheosis of Alcmena. llis style is remarkably 
carefiil, but somewhat rigid.' Taconides, or, as some 
persons read his name, Saconides, painted vases, with 
black figures, for the potters Tlenpolemos* and Hischylus;' 
Xenodoros and Zeturiades close the list.^ 

' C&t Dur., 862 ; Bochette, p. 66. 

' Vm. CbI., Brit. MuB. p. 220, no. 

' CampBiiiiri. p, S8, 

■ *SiAX3 ErPA*2EN. CreuMT, Ein 
alt Btbenuclio Gufasa, Leipz. uni) 
Durolt., 1832; Deutsch. Sclirift, Bd. 
in., no. 1, a. 6, a. IT. Panafka, s. 14— 

17; Taf. ill 9. 10. 

> UiUingen, NoDV. An., L 49S. 

' Ann, 1831, p. 178, no. 893, p, 180, 
no. 720; Clonic, p. 301 ; CMnpannri, p. 

' PanoTka. b. 30. 

"Bullet. FOru-sao, 1831, p. 168; 
CLarao. p. 223. 



Uses of Vases — Domestic use — Vases for liquids— For the Table — for the Toilet 
— Toys — Decorative Vases — Prizes— Marriage Gifts — Millingen's division of 
Sepulchral Vases — Grecian usage — Names and shapes of Vases — The Pithos 
— Pithacne — Stamnos — Hyrche — Lagynos — Ascos — Amphoreus — Police — 
Cados — Hydria— Calpis — Crossos — Cothon — Rhyton — Bessa — Bombylios 
— Lecy thus — 01 pe — Alabastron — Crater — Oxybaphon — Hy pocraterion — 
Gelebe — Psycter — Dinos — Chytra — Thermanter — Thermopotis — Tripous 
— Holmos — Chytropous — Lasanon — Chous — CEnochoe — Prochoos — Epi- 
chysis — Arutaina — Aryballos — ArystichoR, ary ter, arytis, Ac. — Oenerysis— 
Etnerysis — Zomerysis — Hemicotylion — Cotyliskos — Cyathos — Louterion — 
Asaminthoe — Puelos — Scaphe — Scapheion — Exaleiptron — Lecane — Leoa- 
nis — Lecaniskos — Podanipter — Cheironiptron — Holcion — Peirrhanterion 
^Ardanion, or Ardalion — Excellence of the Greek cups — The Depas — Alei- 
son — Cissybion — Cypellon — Cymbion— Scyphos onychionos — Ooscyphlon 
— Bromias — Cantharos — Carchcsion — Cylix — Thericleios — Hedypotis— 
Rhodiake — Antigonis — Seleucis — ^Phiale — Phiale Lepaste — Acatos — Trie- 
res — Canoun — Pinax — Phthois — Petachnon — Labronia — Gyalas — Keraa 
—Vases for Food — Canoun — Pinax — Discos — Lecanis — Paropsis — Oxia — 
Embaphion — Erous— Cypselie — Cyminodokos — Try blion— Oxybaphon. 

As all the vases hitherto known have been discovered 
in sepulchres, it would, at first sight, appear that their 
destination was for the dead ; but this seems to have 
been a subsequent use of them, and many, if not all, 
were employed for the purposes of life. The celebrated 
Panathenaic vase, for example, discovered by Mr. Burgon, 
at Athens, had been bestowed as a prize upon the 
illustrious person to whose ashes it was afterwards appro- 
priated. Many other instances might be cited. 

D'Hancarville supposes that the large vases were dedi- 
cated to the gods in the various shrines of Greece and 


Home, as by the Metapontines in their Naos at Oljmpia, 
and by the Byzatitians in the chaj)el of Hera. Vases of 
large size, painted carefully with a principal figure on one 
side, and having on the other figures carelessly drawn, as 
if intended to be placed against a wall, he considers 
peculiarly adapted for such uses, as the rooms of Roman 
villas were far too small to hold them.' 

As the civil and domestic use of vases is the most 
important, it is necessary to consider it first. It is 
indicated by their style and shape. The painted ware 
was not employed for the viler purposes, nor to contain 
large quantities of liquids, for wliich it was far too 
expensive, but chiefly for entertainments and the triclinia 
of the wealthy. The exceedingly porous nature of these 
vases, and the difficulty of cleaning them internally, have 
led some writers to assert that they were ornamental. 
They are, however, seen in use in scenes painted on the 
vases themselves,^ Thus, in the scene of the Harpies 
plundering the table of the blind Pbineus, a painted 
scyphos with figures is seen in the hands of the aged king ; 
a female in a farewell scene pours a libation of wine 
out of an amphora with black figures, and another 
ornamented with painted figures is seen upon the top of a 

These vases were used for liquids. The hydria, or 
■water-vases, went to the well, and the various kinds of 
amphora; served for carrying wine about at entcrtaiumeuts. 
Those called craters were used to mix wine, and the 
psycler, or cooler, to prepare it for drinking. In jugs 
called (F-nockoa- and olpcs, also of painted ware, wine 

' D'BoneatvUle. II. OS, 82. ■ logliiraini, Vhi Fittilil, Tnf. 

le was J 



drawn from the craters, which was then poured into 
various painted cups, as the scyphos, the cyluTy the 
cantharuSy and the rhytay horns or beakers, which were 
the most common. A kind of cup, called the cyathis^ 
also of painted ware, was likewise used. The cup called 
phiale was employed in religious rites. 

The vases used upon the table were the pincuc, or plate, 
a vase supposed to be the kcane, or tureen, and certain 
dishes called trybliay generally of ruder material and ma- 
nufacture than the others. One of the most remarkable 
of these vases is the cirnos. 

For the service of the toilet were the pyaiSy the cylichney 
the tripodiskos, the alabofitrony the lecythuSy and the 

Vases were also used as toys. This class is compara- 
tively small, but its existence is proved by the discovery of 
several little vases in the sepulchres of children at Athens, 
on which are depicted children playing at various games ; 
whilst others are so extremely small that they could not 
possibly have answered any useful purpose. Among them 
may be cited those in the shape of animals, as apes, 
elephants, stags, and hogs ; imitations of crab's claws and 
of the astragalus, or knuckle-bone ; and other vessels, con- 
taining brazen balls, which produced a rattling soimd when 

There can be no doubt that many of the vases, espe- 
cially those of later style, were used for decorative pur- 
poses, although the employment of them is not expressly 
mentioned in ancient authors. It is, however, partly 
evident, from the fact of one side only being executed with 
care, whilst the other has been neglected, both in the 


■awing and in the subject. On the later vases, too, are 
depicted vases of large proportions, resting upou colmiiiiar 
stands in interiors. 

One of the noblest uses to which terra-cotta vases were 
applied was as prizes given to the victors in the public 
games. These prizes, called Athla, besides the honoiary 
crowns, armour, and tripods, and other vahiable objects, 
were occasionally fictile vases, and even coins.' Certain 
vases bearing the inscription " From Athens," or " Prizes 
from Athens," seem to have been given to the victors in 
the pentathla or courses of athletic e-xercises in the Paiia- 
thenaia, and are mentioned by Pindar. Some of the vases, 
which are principally in the old style, are of two sizes, — 
the greater given for the athletic and the lesser fur 
musical contests. It is also possible that some of the 
uninscribed vases of similar designs and shapes may have 
been distributed as rewards in local games. Some of the 
vases also on which the name of a youth, accompanied 
with the word KdAov, occurs, may have been given as prizes 
in the training schools of athletes. 

It has been supposed that certain vases were 
intended for presentation as marriage gifts. But the 
information to be obtained from classical authors on 
this point is by no means clear ; and no satisfactory 
conclusion can be drawn from the circumstance that 
some of the subjects depicted on them appear to allude 
to toarriages. 

Millingen divides the vases used for sepulchral purposes 
into the following classes ; — 

■ Brondrted, on Pauatlisa 
183i, foL ii. p. 1U3. 

: Vases, in the Tnuu. K. S. Literature, 4 U), 



1. Those contaimng milk, oil, and perfumes, which were poured 
upon the corpse.^ 

2. Yases placed at the door of the sepulchre, to hold the lustral 

3. Yases used at the funeral feast, of which the deceased was 
supposed to partake.' 

4. Yases valued bj the deceased,* or prizes which he had gained.* 

To these may be added, — 

5. Yases employed during the ceremonies in different operations, 
and subsequently broken and gathered up into the tomb. 

At the earliest period of Greece, vases were not employed 
to hold the ashes of the dead. Those, for example, of the 
oldest style found at Athens, and at Vulci, do not contain 
ashes. In the Etruscan cemeteries, the dead were not 
burnt, but laid at full length, with all their personal 
ornaments, their furniture, their arms, and their vases. 
Although in the heroic ages bodies were burnt, the remains 
are not stated to have been deposited in earthen vessels. 
Those of Patroclus^ were collected mto a golden dish, care- 
fully covered with a garment and layer of fat which was 
folded ; and those of Achilles were placed in the golden 
amphora '^ given by Dionysos to Thetis.® In the fictitious 
account of the death of Orestes, introduced into the 
Electra of Sophocles, the expression, " his fine form circled 

* Vases Grecs, p. II., n. 4; Homer, 
Iliad xxiii. 170. 

2 The ap^ayiov, Pollux, viiL 7 ; Euri- 
pid. Alcest. v. 100 ; Aristoph. Eccl. 

> Schol. ad Homer. Iliad zxiiL v. 

* Virgo, civia Corinthia, jam matura 
nuptiis, implicita morbo, decesait : post 
aepulturam ejua, quibua ea viva poculis 
deleotabatur, nuirix collecta et com- 

posita in calatho pertulit ad monu- 
meutum, et in summo ooUocavit : et uti 
ea permaDerent diutius sub dio, tegula 
texit. Vitruv. iv. c. L 

* Schol. ad ^schyl. Choeph. 96. 

< U. xxiii. 241-258. Sohol. ad eund. 
This was the ^oAi;, hrfyuov KoTkov 
covered 8(irAaict irjhV c^id iay^ Air^ 

7 xxiiL 1. 91. 

» Calaber. UI. 727. 


ifienwTOw brass " ' of a hi/dria, shows the use of the 
metallic vases. The custom prevailed amongst the Romans 
of employing fictile vases exclusively for religious rites, 
amongst which that of interment was included. Hence 
the use of the beautiful vases imported from Greece for 
funeral purposes, and after the due performance of liba- 
tions,^ the vases so employed were thrown away, and left 
broken in the corners of sopulchreB. Numerous specimens 
of vases thus used have been found, especially cenochoni 
and cT/lices. Other vases of considerable size, and which 
certainly had not been so employed, were deposited in 
tombs as the most acceptable offerings to the deceased, 
recalling to the mind of the shade the joy and glory of his 
life, the festivals that he had shared, the hotairaj with whom 
he had lived, the Lydian airs that he had heard,' and the 
games that he had seen or taken part in. Those vases 
were selected which were most appropriate for funeral 
purposes, or to contain the milk, oil, and wine, which 
were placed on the bier, with their necks inclined to the 
corpse, in order that the liquid should run over it while in 
the fire ; those used at the pmdeipnon, or last supper, in 
which the food of the deceased was placed at his side ; * 
and a vase, called the ardanion, which held the lustral 
water, placed at the door of a house where a death had 
taken place.' After the earhest or heroic ages, and during 
the period of the old vases with black figures, the Greeks 
appear to have used them for holding the ashes of the dead. 
A vase of the shape of the lebes, probably a crater, 
fomid near the Pira)us, which once held the ruby wine at 





festive triclinia, and which was decorated with drinking 
scenes, also held ashes. Of vases with red figures, one 
representing Theseus and the Amazonoraachia, discovered 
by Mr. Stoddart in Sicily, and the celebrated vase dis- 
covered carefully deposited inside another at Nola, and 
now in the Museo Borbonico, also held the ashes of the 
dead. At Athens it was the custom to place a fictile 
lecythiis on the breast of those interred entire, while the 
use of fictile canopi among the Etruscans shows that Greek 
vases must have been sometimes so used by them. In the 
celebrated vase representing the death of Archemoros, two 
persons are seen carrying two tables laden with vases to the 
tomb, while an cenochoe is placed under the funeral couch,* 


We shall now proceed to give some account of the 
names of ancient vases, and their supposed identification 
with the specimens which have been found. It is im- 
possible, however, to enter here into any critical disser- 
tation, or to attempt to reconcile the contending opinions 
of those critics who have written on the subject ; and 
the curious reader must be referred to the works of 
Panofka,^ Letronne,^ Gerhard,* Ussing,^ and Thiersch.® 

' Gerhard, U vaBO di Archemoros, 
iDghirami iv. cclzxi. 

3 Panofka, Recherclies sur les veri- 
tables Noma des Vases Greos, &o. fol. 
Paris, 1829. 

' LetroDDO, Observations sur les 
Noma des Vases Grecs & Toccasiou de 
rouvrage de M. Theodora Panofka. 
4to, Paris, 1833. Letronne, Suppl. 
aux Observatiousi Dec*. 1887, Jan. 1838. 

^ Gerhard, Rapporto Volcente ; Ber- 
lins antike Bildwerke, s. 138 — 342, 
u. f. nitime Rioerche sulle forme del 
Vaai Grec Ann. tom. viii. 1886, p. 147. 

& Ussing, De Nominibus yasorum 
GrsBcorum disputatio, 8yo, Haunuo, 

^ Thiersch, ueber die hellenischen 
bemalten Vasen, c. ii. s. 26. 


tat doubts obscuro the subject of the names of 
ancient vases, owing to the difference of time between the 
authors bj wliom they are mentioned, the difficulty of 
explaining types by words, the ambiguity of describing 
the shape of one vase by the name of another, and the 
difference of dialects in which the names are found. 

The names of vases used by Homer and the earlier 
poets cannot on any just principles of criticism be 
apphed to any but the oldest ones. Those of the second 
and later age must be sought for in the contemporaneous 
writers. The first source is the vases themselves, from 
which, however, only three examples can be gathered, 
namely, one from having the inscription ATONTSIOT A 
AAKTQOS, " the ko/thus of Dionysius," on a vase of that 
shape ; and fi-om another having Kli*I20*0NI02 H KT- 
AI5, "the cup of Cephisophon " ' and HMIKOTTAION in- 
cised on a two-handled cup. The nest source is, the 
names attached to vases in the paintings, among which 
the word HTAPIA^ occurs written over a broken three- 
handled pitcher. Another source is an examination of the 
names inscribed by potters on the feet of certain vases, 
as KVATEPE^, craters ; OSTBA'PA, ojj/iapha ; xrrPl(A), 
pots; KTAI[KE2], cwjy*; AHKfTGOl], crueU, &c. ; but the 
relation of the inscriptions to the forms is very doubtful.* 

The various scholia written at different ages, and often 
embodying fragments of lost books, Iiave occasional notices 
of vases. Those upon Aristophanes are the most im- 
portant in this respect. Heaychiua, Photius, the Etymo- 
logicum Magnum, Suidas, and others, Varro, Festus, 

'■' D-Hiiig. 1. 0. p. 8. Cf, Chapt. on In- 


Macrobius,and Isidorus of Seville, also contain notices of the 
shapes of vases. Among modern archsBologists, M. Fanof ka 
was the first to propose an identification of the shapes of 
the fictile vases foimd in the sepulchres of Greece and Italy, 
«.d .he duestion ha, been J„«sed by fl.e cri«o» .u4 
mentioned. In order not to ^mbarrass the subject with 
constant references and critical discussion we shall only 
mention those vases which are the most important, and the 
shape of which has been the most satisfactorily proved, 


With regard to their shapes, vases may be divided into — 

1 . Those in which liquids were preserved ; 

2. Those in which liquids were mixed or cooked ; 

3. Those by which Uquids were poured out and dis- 

4. Those for storing liquids and food till wanted for use. 


1. The chief vase of the first division is the pithos, or 
cask ; a very large jar with wide open mouth, and lips 
incUned outwards. It held figs, or wine, and was placed 
in the earth in the wine-cellar, propped up with reeds 
and earth. Its shape resembles that of a modern jar, 
and the few examples which remain are in the plain 
unglazed ware, or in the tall Etruscan vases of red ware, 
with subjects in relief.^ The pithacne, was a vase smaller 
than the pithos. In such vases the Athenians are supposed 
by some to have lived during the war of the Peloponnese, if 

^ Uanng, p. 82 ; Panofka, Reoherches, i 1 ; ii. 2. 

HTB03 AND LAQYN03. 76 

indeed the word does not refer to caverns. The pUkacne 
appears, from allusions in the Comic poets, to have been 
used for holding wine at festivals. It was of baked earth.' 
Its shape is unknown. 

The stamnos was a vase used to hold wine and oil. 
It was a jar with two small ear- ,— -, 

shaped handles, and decorated 
■with red figures upon a black 
ground." It is often found in the 
sepulchres of Northern and South- 
em Italy. A good reason for 
believing that this is the eliape 
of the stamnos, is, that vases of 
this figure are still called stamnot in Greece.^ Those with 
smaller bellies are the cheroulia. 

The bicm was a vase with handles, like the stamnos, 
which held figs and wine.* 

The name of Apulian stamnos has been apphed to a 
vase with double upright handles, chiefly of the later 
style, with red figures, and having a vaulted cove^, which is 
sometimes surmounted by a second vase, of the shape 
called the Icpaste. They are among the latest efforts of 
the fictile art, and are only found in Southern Italy. 

The hyrche was apparently a kind of amphora with a 
narrow neck, in which many things were imported from 
Athens, and which served to hold the tickets used in 
drawing lots.* It seems to have been a large kind of vase. 

The lagynos was also a vase of considerable size, which 

> nuing.p.33; Fnnofka.Raoh. ill 2. 

> Qarbard.BerlinsAtit. Bild.a.S£i6:UB. 
aingip. 8G ; OetUcd, Ulb lUoh, ua. Id. 

' Uwiog, p. 3G ; PUjofka, liL 20. 


among the Patrenses held twelve heminsB. Nicostratus 
mentions one three times greater than usual ; and Lyn- 
ceus of Samos introduced the custom of placing one 
beside each guest. At a later period, it appears to have 
had a long narrow neck.^ It is the bottle which, in the 
Fables of -^sop, the stork is represented as setting before 
the fox at dinner. 

Many terra-cotta vases are imitations of the ascds, or 
wine-skin, which was usually made of the skin of a goat, 
the apertures of the legs being sewed up, and the neck, 
which formed the mouth, secured with a thong. In the 
terra-cotta imitations the mouth is open, and the four 
feet below, while a handle passes over the body to the 

neck. Certain small vases with one handle 
and about a foot long, when of unglazed ware, 
are supposed to represent ascot. The first 
shape is often decorated with figures of 
animals or men in red colour, and occa- 
sionally also the second ; while the third 
is decorated at the upper part with a medallion in relief, 
and has the body reeded. These are supposed to have 
been lamps, or else designed for holding oil.^ 

Perhaps of all the ancient vases the amphoreus, am- 
phiphoreuSy or amphora is the best known. It consists of 
an oval or pyriform body, with a cylindrical neck, and 
two handles, from which it derives its name, viz., from 
i/x<^t <^cpa), " to carry about." Those deposited in cellars 
generally had their bases extremely pointed, and were 

lUssing, p. 36; Panofka, y. 100; 684; 1837, p. 749; Gerhard, UltRicerch. 

Athezi{ouB» XL 499. Ann. 1836 ; n. 40-41 ; BerL Ant BilcL, b. 

s Uasing, p. 37, 38 ; Panofka, iL 43; 866, 6, 40, 41. 
vi lO; Letronne, Jour. d. Sav. 1833, p. 



fixed into the cartli.' They were of great size, and 
contained largo quantities of wine, honey, oil, sand," 
eatables, aud coin. Originally the amphora seems to 
have been a liquid measure, holding eight congii. It was 
always fictile, but its shape varied. The painted amphorse 
were generally provided with flat circular feet. They are 
divided into several kinds : 1. The amphora," called 
Egyptian, the body of -winch is long and rather elegant, 
the handles Bmall, and the foot tapering. 2. The 
panathenaic* amphora {V^-opeus ffamfltra'tKoy), resembling 
the former in shape, except that the mouth is smaller and 
nan'ower, and tlie general form thinner. They much 
resemble those represented ou the coins of Athena. 
There are some varieties of this type without the usual 
representations of Pallas Athene and athletic subjects. 
The most remarkable of them is that discovered by Mr. 
Burgon.* 3. The amphora called Tyrrhenian dififers 
only in its general proportion from the two preceding 
kinds, the body being thicker and the mouth wider. Tlie 
Buhjecta on tliese vases are arranged as in the panathenaic 
ones, in a kiud of square picture at each side. The neck 
is sometimes ornamented with the double helix or chain, 
and the foot has the petals. Under the handles is 
sometimes an antefixal ornament. Many of these vases 
are decorated with figui'es of the usual style in black 

' nsaing, p. 3S ; Oerhu'ii, Berlins 
AuUks BildwerkB, i. 345. 

> Cicero, in Verrem. ii. 71, 183; 
Homer, a xxiiL 170; Martial, liij. 1(13; 
Homn-iOdTHS. ii. SOO, 346, 379 ; ii. 104. 

1^31, S29; PsDofJuip. 16 ; Muti. i. izi. 

* MilliDgen, Anc. Un. Hon., PI. L ii. 
iii. p. 1 and foil. Aooording to ths 
SchuIiBBt of Plato (Chonniilea, cd. 
Hekfcer, fivo, Loud. 1S24, p. 17, D. 
ISA) Ibe ctinteatin the I'auntbenaia was 
iiiia of boja, who received tot (beir 



upon a red ground. They are principally found in 
Etruria. Another class of these amphorae, ^rith black 
figures, has a broad, flat handle . like a riband, the 

edges being raised. 4. The 
Bacchic amphora^ is the most 
prevalent type at the best 
period of the vases with black 
figures. The neck of these vases 
is larger and taller in proportion 
to the body than the preceding, 
and the handles are not cylin- 
drical but ribbed,havmgbeen pro- 
duced from a mould. They are 

No. I41.-Bacchlc Amphora. fj.^^ gyg ^^ tWOUty iuchcS high, 

5. Nolan amphorae. The character of these amphorae 
differs so essentially from that of the preceding, that 
they have been conventionally called Nolan amphorae. 
The body is larger than that of the Etruscan or Bacchic 
amphorae ; the handles are not reeded but flat ribands ; 
the v^hole vase, except the subject painted on it, is black, 
and has generally but few figures at each side. It is 
often provided with a convex cover and a stud.^ Another 
variety of this form, with twisted handles, is produced by 
rolling up the paste. Some slight variety^ occurs in the 
feet. This kind of vase, in elegance of shape, is the 
finest production of the potter's art ; while the exquisite 
black varnish and high finish render it the admiration of 
all lovers of ancient art. 

reward oil, an amphora, and an olive Annali, 1831, p. 231. 

crown. They contended as in the ' Ibid. s. 348, 5, 6. 

latbmian games. ' Ihid^ s. 348, 5, 6. 
^ Gerluird, Berlins A. R, s. 347 ; 


6. The amphora, called Apidian from the circumstance 
of its being found only in Apulia, has a thick and over- 
lapping mouth Hko au inverted cone. The neck is not 
cylindrical, but slopes upon the shoulders, and the body 
is more egg-shaped.' Its style, varnish, and abundance of 
white colour, are all peculiar to the later class of vases. 

7. There is also a vase of elegant shape, called the Can- 
delabrum Amphora, with cylindrical body, spiral handles, 
tall neck, and narrow Up and mouth, which is always of 
the latest style. Some of these vases — as, for example, one 
in the British Museum — appear, from having a hole at the 
bottom, to have heen used as a decoratiou on the top of a 
pilaster or column. Its complex shape seems imitated 
from metal work.^ A remarkably fine vase of this shape 
in the Temple coliectiou at the British Museum has its 
handles and feet ornamented with moulded floral orna- 
ments. It was found at Iluvo. 

8. Similar to this, but of a still later style, are the 
amphorBB with sieve-shaped handles. These are tall and 
angular, rising above the mouth, and curved upwards at the 
bottom. On each handle are three semicircular studs.^ The 
amphora, when complete, had a cover of the same material 
as the vase, surmounted by a stud or button with which 
to raise it. An amphora in the Berlin Museum had a 
double cover, an inner one of alabaster, over which ia 
placed another of terra-cotta.* 

The pelice was a later kind of amphora, with a swelling 
base, two rather large handles, and red figures, princi- 
pally of the later style, or that called Apulian. It is 

> Gerhud, Berlioa A. E, b. 349, na. T. ' Ibid., ■. 3S0, Da 13. 

- Ibid., B. 360, no. 11. ' Ibid., b. BBO- 




rarely found with black figures. The name, however, 
is doubtful.* 


The Cados (cask)^ a name given, according to Calli- 
machus, to all pottery, was used at banquets. It appears 
also to have been employed as a situla, or bucket, and it is 
possible that the deep semi-oval vase of pale varnish, and 
generally with figures of a late style, either embossed or 
painted, was the cadus.^ It is very similar to certain 
bronze vessels which seem also to have been cadoi or 
cadiskoi. In the Pax^ of Aristophanes, Trygaeus persuades 
a helmet-seller to clap two handles on a helmet and 
convert it into a cadus.* 

The Hydria, or water vase, is known from the word 
HTAPIA inscribed over a vase of this shape, which 

Polyxene has let fall in going out of Troy 
to draw water from the fountain. It 
certainly appears on the heads of females 
in scenes of water-drawing. The ground 
of this vase is generally black, and it 
has two subjects — one on the shoulder 
or neck, generally called the frieze ; the 
other, the picture on the body of the 
vase.* These vases are mostly of the 
class with black figures — but some rare examples 

^ Gbrbard, B. A. B., b. 349, do. 8. 

' CI UsBing; L c, 40; Aiistopb. 
EooL 1002 ; AtheneBus, iv. 102, d. 

> 1258. Of. Panofka, RechcrcbeB, ii 
IS; Thiersch, fig. 12. 

< Thiersch, fig. 12, makes this the 


^ Ussing, p. 48; Qerhard, BerliDs 
Antike Bildwerke, s. 850 ; Panofka, L 
11 ; Annali, 1831, 241 ; LetroDoe, p. 10, 


with red figures have been found at Vulci. The two 
small side handles are cylindrical ; the larger ones are 
ribaud-hke or moulded, and have a small head moulded 
at the point of union. The liydria was employed for 
holding water, oil, the votes of judges, and the ashes of 
the dead, and was often made of bronze. It is called by 
the Italians vaso a tri maniche. Many fine paintings and 
interesting subjects are found on vases of this shape. 

The calpis was essentially a water vase, and only a later 
modification of the hydria ; tho body being rounder, the 

neck shorter, and the handles cylindrical. It was gene- 
rally used for drawing water, but unguents, and the lots 
of the judges, were often placed in it.' This form of vase 
is principally found in the sepulchres of Southern Italy, 
while the older type, or Hj/driat comes chiefly from Vulci. 
Callimachus alludes to vases of this shape on the top of 

' Uuiog, p. 40; Fanafka, p. S, pL vi 4, 5 ; Aaadi, 18S1, S41 ; Tbionali, p. 37. 


the Parthenon ; and Pindar mentions them at an earlier 

Of other vases of this class are the following : — ^the 
crossos, a two-handled vase for drawing water, the shape 
of which is unknown :^ the cothon, also of unknown shape, 

almost seems to have been a 
Lacedaemonian name for a military 
cup used for drinking water, and 
adapted by its recurved mouth to 
strain off the mud.* Some have 
Na i44.-scyphofl, or Cothon, coujecturcd it to bc tho toa- 

cup-shaped vase with horizontal 
handles. The rht/ton is well known, and many examples 
occur. The great peculiarity of this vase was that it could 
not be set down without drinking the contents. It may 
be divided into two shapes : first, a cylindrical cup ter- 
minating in the head of an animal, and 
with a flat banded handle, the lip slightly 
expanding. In the second kind the body 
is fluted, longer, and more horn-Uke, and 
terminates in the head or fore part of an 
No. i46.-Rhyton. ^^imal, which is pierced so as to let a jet 

of liquid flow out. These vases sometimes have a small 
circular handle at the side, to suspend them to the wall. 
On the necks are subjects of little importance, and 
of a satiric or comic nature, in red upon a black 
ground ; and of the later style of art, the part forming 
the animal's head is often left plain or is red. Many 

1 Pindar, 0. vi. 68. iv. 72; Letronne, p. 732; TUersoh, 

3 UflBing, p. 49. B. 33. 

' Uasing, p. 65, 56 ; Paoofka, Rech. 


a entirely of terra-cotta. It appears from a comparison 
of the specimens, tliat tliey terminate in horses, goats, 
Pegasi, panthers, hounds, grjplions, sows : heads of 
rams and goats, mules, dragons, deer, the horse, the ass, 
the cat, and the wolf. Similar ones called gryphons or 
grypes, Pegasi, and elephants, are mentioned in ancient 
authors. When not in actual use, they were placed on a 
peculiar stand and disposed on buffets, as appears Irom 
the vasos found at Beniay. They were introduced at a 
late period into the ceramic art, and are evidently an imi- 
tation of the metallic rhi/ta in use among the Egyptians 
and Assyrians. They are first mentioned by Demosthenes : 
and it appears from Polybius that there were several 
statues of Clino, the cup-bearer of Ptolemy Philadelphus, 
holding a rhyton in his hand ; and one of Arsinoe Ze- 
phyritis holding the same vase. Only one maker of them, 
named Didymus, is known. A remarkable one found at 
Vulci has an Etruscan inscription in honour of Bacchus. 
An attempt has been made to identify the repre- 
sentations on these vases with the animals in wliose 
heads they terminate.' 

The bessa was an Egyptian vase used by the Alexan- 
drJana. It is described as broad below and narrow 
above. Its Greek shape is not known. Certain 
small vases are supposed to have been of the 
description called bomhyliox^ so called from the 
buzzing or gurgling sound which the hquid ^.mb^uM 
made in dripping out of the mouth. It was mentioned 

:, pp. S6. 62 ; Puiofkl 
»jO«rturd, Berl. Act BlI. 
a GriceliucLa 

boi'Der in the Abhandlung, d. Berlim 
K. Akadem Ito., 18S0, i. 1—33. 
1 U.iiug, pp. 6S~63. 



by Antisthenes as Darrow-necked and a kind of 
lecythus} It is supposed to be represented by an egg- 
shaped ^ body and short neck with a small handle, just 
enough for a strap. Vases of this kind are principally of 
the early Greek style, with brown figures on a cream- 
coloured ground. 

The lecythus, or cruet, was used for holding oil. It is 
principally recognised by its tall cylindrical shape, long 

narrow neck, deep cup-shaped depression, 
and flat banded handle. It was often made 
of metal, but still more frequently of terra- 
cotta. It commences with the old period of 
vases with black figures, and terminates with 
the best red style and those with white 
grounds. A slight diflFerence of shape is visible ; 
No. i47.-Locythua. for, whilc ou the older vases the shoulder is 

slightly convex, on the later ones it is 
flattened and the neck is taller. In the oldest style 
figures are often placed on the shoulder instead of other 
ornaments. They principally come from Greece — 
especially Athens and Sicily, and are rarely found 
in the tombs of Vulci. They seldom exceed a foot in 
height.^ The earlier lecythi have subjects embracing 
some of the myths of antiquity depicted in groups 
of many figures, while but few occur in those of the 
later sort. Lecythi were chiefly used for holding oil, and 
were carried down to the gymnasium by means of a 

> Cf. Uwing, pp. 63—64 ; 8 Ger- Panofka, v. 93 ; Usaing, p. 67 ; Le- 

hard, BerL Ant. Bild., s. 868, No. 48. tronne, p. 616; Thiersch, b. 40, fig. 

» Panofka, T. 99; Annali, 1831, 78— 9 ; Ariatoph. Eccloa. 906 ; Batrach. 

261 ; Letronne, 51. 1224. 

s Gerhard, BerL Ant BUd. b. 367; 

strap held in the hand to which a strigil was attached. 
The wholo apparatus was called ^''^'po^T™^"*''- A lecyihus 
of marble appears to have been sculptured or painted upon 
the stfiles of men, The peculiar sepulchral character of 
the lect/thi found at Athens has been already mentioned. 
The olpe is supposed to be a kind offenochoe 
or wine jug— or rather to he intermediate 
between the fenocJio'e and Iccythus, but the 
identification of it seems to be very doubtful^ 
It is generally mentioned as a leather bottle 
or metallic vase Uke the amochoe} It was 
used for holding oil and wine, and is men- 
tioned by the oldest authors. Sappho ' speaks 
of " Hermes holding an olpis and ministering wine to the 
gods ; " and Ion of Chios ^ of " drawing wine in olpes 
from mighty craters." Many of the lecytki of a late 
period, especially those found in Magna Grajcia, are 
moulded to represent comic or satirical subjects, such as a 
boy devoured by a sea-monster,* a man bitten by a great 
bird,' pigmies and cranes,^ a comic Hercules seated,' a 
personage of the New Comedy,^ a Nubian devoured by a 
crocodile, and Silenus reposing and drinking out of a wine- 
skin, ideas derived from the New Comedy, and consonant 
with the decaying spirit of the age, no longer elevated by 
the heroic epos or the tragic drama, but seeking dehght 
in the grotesque, the coarse, and the ridiculous. 

' L^Baing, [I. 69; 3chol. Theoorit. 11. 
I5i-, Qerltkn], Bu'l. Aut. Blld. a. 385, 
Ko. 35— 3B. 

) AtheoicuB. £. 425 A. 

> Ibiit. m b. 

' Oargiulo, Bscc 11. 10. 

• Ibid. 10. 

* Arch. Adi., 1849, p. 60. 

' BerliDs Ant. Bildw. N. 1961. 

» Anwth, Besch. d. K. K.. MUd»- 
und Ant. Cabin, pp. 1 6 190. See Jshn, 
BeriehU K. Saobs. UMallscbkft, 1863, 
Feb. 1. lfi-I6. 


The alabastron ' was used for holding unguents, oils, 
cosmetics and paint, and was a kind of lecythus. Its name 
was derived from the material of which it 
was made, namely oriental alabaster ; and 
some Egyptian vases of this shape 
are known, bearing the name of 
Pharaoh Necho. The terra-cotta 
vase is known from its resemblance 

. ,v • 111 J /• •! No. 149. — Alar 

to those m alabaster, and from its bastron. 
constant appearance in the pictures, on vases 
and other ornaments. Its body ^ is an elongated 
cone, its neck short, its mouth small, and Ups 
flat and disc-shaped ; sometimes it has a foot, 
and also two Uttle projections to hold it with- 
out sUpping, or to hang it up to a wall with a 
^"b^u-"^^'*" cord. These vases are very rarely found in 
sepulchres ; some, however, occur either with 
red or black figures, and often upon a cream-coloured 
ground, whilst others are of the Athenian white style. 
Their subjects chiefly relate to the domestic life of females, 
but some Bacchanalian and other subjects occur. No 
maker of them is known. 

The crater may be considered the wine-cooler, in which 
the ancients mixed their wine with snow and water. It 
is distinguished from the amphora by its larger size, its 
wider mouth, its semi-oval body, and its two handles for 
occasional transport, which were small, and almost ver- 

> Ussing. pp. 70—71; Herodot III., Non. 645; Martial, xi. 89; Pliny, N. 

20; Arietoph. Ach. 1053; Callimach. H. 56—118. 

Pall. 15; Ceres, 13 ; Plutarch, Tim ol ^ Gerhard, Berl Ant Bild. 8. 369, 

16 ; Theocrit. xv. 114 ; Cicero, apud No. 49—60. 

ticaL Craters are chiefly found lu South Italy, and are 
always decorated with red figures. Of the earlier style 
of art are the so-called Iiolmos, and the sup- 
posed celede, or crater with columnar handles. 
The vase called oxt/baphon, with red figures, 
is a very prevalent variety of tliis shape.' It 
is doubtful whether the amphorae with volute 
or medallion handles are not craters. The '^ 
Jiypocraterion, or stand on which the vase was placed, 
was a hollow cylindrical foot, decorated with an egg- 
and-tougue moulding, and a reeded body, which raised the 
vase almost to the height of four feet. Several kinds of 
orators are mentioned by ancient authors, — as the 
Lesbian, the Tliericlean, the Laconian, and Corinthian. 
Some held three or four gallons. 

The crakr with columnar handles is supposed, on no 
very certain grounds, to be the celebe. The shape 
depicted in the accompany- 
ing cut is the oldest, having ' 
arched Iiandles, G'om which 
springs a handed handle. 
Sometimes four columnar 
handles are substituted for 
these. Vases of this sort 
are found at the earliest 
period, having the subjects 

disposed in friezes round the body. In the few 
examples known with black figures, the subject ia 
arranged in pictures. At a later time the subjects are 


■ Qerbord, Berl. Ant. Bild. 3Ii7, IT ; UlL lUcb. Mo. 18 ; Uiaing, p. 8J ; PaDofkB, 


red upon a black ground. Craters appear to have come 

No. 153.— Crater. No. 154.— Oxybaphon. 

into use much later than the so-called ojpybapha. Although 
all agree to consider the oa^ybaphon a crater, it is contested 
whether the name of kelebe or kelebeion can be properly 
appUed to the latter description of vase.^ 

We will now pass to the Apulian craters, — the first of 
which are the so-called oaybapha, which are bell-shaped, 
and have two small handles at. the side, recurved towards 
the body. These vases are called by the Italian antiquaries 
vasi a campana. There is some diflFerence in the propor- 
tions, those of the earlier times being fuller in the body, 
while the later ones are thin, and have an expanding Hp.^ 
The correctness of the name oa^baphon is contested by 
many critics.^ 

Some other craters of this tall style have been improperly 
called amphora with volute handles. These are large vases 
with long egg-shaped bodies, wide open mouths, and two 
tall handles curling over the lip of the vase, and ter- 
minating in the head of a swan at the lower extremity. 
These, however, are rather the craters of the later Apulian 

> Usiing, De Norn. Vaa. pp. 80— 858, No. 18. 
84. ' Ussing, p. 81 ; Letronne, 1. e. 

3 Gerhard, BerlinB Ant Bildw. s. 

No, 1».— CmMr, will. 

with Gorgon handles. This description of amphora, which 
is another of tlie later sort, only differs from the pre- 
ceding iu having medallions instead of volutes at the top 
of the handles, the ends of which also terminate in swans' 
necks. The medallions are stamped in moutda. These 
craters are found of great size, principally in South Italy, 
and are decorated with numerous figures ° of the later 
style of art. 

The pstfcler, or as it was also called, the psygeus,^ or the 
" wine cooler," waa used for cooling wine. Jn glazed ware, 
' XJuiuj, pp. 78—82. 



this vase is of the greatest rarity. It is in the shape of a 
Bacchic amphora, with a double wall and an orifice 
projecting in front, through which snow was introduced, 
and a small one in the foot of the vase, by which it was 
withdrawn when melted. The psycter was one of the 
most celebrated vases of antiquity ; one in the British 
Museum has the part between the walls filled with a layer 
of chalk, apparently the ancient core. The subjects of 
these vases are always in black upon red grounds, like the 
amphorse, to which they belong. Sometimes they have 
only a fineze round the neck. They were placed on 
tripods when used. 

The dinos was made of terra-cotta, and was large 
enough to contain wine for a family. It appears to have 
been round, with a wide mouth, and to have terminated 
in a pointed or rounded foot, like the most ancient shape 
of the crater used for entertainments.* 

Chytrce^ pots, were used for drawing or warming water, 
boiling flesh, and various domestic purposes. They must 
have been of some size, for children were exposed in them ; 
but nothing is known of their shape, except that they had 
two handles. It is evident that they could not have been 
of glazed ware, for to " paint pots *' (x^rpav iroiKtKK^Lv) was a 
proverb to express useless labour.^ The thermanter was a 
vase used for warming wine or water ; but it is uncertain 
whether it was ever made of clay, as it is only mentioned 
as a brazen vessel.^ Its shape is unknown. The thermopotis 
was a vase also used for warming wine. Its shape is 

> UsBing, pp. 82—83; Panofka, Vesp. 279. 

Reoh. L 15 ; Letronne, Journ. des. Sav., > Usaing, L c. Miiller, ^ginetica, p. 

614. 160 ; Boeckh, Corp. Inscr. 2189. 

s Uning, pp. 87—- 91 ; Schol. ad Arist 


nnknown, but perhaps it reaembled a chafing-ilisli, the 
warming apparatus being placed beneath. 

The stands of the craters, or large wine-coolers were 
called hi/pocTateria or liypocrateridia} They were very 
different in shape, according to the age to which they 
belonged. At the time of the style called ^Egyptian, 
they were tall and trumpet-shaped, and sometimes deco- 
rated with rows of figures of animals. With vases of the 
early style with red figures they are seldom if ever found ; 
with those with red figures, they are sometimes of one 
piece with the vase itself, and are ornamented with 
subjects. With the later vases of the Basilicatan style, 
they are of far shorter proportions, and have an egg-and- 
tonguo moulding and reeded body (po;36wros), the foot of 
the crater fitting into a groove or rim in the upper portion. 
Certain shallow circular pans among the specimens of 
Etruscan red ware, appear to be intended for the same 
use, as large jar-shapod craters are found standing in them. 
In the black ware of the same people, certain cups, which 
some have called the holkion, arc supported by female 
figures standing at their sides, sometimes alternating with 
bands. The tripous, or tripod, was a vase with three flat 
feet at the sides, and a cover, the body being hemi- 
spherical. It appears sometimes to have had fire placed 
under it, apparently for warming liquids. The feet and 
cover are ornamented with subjects. It is found only 
among vases of the ancient style with brown figures upon 
a yellow ground, and black figures upon a red ground.^ 

' U-^Lg. 1. c. p. 92, 93; QBrhard. 

56; OorLnrd, Rapp. VglcL No. 45; 

Ult lli«. No. 26 ; Berlldi ADt.Bildw. 

i. 3(JU. 26. 

MuB. No. 3660. 

> Uanng, L c Punorkn, Iteoh. iiL 


The word hclmos^ which signifies mortar^ and was also 
applied to vases, is supposed to be the name of certain 
large hemispherical vessels with a flat or pointed foot, which 
was often fixed into a trumpet-shaped stand, by which it 
was supported. These vases belong to the ancient hieratic 
style, or that called Egyptian ; and both the kind with 
black figures, and that in the strong red style, have rows 
of figures round the body. The shape shows that it was 
a vase from which wine was drawn like the craters. The 
name of deinos, or scaphe, has also been considered applica- 
ble to vases of this shape.^ They resemble the lebes, or 

The chi/tropousy pot-foot, or trivet, was an instrument by 
which the pot was kept upon the fire. Possibly, some of 
the old Athenian vase-stands are this useful instrument.* 

The lasanon, was apparently a kind of pot,^ its shape 
and size are not known. It was possibly made of metal. 

The choics appears to have been always made of clay.* 
It was a measure of liquid capacity, sometimes holding 
as much as the Latin congius,* and may be considered as 
the " bottle " of Athens. It was chiefly used for holding 
wine,^ but its shape is unknown, some supposing that it 
had two, and others, that it had only one handle.^ The 
(Bnochoe corresponded with the modern decanter, or claret 
bottle. There are several varieties of this shape, but 

^ Gerhard, B. A. B. 860, No. 26; * Eubulus apud Athensaum, xL 

Uning, p. 96. 478, c 

' Uasing, L o. Pollux, x. 99 ; Schol. • Cratinua apud Athen. xi. 494, c. ; 

Arist. Paa 898; Av. 436; Plut 815; Aristoph. Pao. 637; Equit. 95; Ach. 

Ran. 506. 1086; SchoL ad y. 961 ; Anaxaadrides 

* Ussing, L c. 98 ; Ariatoph. in Pac. ap. Athen. xi. 482 d. 

891 ; Hor. Sat L 6, 109. 7 Usaing, p. 101 ; Panofka, Rech. 

* Pollux, X. 122. iv. 27. 


their general' type is that of a jug, the mouth being either 
round, or "with a trefoil in imitation of an ivy leaf. This 
first type, which appears to have been contemporaneous 
with the amphorie with banded handles, has a short neck 
and banded handle rising over the Up. The subject is 

generally arranged in a square picture in front ; but 
Bometimcs the ground, especially in the cream-coloured 
vases, runs all round the body. At a later period, and in 
the Nolan ware, the body becomes more egg-shaped and 
slender, and the handle taller, so that this series presents 
some of the most beautiful examples of 8ha])e. Another 
variety of figure, which is also of the best period of the 
art, has a truncated base, with a mere moulding or bead, 
instead of a foot. The shape of these vases is well known 
fi'om the frieze of the Parthenon and other representations 
of libations and sacrifices, in which they were always 
used with the phials, or patera, and the thi/miateria, or 
tall censers ; they were dipped into the craters,* and the 
wine wafl carried round to the guests by a youth called the 

' aerh«r,I,B.A.B. B 

36E, No. 33— 

' PlUKlfW 

sa ; PoDotkB. V. 101 , 

Aniuili. 1831, 

Puurtali-'B, i 




(Bnochoos. It was a law of the banquet never to place the 
(Bnochoe upon the crater, as it was considered a bad omen, 
and a sign that the feast was ended.^ (EnochoaD were 

also employed in religious rites; whence Thucydides,^ 
speaking of the anathemata which the Egesteans showed 
to the Athenian ambassadors in the temple of Aphrodite 
at Eryx, says that they displayed phialcB, oenochofB, and 
tht/miateria, all made of silver ; and in Athenseus,^ 
mention is made of the naos of the people of Metapontum, 
in which were 132 silver phialce, 2 silver oenochoaB, and a 
golden cenochoe. They are often seen in the hands of 
figures depicted on the vases as making libations.* 

Another jug was the prochoos^ with an oval body, tall 
neck, and round mouth, but without a handle. It was 
used for carrying water for washing the hands, for which 
purpose the water was poured over them. " A maid- 
servant bearing water for washing, poured it out of a 
beautiful golden prochoos," says Homer ; * and Iris de- 
scending to Hades for the waters of the Styx, takes a 
prochoos to draw it.^ It also held snow,^ and wine. 
Hence we read in the Odyssey, " He laid his right hand 
upon the oenochoos, and the prochoos fell rattling on the 
ground.*' ® It was also used for holding oil,^ and libations 
to the dead were poured out of it.*° M. Gerhard recognises 

1 Hesiod. Opp. et Dier. 744. * Hesiod. Tbeog. 785 ; of. also 

* vi. 46—3. AriBtoph. Nab. 272; Pollux x. 46. 

' XL 479, f. ; of. also Boeokh, Corp. ^ Anaxandridea apud AthensBum, iv, 

Inscr. No. 150, col. 1, v. 30; Atheneeus, 131, n. 26. 

V. 199, b.; xi. 474,495,6; Pollux, » 0dy8Bey,xyiil398; Xenophon, Cyr. 

X. 122. viii. 8—10. 

* Gerhard, A. V. I. 28 — 30. • Suidas, voce ; Sopbocles, Antigone, 

^ Xipvi^Z^ hXii^vKoKoi itpox^ i'f^X^v* 430. 

<p(povffa KoAp, xpwtf'erp.— Od. i. 136. ^ Atbenaeus, v. 199 b. ; xi. 474, 495. 


the prochoos in the form depicted in the annexed cut. 
He also supposes the small wnochoe, with a bill-shaped 
spout and cylindrical body, to be the Apulian prochoos; 
but it is probably rather the cpichfsis. The epic/iysis was 
a metal vase for pouring liquids, probably so called from 


Ko. ISS,— AlyUnta No. 1».— 4ryb»llw. 

its spout,' used for holding oil and wine at entertain- 
ments,^ The following vases wore for drawing liquids. 
The arataina, shaped like a ladle, and used in baths for 
drawing oil, and distributing to the bathers, or for putting 
it into lamps. It was generally made of brass.' The 
aryballos was a vase always described as 
like a purse. M. Gerhard and Panofka 
attributed this name to a vase reserabhng 
a ball, with a short neck, globular body, 
and small handle, just sufficient for a 
thong to carry it with, called by the 
Italians vaso a palla. It is chiefly found 
amons vases of the earliest style, and was no i<ti -lsu Ary- 
carried with the strigil to the bath. In 
the later style the form was more elongated, and a base 
or foot was added.* 

' Useing, p. 103. Char. : Tbiorscli, ■. 33, 2i. supposeB it 

' VuTo do L.L. T. 1, 2* ; Pollui, ri. to be » jug. 

103. I. 92. ♦ Garhftri), R A. B., B. 387. DO U, 

' Uum^i. p. 105: Ariitoph. Eqnit. 45: Pauofkii. t. DE ; Anuti]! iii, p, 

p. 1000: PoUiu,!. 63; TbeoplirMtua, 263; Uniug, p. 106; PdUqz, b. 68; 



Small lecyl^iy or arybaUi, of various forms, are found ; 
for at all times the potter has manufactured these pieces 
as the curiosities of his art. Those found at Vulci are 
shaped like the bust of the archaic Bacchus, heads of 
satyrs and Sileni, armed heads, human-headed birds, sirens ; 
the stag or deer, the emblem of Artemis ; the hare and 
rabbit, sacred to Venus and Apollo ; the head of an eagle, 
and pigeons. They are all of small dimensions, and appear 
to have been used for the toilet.^ 

The arystichos was a vase used for drawing wine out of 
the craters.^ Considerable doubt prevails respecting the 
meaning of the passages in which its name occurs,' and 
although Fanofka conjectures that he has discovered 
the type, his opinion on this point is by no means gene- 
rally admitted.* It was also used for holding the judges' 
votes. It was called ephebos, " or youth,'* from the boy 
who carried it round.^ The aryter^ a vase for drawing 
liquids, is mentioned by Herodotus.^ The aryseis^ 
aryster^ arysane^ and arystris^ were also vases used for 
drawing liquids. The wnerysis was a kind of cup used 
for drawing wine.^^ The etnerysis, a vase for serving up 
pulse," and the zomerysis, a kind of vase used for ladling 
out sauce or soup," are mentioned, but their shapes are 
unknown. The cotyle^ or cotylos,^^ is supposed to have been 

Athenseus zi., 781, f.; Thiersch, a. 

^ Mua. Greg., p. ii., t. xciiL 
« Ussing, p. 107; Pollux, ▼!. 19; 

Hesyohius voce. 

* Bockh Corp. Inscr. Graec, No. 2139; 
AthensBus, z. 424. 

* Panof ka, Rech., y. 98 ; Letrouve, 
Joarn. des Savans, 1883, p. 618. 

* Schol. Aristoph. Vesp. 855. 

• II. 108. 

7 Sophocl. apud AtbensBum, zi., 788, f. 
^ Simonides, apud Athen. x. 424 b. 

* Timon ap. Athenseum, z., 424 b. 

*° Schol. ad Aristoph. Acharn., 1067. 
" Schol. Aristoph. Acharn., 245. 
^ Anaxippus apud Atheusdum, ir. 
169 b. 
^ Ussing, p. 108 and seq. 



a deep cup, used for drawing wine. It was also a measure 
of liquid capacity, equal to a kemina, or fourth of a sexta- 
rius. Ill Homer, mendicants Leg for bread and a cotyle of 
water ; ^ and Andromache, describing a crowd of children 
approaching her father's friends, says ; " Some one of 
those pitying hold a cup awhile, wetting their lips, but not 
moistening their palates." ^ So the old Greek proverb : — 

Tliore's iniuif a Blip 
■Twiit cotyle and lip.' 

Iloney was suspended in it in the festive boughs before 
the gate : — 

Eliromona bears fip and QBW bread, 

And honej ii: 


The cotjflm, which name was more particularly applied 
to the cup, was in use among the people of Sicyon and 
Tarentura, the jEtolians, some of the Ionian tribes,* and 
the Lacedienionians, — of all cups the most beautiful 
and best for drinking, as Eratosthenes calls it.' It 
was made of the clay of Mount Colias. Apollodorus 
describes it as a deep and lofty cup ; 
and Diodoms speaks of it as resembling 
a deep lavacrum, and as having one 
handle. M. Panofka and M. Gerhard 
conjecture that it was a kind of deep 
two-handled cup,' which notion, though 
rejected by some critics, is rather 
strengthened by the shape of the kemicotylion, as depicted 

Nd I<13.— CotfllBOll 

' OdfTOy, IT. 313, iTii. 12. 
■ HvtA, ui. 494. 

* Atheoicus, XL ITS o. 

* Schol. AriEtoph. Equit, 720; Piut 


' AtboDlEIU, 1. c 

' Atben.-Qus, 1. c 
' Panofk», iil '. 

ult.. lUc. 29. 


in the annexed cut. A vase of this description, of clay, 
covered with a black glaze or varnish, and bearing the 
inscription HEMIKOTTAION, has lately been discovered 
at Corfu (Corcyra). 

The cotyliskos, or diminutive cotylos^ was a small vase, 
either with or without handles.^ Some of the smaller 
children's vases were probably of this form. 

M. Gerhard supposes the cotyliskos to be a vase of the 
shape of a lecythus, generally decorated with painting in 
the old or Egyptian style. It has been conjectured that 
certain vases, sometimes of glazed ware, are of the de- 
scription called cernos. In the mysteries, several small 
vases, or cotylishoiy^ containing various scraps of food, 
after being bound together with wool, were tied round a 
larger vase, and then carried about. This type is recog- 
nised by some writers in certain groups of small cups, 
ranged in a single or double circle. These vases, as in an 
example already cited, are principally found in the sepul- 
chres of Athens and Milo, among the unglazed painted 
terra-cotta vases of the earliest style. They are rudely 
modelled with the hand, and attached by bands of terra- 
cotta to a hollow cylinder in the centre. Some vases of 
this shape occur amongst those of the later style, and are 
attached to a hollow circular pipe, or crown of terra-cotta, 
on which they stand. In this case they sometimes have 
covers, and are decorated with .ornaments in white. M. 
Ussing, on the other hand, considers these vases to be 
cotylcB. Cyathosy which means " the ladle,'' was a name 
applied to the small vase, by which the unmixed wine 

» Gerhard, Berlina Ant. Bildw., 1, 2 tJsaing, p. 110 ; Gwhard, B. A. B., 

368, No. 46. 8. 868, No. 46. 


■was taken out of the craters, and put into the cups of the 
guests, water being atlJed from a jug. Many ajathi 
of bronze exist in different collections.' An open 
cup. sometimes having a tall stem or foot, and with a 

long, narrow, ear-shaped handle, well adapted for dipping 
the cup into the crater, but not for holding it in the hand 
to drink, is supposed to be this vase. 

The following vases were also used for liquids : the 
louterion, for water for the bath, was generally made of 
marble or alabaster,' and it is uncertain whether it was 
ever manufactured of clay ; the asaminihos, a large vase, 
also used in baths ; * the puelos, or bin, which was in fact 

■ ITsdiig, p. Ill ; Gerhard, Berlim 

PuiofkB, No. S2, ' 
p. 251, udfolL 

; jVnnali, 1S81, Pollux, ti. BT. 

' t-lBsing, p. 115; Od jbs. i 



the bath tub ; ^ the scaphe, a vase used in the kitchen for 
washing culinary utensils, and also employed as a foot 
bath,^ appears to have been generally made of wood 
or brass f the scapheion or scaphion^ an hemispherical vase, 
for holding or drawing water, the shape of which is not 
identified.* It seems to have been also a drinking vessel,^ 
for Phylarchus, in describing the mode of living of Cleo- 
menes, the Spartan king, says that he had a silver scaphioUy 
holding two cott/lcB^ 

The ewaleiptron was a vase, like a phiale or saucer,^ for 
holding ointment. The lecane is recognised by M. (Jerhard 
in a deep two-handled vase, provided with a cover resem- 
bling an inverted cup. It was used for washing the feet, and 
for holding cups, clothes, pitch, and for other coarse work f 
as a basin to vomit in ;^ and likewise in the Sicilian 
game of cottabus.*^ It was also employed for that kind of 
divination called k€Kavoii.avT€ia or "dish-divination." In 
the romantic life of Alexander the Great, written by the 
pseudo-Callisthenes, a long account is given how the fabled 
sorcerer, the Egyptian Nectanebo, employed this vessel in 
magic arts, and after placing in it small waxen figures of 
men and ships, plunged it into the sea, and so destroyed 
his enemies. He constantly used it for the purpose of 
enveigHng Olympias. JuUus Valerius, who wrote in Latin 

> Ibid.; AriBioph. Equit 1060; Pkx. 
' Ussing, 1. c. and pp. 116, 117. 
' Pollux, X. 77 ; -^SschyluB in Siaypto. 

♦ Usdng, p. 117. 

^ Athen. xi. 475 o. 

* Atheneeus, iy. p. 142. 

7 Uasing. p. 117; ClearchoB. apud 
Atben., xIt. 648, f.; Pollux, vi 106; 
Arifltoph. Acharn., 1063; Athen. ▼. 


8 Uasing, p. 118; Pollux, x. 70; 
Suidas, ▼. K^AcjSc; Bockh. Corp. Inacr., 
No. 3071, 8; Ariatoph. Av., 840, 1148, 
1146; Veap., 600. 

» Plutarch, Moral., p. 801, R; 
Ariatoph., Nab. 906; Theopomp. 
Athen., xi, 486, a; Pollux, x. 76; 
Gerhard, R A. B., 364, 32. 

»" Schol. ad. Ariatoph. Pftc., 1244. 


a similar apocryphal life of Alexander, calls the vessel a 
bason or pelvis. This magical tiso of the vase is also men- 
tioned in the work called Philosophoumena, erroneously 
attributed to Origen. 

The lecanis, or smaller lecatie, made of terra-cotta, was 
probably of the shape figured just above. In it the father 
of the bride sent, along with her, presents to his son-in- 
law, at the time of the marriage. According to Photius, 
lecanides were earthern vessels, very much resembUug a 
crater, which, he continues, the women now call " food- 

The Iccaniskos and lecanion were small lecanides} The 
podanipier was a bason for washing the feet in,^ Possibly 
this vase may be identified with the flat, thick, circular 
basons found in the Etruscan tombs. It was generally of 
bronze. The cheironipiron, cfieironips, and chernibon, were 
wash-hand basons, but their shape is unknown.* 

The vase called holcion was a kind of bowl, for washing 
Clips. It also appears to have been used for the table and 
the bath, MM. Panofka and Gerhard suppose it to have 
been a kind of small crater, with figures and supports ;' 
but this is not by any means satisfactorily proved. Tlie 
perirrhanterion, or sprinkler, was a vase which held the 
lustral water in the temples, and which, in the earliest 
times, was made of earthenware. The list is closed by the 

' nraing. 1. c; Pollui, vi 8B; 

PoUqi, I. 78; Herodol.. ii. 172. 

FhotduHi Schol. ad Aristoph. Ach., 

' UMiBg, 1. 0. 121 ; Atheneua, ix. p 

1110; TeieolWei »p. Athon., vL 208, 

408 ; Humor, iiiii. 304 ; Audocid. iu 

c V. 11.; HBsych.. v.; Gerhard, 

Aldb., 29, «. T. A. 

B. Aut. Bild., B. 884, 805, No. 

> Gerhard, B. Ant Bildw., b. 363, n. 

32; Panofka, I{eob.,m. 42. 

27; UB«iQg, p. 122; Panoflw, iv. 

' U«iLg, p. 119. 

92; AuoaU, 1881. )>. 2£2. 

' OasiuB. p. 120; Hiotiua, j.. 118; 



ardanion, or ardalion^ the lower part of which vase, after 
it had been broken, was placed as an emblem before a 
house in which a death had occurred. 


The productions of the potter never perhaps at- 
tained greater excellence as to form than in cups, 
many of- which are of unrivalled shape. If any ex- 
tant specimens of fictile ware represent the shapes men- 
tioned by Homer, who in the true poetic spirit always 
speaks of cups as made of the precious metals, they must 
be looked for in the primitive vases of Melos and Athens. 
The great cup described by Homer bears, however, more 
resemblance to some of the specimens of the Etrurian 
black ware.* " The great cup, ornamented with golden 
studs, was produced, which the old man had brought from 
home. It had four handles, and two golden doves were 
placed on each ; and it had two stems. When full, any 
one else could hardly lift it from the table ; but old Nestor 
lifted it with ease." The cups mentioned by Homer are 
the depds ; the aleison,^ a cup with two handles ; the 
cissy bion^ so called from its being made of ivy wood, or 
from its being 6rnamented with carvings representing the 
foliage of ivy ; the cupelloUy^ or later cymbion,^ which, 
among the Cretans and Cyprians, had either two or 

* niad, XL p. 682. « Mocrob. Sat, v. 21 ; Letronne, 

* OdyBB., iiL 49, 60, 63, xxii, 9, Journ, d. Savans, 1833, p. 605; 
7; Ussing, L c, p. 124. Athenseua, 481 e, f, 482 f, 602; 

» Odyas., v. 346; xiv. 78; Schol. Arist. Pac., 1242; Nicander 

PoUux, vl 97; Theocrit, i 69, et Ther., 62C; Alexiph., 129; Hesychius 

SchoL ; AtheuseuB, iv. 477. voce; Demosth. in. Meidiam, 133—158, 

* Atheu., XL, 482, 488 a, 783 c. in. Euerg. et Mnesib., 58. 
JEWbxl Hist Anin., ix. 40. 


four handles ; and the amphicupeUon ' formed of two 
cupelta, united at their base. The cymbion was a kind of 
cup, stated by some authors to resemble a boat.* No vase 
of such a shape is known to exiat, unless it be the rhyton 
in the Britisli Museum, fashioned in the shape of the prow ' 
of a vessel, with a female seated on it ; or a long boat- 
shaped vessel with a spout, discovered at Vulci, on which 
is inscribed " drink, do not lay lue down." ' This kind of 
vase was in common use among the Athenians. 

The name for cups in general was sa/phos ; and they 
were called, from the places of their manufacture, Boeotian, 
Ehodian, Syracusan, and Heracleotau," or Thericlean 
from their maker Thericles. It may easily be conceived 
that no very distinct idea of their shape is conveyed 
by ancient writers, Simonides, indeed, mentions that 
they had handles ; and the Heracleotan sa/phos had 
its handle ornamented with the Heraclean knot. Some 
vases of the latest period of the art, with reeded bodies, 
sides ornamented with white ivy wreaths, and liaudles of 
two twigs or pieces interlaced in a knot, more resembling 
the cantharos, are probably the Heracleotan scyphi. M. 
Gerhard supposes a kind of wide cup with two handles to 
be the scyphos. These cups, which are found at Nola,^ 
are of the later style, and ornamented with red figures, 
principally of a Bacchanalian character. Very often, how- 
ever, they are entirely plain, being merely covered with 
black varnish. Another kind was, the Panathenaic sa/phos, 
supposed to be a cup with two handles, of the same shape 

I Pinofbo, Koch., v. 74, 75. * Gorhard. B. A. B., n. 862, No. 2S ; 

' AtliouBUB, p, 600 n ; Letronnf, Fanofka, i». U2. 
JuUTU. d«j Savaiu, lf«33, [>. T31, DuM 1. 



as the preceding, but haying one handle placed at right 
angles to the cup's axis. Their usual decoration is an owl, 
placed between two olive branches. This vase is supposed, 
from the shape of its handles, to have been the onychios. 
The ooscyphioUy or egg (shaped) cup, was without a foot,* 
and was, perhaps, the same as the vase called mastos, 
which had two handles, like the Panathenaic sct/pfios, and 
was often decorated externally with black figures upon a 
red ground. It often terminates like an areola, or nipple, 
with an oval band round it. These cups are very rare, 
and are ornamented with Bacchanahan subjects. They 
are thin and well turned, and altogether very elegant pro- 
ductions. They chiefly come from Vulci. The bromias 
was a long kind of sct/phosJ^ 

The cantharos was a kind of cup, probably so called from 
its resembUng a beetle. It was the cup specially used by 

Bacchus,' and was gene- 
rally made of earthen- 
ware, although sometimes 
of metal. It appears 
from the various monu- 
ments of Bacchus to have 
been a kind of goblet, on 
a tall stem, with two very 
long ears. In some of the older specimens of Etruscan 
black ware it has no stem.* Vases of this kind are 
seldom decorated with paintings, which, when they do 
appear, consist of red figures upon a black ground. A 

> UMing, p. 133 ; Athen. xi., 488 » Pliny, xxxui. 68, 160. 

f, 603 e, 477 e; Panofka, v. 103. * Gerhard, B. A. B., s. 359, No. 21— 

a Ussing, p. 134 ; Panofka, iv. 23 ; Panofka, iv. 61 ; Annali, 1831, 

65; AthensouB, xl 784 d. 256. 

No. 165. — Cantharos. 


few are also found among the vases of tho latest style 
of the Basilicata, especially those produced from moulds, 
M. Gerhard classes with them a goblet-shaped vase 
without haodles. In the picture of tho hattle of the 
Centaurs and Lapitha;, painted by Hippeus, he represented 
them drinking out of terra-cotta cauthari.' 

The carchesion was a kind of two-handled cup, the shape 
of which is not very intelligible from the descriptions 
of it given by the early 
poets, Pherecydes, Sappho, and 
others.' As, however, it was 
the sort of cup held by 
Bacchus and his "wassail rout" 
in the pageant of Ptolemy 
Philadelphus,^ it was probably 
a kind of cantltarus. M, 
Gerhard * and M. Panof ka re- 
cognise it ui a very elegant 
cup, with large car-shaped handles, short stem, and wide 
mouth, and ornamented with red figures, relating to 
Bacchus. This sort of cup ia chiefly found among the 
later remains of Southern Italy ; but it is probable that 
many of the vases called canthari are carchesia. Accord- 
ing to M. Thiersch, they were shaped as in the annexed 

Of all the cups the most celebrated was, undoubtedly, 
the cylix, BO called from its being turned on the lathe. 

' Athoueiu. 474 d, Cf.; Polliu, Puiafko, iv. 61; Anokli, ML, 2fifl, f, 

Ti. M. ■ 6i s. ')6, compared nith the tecbuicol 

= AUienfflUB. 471 f. 475 a. deacription of CJliimua of Ithojei, 

D, leC— Cajctiuion 



It was a flat, shallow, and extremely wide saucer, with 
two side handles, and a tall stem or foot, and was deco- 
rated with red figures of the 
finest style, both on the ex- 
terior and interior. Those of 
the earliest period are distin- 
guished by their deeper bowl 

of those of a later period, with black figures, is unpro- 
vided with a foot. Those ornamented with paintings of 

the strong and fine style 
have a shallow bowl, re- 

"T7 curved handles, rising 

r ^ rather higher than the 

No. 168 -Later Cylix. JJp^ ^^^ ^ gj^^^ ^^^^ g^ 

high as the earlier cylices. Their shape is one of the 
most elegant of those handed down from antiquity. At 
the Basilicatan period these vases resemble large flat 
baskets with handles, like the crater. Cylices of this 
style, which approach the bowl shape, are very rare, 
and have subjects oaly inside. These vessels hold 
about a pint, or even from four to seven heminaD, and 
were probably passed round from guest to guest. In 
banqueting scenes depicted upon them, they are often 

represented as being 
twirled round upon the 
finger, in the supposed 
No. i69.-Late Cylix. Sicilian game of cot- 

tabus.* Athens was celebrated for its cups,^ made of clay 

* Ponofka, Rech., vii. 37 ; Millingen, Pourtalts, xxxiv. ; Thiersch, 8. 31. 
Vases de Coghill, PI. viii. and 41 ; Cab. * Pindar apud AthensBum, p. 480, c. 




from the promontory of Mount Colias; but the Lace- 
daemonian,^ Teian,^ Chian,' and Argive* cups were also 
esteemed. These cups, when not in use, were hung up 
by one of their handles on a peg, and hence Hermippus 
sings of 

"High on its peg the Chian cup is hiiDg; " 

a good example of which custom will be foimd repre- 
sented on the Ficoroni cista.^ 

The TJierideios was a kind of cup invented by Thericles, 
a Corinthian potter, the contemporary of Aristophanes.^ 

No. 170.— Early Cylix, with black ft^furea. (Thericlean ?) 

The " Thericleans," as they were named, were, however, 
soon in vogue at Athens, and are mentioned by the 
writers of the middle and the new comedy. They were 
all clay, and held three heminaD. Thus Eubulus exclaims 
in comic bombast— 

" Lately the bravest 
of the Therioleans, foaming o'er, like 
a cothon handled, rattling like a ballot-box, 

* Aristophan. ap. Athen., 484, f. 
^ AlcsDus ap. Athen., p. 481, a. 
' Hermippus apud Athen, 480, e. 
^ Simonides ibid., 480-a. 

^ Brondsted, Den Ficoroniske Cista 
folio Kiobenhavn, 1831. 

« Athen., i. 470, f., 472, d., c. 


black, well circled, sharp stemmed, 
gleaming, reflecting, well cooled with snow, 
its head bristling with ivy, calling upon 
Jupiter the Saviour, I have quaffed.'* 

It is probable that these were the cilices with deep 
bodies. They were often successfully imitated in fine 

Along with the " Thericleans " may be cited other 
cups, such as the hedypotis^ a cup of a very cheap kind, 
manufactured by the Rhodians to compete with the 
Athenian "Thericleans,''^ and the Rhodiaca, Rhodiacai, 
RhodiadeSy or " Rhodiansl^ which were perhaps the same 
as the hedypotides. Their shape does not appear to be 
well known.^ The Antigonis, a kind of cup, so called 
fi'om King Antigonus, seems to have ended in a point, but 
it is imcertain whether it was ever made of earthenware.^ 
The Sdeucis was named after King Seleucus. Ussing 
recognises its shape in some of the paintings at Pompeii. 
It appears to have had four handles,* like a mether. 

Of the same species as the cylia^y but almost limited to 
religious offices, was the phiale (the patera or saucer), a 
shallow, circular vessel, so like the round Argolic buckler, 
that Aristotle calls it the shield of Mars,* and, vice versa, 
Antiphanes^ calls "the shield of Mars'' a phiale. It 
rarely had handles,^ and was chiefly used for libations, 
being seldom, if ever, employed at entertainments.® It is 
of rare occurrence ; the few which have been discovered 

1 AthensBus, zi. 464 c, 409 b. p. 145, 146. 

« Pollux, vi. 96; Hesychius voce * Rhetor, iil 4 and 11 ; Poetic, xxi. 

Athenasos, 496, f. 12. 

» AthensBUS, 497 f ; Pollux, vi. 95; • Athen., x. 433, c; 488, f, 591. f. 

Schol. Clement. P»dag., iL 3. " Hesychius, &fjupl$fTov. 

* AthonsQUB, p. 488, d, f ; Usaing, ^ Bokker, Choriclos, Tab. 3, 1, 2. 

belong to the later style of art, and to the class of moulded 
vasea. Its want of handles was supplied by a boss, 
called the omphalos, in the centre of the cup, having a 
hollow beneath to admit of the insertion of the thumb or 
finger to hold it steady,' from which circumstance phialee 
were also called omphalotoi, " bossy ; " or mcsomphaloi, 
"having omphali in the middle." ^ In metallic work this 
umbo, or boss, ap]3ear8 to have been often ornamented 
with the head of the Gorgon. Such bosses were called 
" balanomphaloi," or glandular omphali, an example of 
which has been found. 

Another variety of this shape was the phiale lepaste, 
respecting which all that can be determined is, that it was 
larger than the phiale.^ Gerhard recognises it in the 
large cylix-like vessel of Basilicatan style, ornamented 
with studs at the sides, The acatos appears to have been 
the name of a phiale omphalotos, or " bossy saucer." 
"Some one," says Antiphanes, "has raised the acatos of 
Jupiter the Saviour I"* The trieres, that is the "triremis," 
or "first rate," was a large phiale? The phthois was a 
broad, bossy phiale, or saucer,^ but it is not certainly known 
whether it was made of fictile ware. The petnchnon, or 
" stretcher," was a %vide-spreading cup, neither resembling 
a phiale nor a tryhlion? The Inh-onia was a Persian cup, 
probably introduced into Greece after the conquest of 
Asia by Alexander, and was made of gold inlaid with 

■ AtboDBUH, CDS, a, b, eol, f. 
* Thiertch, fl. 30. 

> UBsiog, p. 152, 1S3 ; AtbeDSBUB, p. 
I!, a; Clement, Pwrtog., u. 3 ; AtLen., 

' AtheD.. 


!, f; Panofki, UL 

. 1S1, c 


. 65; FoUdi 

497, b, fiOO, c. 
• Athcn., 490, 602, b; BSokb. Corp. 
Injw,, No. lie. 

Fuiaflu, IT. 


i, f- 



gems.^ Chialas was the Doric name of a cup.^ With 
these cups may be classed the ceras, or " horn/' so called 
from its imitating a natural horn.' It was sometimes, 
though rarely, made of terra-cotta. Some examples, 
together with a notice of it, will be found under the word 
rhyton. The body was reeded, and the horn terminated 
in a lion's head, with a small aperture for the liquid to 
flow through. The upper part was decorated with a 
subject in bas-rehef, and at the side was a small circular 
handle, by which to hang it on a peg. It was sometimes 
supported by a collar or anclet, called periscelis. 


We will now proceed to the vases for holding food, of 
which there were several varieties in fictile ware. 

The canoun, or " canister,'' also called canastrotiy caneSy 
canenion, and caniskion, was sometimes made of earthen- 
ware.* The shape of this vase may be determined from 
that worn upon the heads of the canephoroi, and conse- 
sequently it must have resembled the calathos. The 
pinaa;, or " plate,'' of which the diminutives are pinacion^ 
and pinaciscos,^ though not mentioned among fictile ware, 
was probably the flat plate upon a tall stem or stand,^ 
having its interior ornamented with representations of 
fishes, such as the tunny, or pdamt/s, the cuttle-fish or 
sepia, the maid, or pristis, and the echinos or sea-egg. 

1 Athen., 484, c. * Homer. Epigr., 14, 8. 

' Athen. 467, c. ; Letronue, J. d. S., * Ussing, 1. c, 157. 

614, n. 8. • UssiDg, 1. c, 168, 159. 

> UssiDg, p. 156, 166; Panofka, v. ^ Panofka, iii. 69. 


The discos, or "disk," appears to have been a flat, circular 
plate or disk, similar to tlie Latiu patina.^ The lecanis, 
Iccos, lecis, lecarion, or leciscion, were dishes or tureens 
for holding food. They have already been described.' 
'^Xie paropsis was a dish, the shape of which is not known- 
It does not appear till a late period, and is often men- 
tioned by tlie Roman authors.' The i)j:is was a vinegar 
cruet of small size, holding a hemina, and generally made 
of earthenware.* Aristophanes ridicules Euripides, aa 
advising vinegar to be thrown out of vinegar cups into the 
eyes of the enemy,* Embaphia were vases, the sliape of 
which is unknown. The ereus was a vase for holding 
sweets,^ and the a/pselis, which perhaps had a cover, was 
employed for the same purpose.' The cuminodocos, 
cuminodocc, or cuminothece, was a spice-box,* consisting of 
several small cups, called cadisca, united on a stand or 
stem. Several such vases, erroneously supposed to be 
ceriios, both of late and early style, are known.* 

Another kind of dish was the tiyl/lion, a name which 
denoted either a dish or a cup, but is probably more 
correctly applied to the former.'" The expression " to 
make trr/Uia badly " (ra rpv/3A:a jcokSi Kfpa}i.finv), shows that 
they were fictile. All that is known about them is, that 
they were larger than the o.ri/bapha, and tliat figs were 
eaten out of tbcm. The o.vybaphon, the " vinegar cruet," 

< UwiDK, p. las. lAT; Arietopl 
Equit, 1301.; Flut., S12. 
* Aritlopb. Rbdoi, 1110. 
' Pollux, X. »2; Albeo., ii. 07, d. 

' Ussing, 167. 

" Athemeiu, vi. 230, d, o. 

' Pollux, I. 92. 

'" Pulluit, vi. S6. X. 86 ; Arutoph, 
Acbam. 27S, Bquit., 905; FbuL, llOB; 
S<boL Ariatoph. Avea., 371 ; Albeii., iv. 
\«9, e, r, liL G4S, t ; Uuiiig, p. 1«1, 2. 


or " cup/* often served the general purposes of a cup.' It 
appears to have been small and open.* The name was 
also applied to dice-boxes. Osybapha were used in the 
Sicilian game of cottabus,^ which was played in many 
diflFerent ways. 

1 Atheziffius, xL494, b; Pollux, tL 'BekkeryCharicles, 1 476-480; Athe- 

85. nsous, XY. 666, f ; 669, h ; Pollux, yi. 

s Atheii»u8» 494, o ; Axistoph. Avea, 109, 111, 
861 ; SohoL ad eund. 



SitM of Anriant FoUeries, nuJ where Pottery baa bsen diicOTorsd in Aria Uiiior 
— Oraclan lalaoda ^Continent of Greece — Athens — Solygin — Siojon — 
Aigolis — Dolpbi — Corinth ^ — Patra! — Megara — Laconia — Corfu — Italy — 
Claasifieation of Lenonoaut and De Witte^Hndrio — Modena — Pallcnzu — 
Qivolda— -Mautua— Ktniria — Vnlei — Ponte deH' Abbadin — Castol d'Awo— 
— Comato — Toecnnella — Clviusi — Orbatello — Pomgia — SartiMUio. Ac. — 
Voltort*— Bomarao — Orvieto — Veii — Cerretri — Civita Veiohia — Theories 
raapoctiag tbeio vasos — Arezzo — SaWn U Rocca — Soniraavilla — MonteronB 
—Poggio —Central and Lower Jtalj—PeriodB^ Naples — Cumti,— Tam 
di Laioro— Nola — Acerra — St. Agata dei Goti — Cnjaizo — Telese — Prin- 
oipato Citeriore — Pcsto— Eboli— Battipoglia— St. Lneia— Sorrento— Prin- 
eipnto Ulteriore — Capitanata— Basilicata— Anii — Armonto — Potenia— 
Gmmento — PugUa — PoUpiano, Putiguano — Bari — Canosa — Ruto — 
Ceglie — Calabria Ullerioro — Locri — Brindiii, — Taranto — Cnstallaaeta — 
lacbia — Sioily- — Oirgenti — Malta — Africa — Bengali — Nnuoratis — Aleian- 
dria— Kertcb, or PaaticapcDuiD — Sites of papposed Egyptian ware — Iml- 
tationi and forgerisa of Qreek vase* — Pricea. 

It DOW remains to enumerate the principal localities in 
which the existence of potteries is raentioned by ancient 
authors, as well as tlioso in which the fictile productions 
of the Greeks have hecn discovered. This enumeration, 
however, chiefly relates to painted vases, as it would l)e 
almost impossible to detail all the places where unglazed 
terra-cotta objects have been found. 


The most ancient potteries were probably those of Asia 

Minor, the scene of the first development of Grecian 


civilisation ; but our imperfect information will not permit 
us to follow the chronological order in describing them. 
Erythrae, in Ionia, was celebrated for the extreme thinness 
and lightness of its ware, and two amphora3, remarkable 
for these qualities, the rival productions of an ErythrsDan 
potter and his pupil, were consecrated in a temple of that 
city.^ Certain fragments of vases found near the circular 
tombs on Mount Sipylus, and in the so-called sepulchre of 
Tantalus, show that this ancient site had potteries which 
produced ware of the earliest fawn-coloured style, re- 
sembling the oldest Athenian pottery.^ At Xanthus, in 
Lycia, some fragments of vases, with black and red figures, 
were found in the course of the excavations.^ That potters 
were distributed all over Asia Minor may be surmised. 
An inscription at Telmissus records one who had bought 
a sepulchre for himself, his wife Elpis, his mother-in-law 
Euphrosyne, for Januarius, and his father-in-law Soterius.* 
He must have been in easy circumstances. At Halicar- 
nassus, during the excavations made at the mausoleum, 
the fragments of a vase, with brown figures upon a cream- 
coloured coating, was found. The vases of the oldest 
style discovered at Smyrna are not of any great size 
or importance.* Lampsacus,^ and Parium,^ have also 
produced vases. The vases found in Ionia have the white 
grounds of the Athenian style; but. one had the outline 
of the figure traced with a graver on a pale black ground, 
and the principal portion retouched in black with a pencil.® 

* Plin., XXXV. 12, 8.46; Brongniart, p. 116. 

Traits, p. 578. ' Jabn, Vasensammlung, xxvii. 

2 Trans. Roy. Soc, Lit, N. S. ii. 258. « Walpole, Mem. p. 91. 

» Brit Mus. ; Arch. Zeit. iv. 216. ' Dubois, Cat. Chois. Oonf. p. 139. 

* Franz., Corp. luscr. Greec, iii. n. " De Witte, Bull., 1832, p. 109. 
4212; Supp., p. 1116; Annali, 1847, 


The determination of the characteristics of the different 
local styles is a point of the greatest difficnlty." The 
■ware of Cnidus was renowned, even till the days of the 
Roman empire, but its fictile vases were probably not of 
the painted kind." Their extreme lightness was much 
praised. In the days of Pliny, Tnilles liad a great 
commerce in vases,* Pergamus, in Myeia, was also cele- 
brated for its potteries in the time of the same author.* 
A few vases, of very poor style and character, have been 
found at Tenedos.* a site once renowned for its potteries,^ 
■which lasted till the time of the Koman empire. Dion 
Chrysostom mentions in one of his discourses the vases 
which travellers purchased at this place, and which, on 
account of their extreme lightness, were packed with 
great care, but when they arrived at their destination 
were mere potsherds.' At the supposed grave of Achilles, 
in the Troad, lea/Uii, with polychrome figures, have been 
discovered, resembling in style those found in Athenian 
sepulchres.^ And recent excavations made at the sites of 
New JUum and Old Dardanns in the Troad, have dis- 
covered many small vases, some of the early fawn-coloured 
style, with figures of birds, a few with yellow grounds of 
the later style, and many small lecythi, with black figin-os 
resembling the Athenian.^ Fragments of vases may 

' Bull, 1810, p. 51. 
' Eubulua in Atl.en 

■,, L»ip1m 

28, D: 

' 0™t.. xliL S. 

' Clievnlior, Voy. datia Lii Trondu, 
ReiKS nacli Trona, Svo, Alien., ISOO.THf. 
i. 8. 213. Cboiacul Ooufflvr, Vo;. pUt, 

• Plio. N. H., 

< Ibid, 

* Welcker.lUicin.MuB., 1S43.g. 4^n i < HftdeiD lSeS-£e,b; Mr. Bnioton, of 
Annoli, 1843 ; Cbevaliar, Voy sge daiti the Ciiil Hospital of RenkioL Theiin 
La Troiuls, title pagQ, 8*0. Pur. ]. vFues luire beon preseuted bj Loiil 

■ Ptuttfoli davit. isr.alieuBeiBk., ix. Paomure to tlis British Muwuin. 



probably be traced throughout Asia Minor, and all the 
principal cities must have had their potteries. Some have 
been found at Tarsus. 


In the Isles of Greece many vases of different styles 
have been discovered. From the oldest times the island of 
Samos was renowned for its fictile ware. It is to the potters 
of Samos that one of the Homeric hymns is addressed — the 
oldest record of the art in literature. It appears from the 
life of Homer, attributed to Herodotus, that the poet had 
taken refuge in one of the potteries from a storm ; and that 
upon the morrow the potters, who were preparing to light 
their furnaces and bake their earthenware, perceiving 
Homer, whose merit was known to them, called upon him 
to sing some verses, promising in return to present him 
with a vase or any other object they possessed. Homer 
accepted their offer, and sung to them the " Lay of the 
Furnace," in which the inflated language of epic verso is 
applied, in a kind of satiric strain,^ to the subject of baking 
vases : — 

"Oh, you who work the clay, and who offer me a 
recompense, listen to my strains. 

"Athene ! I invoke thee 1 Appear, listen, and lend thy 
flkilful hand to the labour of the furnace, so that the vases 
which are about to be drawn, especially those destined for 
religious ceremonies, may not turn black ; that all may be 
heated to the proper temperature ; and that, fetching a 
good price, they may be disposed of in great numbers in 

' Miiller, Greek Literature, p. 132. 



tlie markets and streets of our city. Finally, that they 
may be for you an abimdant source of profit, and for me 
a new occasion to sing to you. But if you should shame- 
lessly deceive me, I invoke against your furnace the 
most dreadful afflictions — fracture {syntrips), contraction 
{smaragos), overheat {asbeslos), destruction {sabacte), and, 
above all, a destructive force {omodamos), which, beyond 
all others, is the destroyer of your art. 

" Jlay the fire devour your building, may all the 
furnace contains mix and be blended together without 
power of regaining it, and may the potter shudder at the 
sight ; may the furnace send forth a sound like the jaws 
of an angry horse, and may all the vases broken be only 
a heap of fragments." ' 

The ISamian ware was distinguished for its hardness, 
and was used for surgical operations.^ The earth was 
medicinal.^ A lecythus, or toilet vase, of fine paste, and 
exquisitely modelled, with representations of the sandals 
attached to it, with black glaze and red accessories, procured 
by Mr. Finlay from this island, is now in the collection of 
the British Museum. Few vases have beeu found at 
Saiuos, notwithstanding the ancient renown of the Samian 
potteries, and especially of the earth, which, on account 
of its fineness and red colour, maintained its reputation 
till the days of the ILoman empire.* In the days of the 
Uomau empire, Samos supplied dinner seivices ; and 

■ Uiot. Histoire d'llerodote. Puia • FLii.tua. Capt. 2BI. Sticb. v. 

1832. PI. iii. p. 2U!. CD4. Tibullua, iL 8, CI. Cicaro pro 

' Winy, N. H. tiutv. 12, 4ii. Lu«- MiinLiiu,36. Pliuy, H. N. iiv.lO. Ttr- 

liiu L NuQD. 3a». 33. tulliiu] Apulug. 2G. Aiuoniua Rpitp^ii. 

* Hoayohiiu 3a^ 7^ Kbymul. Ha^u. 8. Uidonu Origiii. u. 4, 3. 


certain vases of red ware with ivy-leaves, perhaps belong- 
ing to the Roman class, have been found there.* 

The vases found at Melos are of difiFerent ages and 
styles ; but this island was more celebrated for its plain 
than its painted vases.^ Those of the earliest period have 
a paste of a greyish yellow colour, of a density and hard- 
ness resembling common stone ware.^ Some vases from 
this island, formerly belonging to Mr. Burgon, and now in 
the British Museum, are of the old fawn-coloured and pale 
yellow wares, and have black figures of the most ancient 
style. Others exhibit a great advance in the arts, and 
are as late as the period of the Roman empire. At the 
neighbouring island of Argenticra Cimolos painted vases 
have been exhumed.* The vases found in the sepulchres 
of Santorino, the ancient Thera, and then an old Phoeni- 
cian settlement, are all of primitive style, with fawn- 
coloured grounds and brown figures.* Many vases from 
this island are in the BibUothfeque Imp6riale, at Paris. 
Others, in the Museum at Sevres, were taken out of tombs 
excavated in the solid limestone, the principal formation 
of the island. These tombs have been covered, at a very 
remote period, to the depth of 15 to 20 mdtres by a 
volcanic eruption of tufo, and are of the most remote 
antiquity.^ Some pithoi from this island are of huge size.^ 
Several vases which have been found in Crete, are said to 
resemble those of Campania.® Those of the sepulchres of 

» Bull, 1830, p. 226. mant, Introd. d I'fitade, xxiii. 

2 Welcker, Khein. Mus., 8vo, Franck. * Brongniart, Traits, i. p. 577-8 ; Mus. 
1843, 8. 435, 1823, p. 239. Cer., xiii. 4, 13, 15, 16. 

3 Brongniart, Traitd.i. 577; Mu8. Cor., ^ Arch. Zeit. xii. 61, 62; Ross. Ineel. 
PI. xiii. fig 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 10, 14. L 66. 68; iii. 27. 

* Ross, InaeL iii. 65. ^ Brongni irt, Tiait6, i. p. 578. 

^ Brongniart, Traitd, i. 577 ; Lenor- 


Kalymno, the ancient Ca/i/mna, a little isle of the Sporades, 
were of a fine clay, covered, like those of Atheus and 
Vulci, with a fine lustrous glaze, but not oi-namented 
with subjects.* Cos, which was celebrated for its cuHnary 
vessels and for its amphorae, which were considered very 
beautiful, and were exported to Egypt, has contributed 
cupa of the oldest style to collections of vases." At Myti- 
lene and Lesbos, the fragments of vases hitherto discovered 
have either black or red figures, resembling in their style 
tliose found in the graves of Athens.^ The vases of 
lUiodes have black figures on red grounds of the fi'ee 
and careless style of Greece. In Cyprus the vases as yet 
discovered resemble in style and ware those of Thera.* 
At riscopia, Telos, another of the small isles, a vase, witli 
black figures on a yellow ground of bad drawing, has 
also been discovered.^ At Chiliodromia, one of tlie small 
isles of the Sporades, several vases of coarse and late style, 
and principally of the Romaa period, have been found. 
They are chiefly remarkable for the peculiar manner in 
which they were ranged round the skeletons of the dead.* 
Another site of the old insular potteries was the island 
of jEgina,' celebrated at an early period for the excellence 
it attained in the arts, and especially for its sculptures. 
Altliough jEgina chiefly imported Athenian ware, yet that 
it also manufactured pottery appears from an anonymous 
writer of comedy, calling it "the llocky echo — the vendor 

< Arcbutl ZeiL I34S, -^78. • Koaa. luBel. iv. U. 

' Harodot., iii. S, ' Fiedler, Roiae durch alle Thoile 

' JMr.Nevtim, H.U, Vioe-CuuBul, boa dea Kijoigr. OricohUnd, Leipa., 1841; 

imd hero uiimy fragniBnts of palntad Eroiigniart, TraiW, I'L li. flg. 1. i. p. ESI. 

«:s. ' Bull,1829, p. I13,»ad foL; Puii>, 

• Boea. lauil, Ir. ITS, 191, 201, 209. x. 17, d. 



of pots/' ^ The few vases found there are remarkable for 
their lightness, being made of a superficial soil, for the 
most part of a siliceous base of infusorial carapaces. 
They are principally lecythi!^ A cylis with black figures 
has, however, been found, with the subject of Heracles 
strangling the Nemean lion, and a Bacchanalian dance, 
with the names of Nicaulos, Charidemus, Empedocrates, 
and an inscription,' probably alluding to the capture of 
Midas, or the appearance of Pan to the hemerodromoSy or 
courier, Philippos. It also bears the name of the maker, 
Ergotimus. Some fine lecythi^ with white grounds and 
figures, painted in the polychrome style, have been found 
at JEgina. At Colouri, SalamiSy a polychrome vase of 
fine style ;* and at Caristo, Carysttis, in Euboea,* a vase 
with black figures on a white ground, accompanied by an 


Passing hence to the continent of Greece, the first place 
to be considered is Jthe7is, the pottery of which was, of 
course, the most highly renowned of the ancient fabrics.^ 
The city was celebrated for its cups,^ which, however, 

^ Heineke. Frag. Com. gr. 130. B.; 
Hesych. voce. 'Hx^. Fhotitis and Poll 
▼i 197. 

' Brongniart Mus. Cer. PL xiiL fig. 11. 
Traits, p. 576. 

' For vasaB found at JSgina Cf. Ger- 
hard, BuUetino, 1829, p. 118. Wagner, 
Bericht ueber die eginetischen Bild- 
werke, b. 80. Wolf, Bull, 1829, p. 122. 
Gerhard, Bull, 1829, p. 122. Ross, Bull, 
1841, p. 83. Bull, 1833, p. 27. 

* Rochette, Feint, ant. taf. 8—11. 

s From the Atticism of thia inscription 

Kramer (ueber den styl. a. 173.) is of 
opinion, that the vase was made at 

' Rochette, Lettre a M. Schom, 6. 
C£ Matro Parodscus. apud Atheu, 
iy. p. 136. £ Attuc^ iy KtpofioS xirrwv 
Tpus Kcd 9fK^ fjLrjyas. 

7 *Eir\(nifioi KvKutti {Ktpdfita iroriipia) 
al Tc Apytuu Kcd cd 'AttIkou Athenseus 
Lib. XL p. 480 c. Jacob ad Anth. Grsec. 
L p. 2. p. 141. Eratosthenes, apud Ma- 
crob. Saturn, v. 21. Pindar. Fr. 89. 
k Bockh. Atheiiasus xi. p. 480, C. 


were rivalled by those of Argos ; for its wine casks or 
amphorEo,' its bottles, or lagajnaj,' and its ware in generaL' 
Claimiug, as it did, the honour of having invented the 
potter's wheel, the manufacture was highly esteemed ; and 
in very early days tlie Athenians exported their wares to 
jEgiua and the neighbouring isles. At Athens there 
were two pottery quarters, or ceramici, one within, the 
other, without the walls. Both seem to have had a bad 
reputation from their being frequented by hetaira).* The 
tombs of Athens have yielded specimens of painted and 
glazed ware of all kinds and periods. These have passed 
into the different European collections ; and the British 
Museum * has been partleulai-ly enriched by them, from 
having obtained the collections of Lord Elgin and 
Mr. Burgon. The earliest Athenian vases, with brass 
figures on a fawn-coloured ground,* have been already 

Many remarkable examples of glazed ware have been 
found in tho tombs of Athens, and among them the sarco- 
phagus of glazed ware found by Stackelberg in 1813, which 
contained the skeleton of a child, surrounded with terra-cotta 
figures, leajthi, and other small vases.' It was in a grave 
beyond the Acharniau gate, and its contents subsequently 

' Ol ttpaiiai, ArUto|ih. Acorn, tlO, 
Coraiui Faati, Attici., Tom. u. p.23U-7. 

= KfUflorlt AityiPH, Po»idippU», Epbl. 


' 'Arrmi dk(li|. Pindsr, 
AtheniBUB, li. p. 484, f, SLmonides, 
Aiui i. p. T£, OS, Ed. Jucolw. Athens, 
bid also a lurge tnde in JomoBtiu vea- 
tcIo. AiiatupbuicH, LyaUtr. 5ST- 

• 3chaL PIbC Pumauidtu, Bakker, 
p. IT, No. I'il. 

' Far thovusa djscovei'ed ai. Atboai, 
c£ MilUogen, Aao. UaeiL Mod., p. 1. 
Stackelberg, die Unwbar der HeliuDsu. 
Pauorka,Cabiuet Pourtali-B. Creazor,eia 
&lt AtbeuBches gefABS. Leipz.and D&no. 
Qorbard Aun. ii. 13S. Bruudatedt, 
Memoir Trou. lt.S.Ut. II. pL 1. BulL 

< No. SSao ud fuU. GiMber der 
Uelleneii, ■. 47. Tof. iz. 

' ll«d.,«.4a.T»£TiiL 


passed with Mr, Burgon's collection into the stores of the 
British Museum. The early sepulchres have also yielded 
many vases of the style called Doric, with j'ellow grounds.^ 
Of vases with black figures the predominant form disco- 
vered is the lecythtiSy especially lecythi of small size, orna- 
mented with subjects, of which the most favourite was the 
return of Proserpine to earth ; but there are several with 
subjects taken from the Gigantomachia, the Heracleid, the 
War of Troy, and from Attic myths, as Boreas and Orei- 
thyia, and the Theseid. Many, as might be expected, are 
ornamented with scenes from the Gymnasium.^ Of other 
vases of this style, the most remarkable are that with the 
subject of the Trojan women lamenting either Troilos or 
Hector,^ and a tripod vase.* But all these yield in 
interest to the Panathenaic amphora, or Vas Burgonianura, 
found ouside the Acharnian gate at Athens, in the year 
1813. It is of a pale salmon-coloured clay, on which the 
figures are painted in a blackish-brown colour, while the 
parts not painted are of a pale black leaden glaze. The 
subject represents, on one side, Pallas Athene, standing 
between two columns of the Palaestra, surmounted by 
cocks, the birds sacred to Hermes and the Games. She is 
dressed in a talaric tunic, and armed with her aigis and 
shield, the device, or episemon, on which is a dolphin ; in 
her other hand she holds her lance. Inscribed on the 
vase is a perpendicular line of Greek, reading from right to 
left, TON : A0ENE0EN : A0AON : EMI : " I am a prize 

» One with a giant is figured in stack- b. 230, 709; No. 674, 711, 71G, s. 

olberg, Taf.l6. 231,717. 

' Cf SUckelberg, Die. Graeber., Taf. « Mon. iii. 60. 

10-16. Gerherd, Berlins Ant Bild. •* Stackelberg, Ibid. Taf. 15. 


from Athens." On the other side is a man driving the 
biga, or synoris, and urging the horses with a goad, while 
jingling bells are attached to their necks. There can 
be no doubt bnt that this is one of tlie very amphora) 
described by Pindar, when he sings of the Theiseua, son 
of Ulias of Argos, in the passage before cited. As a 
prelude to future victories, " sacred songs twice proclaimed 
him victor in the sacred festivals of the Atheniana, and 
the fruit of the olive tree came over in the splendid 
vessels of earth burnt in fire for the manly people of Juno," 
It held the holy oil from tiie Ohve Grove of the Moira;, or 
Fates. When discovered, it was filled, as already men- 
ioned, with the burnt ashes of its former owner, and also 
with several small vases, -which probably held the oil, 
milk, and other substances poured upon the pyre. Its 
age is at least as early as the sixth century b, c' 

Tiie Athenian vases of this style differ considerably 
from those found at Vulci, the drawing of the figures 
being much more free and careless, and the incised lines 
bolder and luss rigid.^ A few vases, with the white coating 
and black figures, have also been discovered at Athens, 
and a few, with red figures of the hard style ; the best 
much resembling in their varnish and treatment the vases 
of Kola ; but they are exquisitely fijie and light, and cer- 
tainly equal to any found in Italy. Many of the Athenian 
vases are of the later period of the art, and resemble those 
found in Apuha and St. Agata dei Goti ; among which 

■ BroiidstedoDthaPiiniLtheiiaicviaeB. Bfaeinisobe 
Tnuu. B. Soc. LiL U. p. 112; BUckh, Bd., i. 1833, a 
BulUt, 1832, p. 91 ; Mullor, Comment, x. 33, 36. 

= Oarlmrd, Berl. Ant. BUd., i 

lUi Bullet, [nst., 1B3!, 9E : Wulcker No. SOi. 


some pt/andes, or ladies* toilet boxes, are distinct from any 
yet discovered even in Southern Italy, being ornamented 
with polychrome figures, in red, white, and blue colours. 
Some of the vases found here are of the florid style of 
Ruvo ; among which may be cited an allegorical vase, 
with the subject of Aphrodite and Peitho plaiting a 
basket, and the three graces, Paidia, " instruction ; " 
Eunomia, " discipline ;" and Cleopatra, " national glory." * 
There have also been discovered vases with opaque 
red and white figures, painted on a ground of black 
varnish. Among these is a charming little toy jug, 
on which is depicted a boy crawling to a low seat, on 
which is an apple. This specimen is unrivalled for its 
exquisite varnish and treatment.^ Another vase, also 
ornamented with gilding, has a representation of Nik6 in 
a quadriga of winged horses, between Ploutos, " Wealth," 
and Chrysos, or '*gold."^ To this class must also be 
referred an exquisite little vase, in the shape of an astra- 
galos, or knuckle-bone, ornamented with the subject of 
Pentheus and the Maenads ; * a canthariSy a thermopotis, 
rhytUj^ cyliceSy pyoaides^ calpides, and peliceeP Some 
alabastra, with linear figures, in black upon a white 
ground, have also been found at Athens, as well as nume- 
rous lecythiy with polychromatic paintings on a white 
ground.® Their subjects are Orestes, Blectra, and Pylades 
at the tomb of Agamemnon. Many Athenian vases are 
unadorned with figures, and many painted black, although 

^ Stackelberg xxiz. It was found at ^ Ibid. xxiv. 

the Museum. ^ Ibid, xxiii. xxiv. xxvi. xxvii xxviii. 

* Ibid. Taf., xviL 7 Ibid. Taf., xx. xxi. xxii. 

* Ibid. xvii. *• Ibid. xliv. xlv. xlvi. xlviiL 

* Ibid. Taf., xxiu. 



[Vnl. II.. I 


very elegant in shape and finish. The accounts of the 
rivalry in trade between Athens and jEgina and Argos,' 
and the fact of these vases being transported to Dicaso- 
poUs,^ and carried by Phcenician ships to iEthiopia,^ show 
the extent of the Athenian trade in pottery. 

lu the other parts of the continent of Greece, the vases 
found are not very numerous. Some, however, with both 
black and red figures upon a black ground, as well as some 
with opaque white figures of the very latest style of ai't, 
have been discovered in the district of Solygia ; ■* but they 
are of rare occurrence. Nor has the "hollow Lace- 
diemou," once renowned in this branch of manufacture for 
dark brown cups, called cothons, with recurved lips, 
adapted for keeping back the mud of the foul water, 
which her valiant soldiery drank upon their marches, 
enriched our stores of Greek fictile productions.* Sicyon 
has only yielded a ajUj; of early Doric style. Of the pot- 
teries oi Arffolis, only a few fragments ploughed up at the 
foot of the supposed tomb of Agamemnon at Mycena). 
of the early fawn-coloured style, with masander ornaments, 
have been discovered.^ A vase in the Munich collection 
is firom Teuea.' Near Sinano, the ancient Megalopolis, in 
Arcadia, a lecythus, with black figures, has been found.^ 

Some fragments have been discovered at Delphi,' and 
a considerable number of vases at Corinth, already cele- 
brated for its earthen ware in the days of Ciesar, when 

3S. Atbeu 
. 11)0. 

' AriBtopliniiBB. AcboTD. WL 
■ ScyUt. p. M. U. 
• See Arcfa. Zait Bull. 1830. 
' Brongniart, TmiW, p. 57B, PI. i 
6g. 1. PL xuiii.I. PluturohuB, ?!■ 


Lyourg. Vol. i. p. 84. 

■ Dodwell Clusical Tour, 

' Abekon, MittellUlicn, p. SSS. 

" B«rl. Ant Bild. 1SS7. 

' Itou, Murgenblatt, XiZi. i9i. 
\Vitt«, ADiwli, ilii. p. 10. 


the new Colonia Julia, as it was designated, ransacked the 
sepulchres for the vases, which were the admiration of the 
rich nobiUty of Rome.^ The most remarkable ones of 
this site are of the old style called Doric, with black 
figures on cream-coloured grounds, many of which were 
probably made in the days of Demaratus, when Cypselus 
expelled the Bacchiads. The principal one is that found 
by Dodwell,^ and generally called the Dodwell Vase, with 
a subject representing the boar hunt of Agamemnon. 

The collection of Mr. Burgon also contained specimens 
of vases from Corinth, some with black figures upon a red 
ground, consisting of pyxides, cenocho'e, and tripods with 
subjects of little interest ; the best specimen had a repre- 
sentation of a Centaur bearing ofif a female. Some years 
ago a great number of vases in very indifferent condition, 
having suffered much from the percolation of water 
through the earth, were found by boring into tombs many 
feet below the surface at the isthmus, or Hexamili. 
Most of them have passed into the possession of the 
Society of Arts. Lately, some a/lices, chiefly of the early 
shapes, with tall stems and small figures of bulls, dancing 
men, ornaments, flowers, and illegible inscriptions have 
been found there. The discovery of a cup with the name 
of the maker Tleson, shows that Corinth was probably 
the place whence these vases were exported to Italy.^ 

Corinth, like Athens, boasted the invention of pottery,* 


^ Strabo, L c. Zumpt, Arch. Zeit. Akad. 1838. ii. 2. p. 109., contendiDg 

1846, p. 309. Oflan, Zusatz. ueber for the so-called Egyptian style being 

UrspruQg, p. 63, 85., considers the Corinthian. 

Nekrokorinthia to be bas-reliefs. * Barth, Corinth, commerc et mer- 

» Dodwell, ii. p. 197, 201. oat Hist. p. 16; R. Rochette, Ann. 

s Abeken, Mittel-Italien, p. 298. Ross, xiz. p. 237. 
Anaphe; Thiersch, Abhandl. d. Munch. 


and of the wheel. As the artists Eucheir and Eugrammus 
accompanied Demaratus from Corinth to Italy, it has been 
supposed that tlie Corinthians insti-ucted the Etruscans in 
the art of making fine vases. Thcricles was the moat 
renowned of the Corinthian potters. His cups, under the 
name of " Thericleans," obtained a celebrity almost 
imiversal. It was here that in the time of Julius Ciesar, 
the colony sent here found ancient painted vases, and 
other remains, which excited as much interest then at 
Rome' aa the discoveries at Vulci did a quarter of a 
century ago in Paris and London, 

Vases have also been found at Patras, Patra, and a 
small bottle, of a fine red paste, having on it a winged and 
bearded head in a Phrygian mitre, is said to have been 
discovered there.^ It ia well known that Meqara was 
anciently reno'mied for its vases.^ They were chiefly of 
a large size and of a soft, paste, as the pantomimes used 
to break them with their foreheads.* Some vases have 
been found on its site.° Laconia gave its name to a 
kind of cylLi;^ and its vases when pounded and mixed 
with pitch and wine, were supposed to make hens lay 
large eggs.' 

From the sepulchres of Aulis, which is also mentioned 
bj' Pliny with Tenedos,* has been disinterred a vase 
with red figures, representing the Prometheus Bound of 
jEschylus, at the moment when the wandering lo enters 
on the stage." 

' Stwbo, viiL 381, f. ' Athan. xl p. 484. F. 

* Qsrhtrd, Annnli, ii. 139. J OeopooicB, liv. 11. 

' atepli. Bji H^nvB. « Plut, de vit. ar. nl. S28. 

■ Sjrnseiiu, EicColv. 44. p. 77. C. » HUliagen, AuD.Uned. Uon., PI. i: 

' Dociwell, Tour, iL 180, 


Passing westward, some vases of early style with brown 
figures on a yellow ground were found in the cemetery at 
Castrades in Coriii, or Corcyra,* where stood the sepulchres 
of Menecrates and Tlasias, besides numerous terra-cotta 
amphora) for holding wines of the Hadriatic,* which have 
been already mentioned.^ 


The vases found in Greece are both small in size and 
few in number, when compared with those discovered in 
the ancient cemeteries, and on the sites of the old cities 
of Italy. These are indeed so numerous, that the fictile 
art of antiquity might be traced from the vases of Italy 
alone. MM. Lenormant and De Witte,* in their work on 
the subject, divide these vases into three great classes : 

I. The first division comprises those found in the south 
of the peninsula, the ancient Magna Graecia, where the 
cities founded upon the coast by the Greeks, infused a 
certain degree of civilisation into the interior. Thus at 
Locri and Tarontum,* the potter's art is supposed to 
have been first established, and to have influenced the 
semi-barbarous population of Apulia and Lucania. The 
vases of these cities are distinguished for their beauty and 
art, and are far superior to the specimens discovered in 
the southern and eastern districts of the kingdom of 
Naples, in the mountainous regions of the BasiUcata, and 
the Mediterranean cantons of Puglia. Of the rest of this 

1- Arch. Zeit. 1846, 8. 377. For the » Jahn. 1. c. a. 84. Anth. Pal. ix. 

amphoric, seo Pseudo-Arut., Mirab. 232, 257. 

auscult. Ekl. Bcckman, no. cxL * filite, Introd. xx.v. 

> Eubulus, Athcneo, i. 28 c. & Gerhard, Bull 1829, 167. 


territory, the finest specimens have been found in the 
necropolis of Canosa, the ancient Canusium, and of Ruvo, 
the ancient Rubi. 

II. The second class ' embraces the vases of Campania,^ 
which were discovered in three of the cities of its coast, 
viz., CumsB,^ Pajstum,* and Siirrentum,* and in others in 
the interior. Those of the fii-st-mentioned city are sup- 
posed fi'om their style to have been fabricated after its 
subjection by the Samnites, as also were those of Nola at 
their finest period The rest of the vases of Campania, 
as those of Capua, Avella, and St. Agata dei Goti, are far 
inferior to the preceding in art and fabric. As all these 
cities fell with the Samnite league in B. c. 272, it is pro- 
bable that tlieir potteries then ceased to exist. 

III. The third, and last class," are the vases discovered 
in Etruria, which are as abundant as that of the south of 
Italy. They are found in every Etruscan city of im- 
portance, from Hadria,^ at the mouth of the Eridanus 
or Po, to the very gates of Rome itself.' Tliese vases are, 
in general, of older style than those of Southeni Italy. 
The roost ancient are discovered in tlie sepulchres of C^re, 
or of Agylla, its port ; in those of Tarquinii, and in the 
numerous sepulclires of Vulci, which have yielded an 
immenHG number of vases. 

In describing these remains, the most convenient method 

' BurUAut. Bil<l>r. a. I3S. 

1 £lit« In trod. ixvi. 

> Qerhurd, Bull. 1S21>. ]i. 163 ; Scbul/, 
Bua 1842. g. 

' Oarli&rd, Bull, 1829, p. 163. Oar- 
hud u. Panofka, NenpelB Ant Bildnr. ■. 
S.^3, DO. 60, G, 308. DO. 404. 

' 0(irhan1,Bull.l32»,p.lfl4;S<:Lii1z, 

Bull. 1642, 10. 

* glite Intro.), xivi. 

7 Oerhird, Bull. 1832. pp. SD, 205. 
Bull. 1834. p. 134; K. Rochette AdiI. vi. 
293 ; QotI Mua. Blr. tab. ii. cttiiciii. 

" WinokBlm«nn,Cal,Picrrio«Omvtfi-^ 
p. 215. Lanu, Vu. Dip. 42. 


will be to follow the geographical distribution of the pot- 
teries from north to south, and, accordingly, to commence 
with those of Hadria, and which, at the time of Pliny, 
still continued to manufacture drinking cups of the finest 
quality. Painted vases have also been found in its tombs. 
According to Micali,^ the vases discovered at Hadria 
diflFer entirely from the fabric of those found in Puglia, 
the Basilicata, and at Nola. They have been exhumed 
there as early as the sixteenth century ; ^ and in later 
excavations made at the mouth of the Po, and in some 
others undertaken by the Austrian government, fragments 
of Greek fictile vases were found at some depth below the 
Roman remains. Of these, Micali ' has engraved a selec- 
tion, consisting of a fragment of an amphora, with the 
subject of Hephaistos holding a hatchet; a vase of large 
size, with part of a chariot ; a female named KAAIOITA,* 
and a man named 2IKI2N (Sikon) ; and three fragments of 
cups, with the subjects of a satyr, a lyrist, and a man at a 
symposium. It has been observed that, in Italy, the old 
vases with black figures are rare in graves of the earliest 
style, and that the greatest number of vases come from 
the more recent tombs ^ of the other northern cities of Italy. 
Mutina, or the modern Modena, in Gallia Cisalpina, was 
celebrated in the days of Pliny for its drinking cups. Few 
painted vases, however, have been found there, but only 
some of a glazed red ware, resembling the ware of Arre- 
tium, an observation which also applies to the city of 

* Mon. Inedit.,p. 279, and folL; Bull., ' 1. c tav. xlv. 

1834, p. 134. ^ Supposed to refer to the horses of 

* Bocchi, Dissert dell 'Acad, di Rhesus. See Panofka, Arch. Zeit 1852, 
Cortona, torn. iii. p. 80, tay. viii. ix.; 481. 

Mus. Etrusc. tav. 188. ^ Abeken, MitteMtalien, s. 298. 


Asfi.^ Painted vases have, however, been found in this 
part of Italy, some with red figures, of a style like the 
Campanian, having heen exhumed at PoUentia,' which, 
like Modena and Asli, was celebrated in the time of Pliny ' 
for its cups : and others at Gavolda,* on the left bank of the 
Mincio, near its confluence with the Po. One, discovered 
near Mantua, liad the subject of Perseus holding the Gor- 
gon's head, and Andromeda.* 

At Bologna, the ancient Bononia, in the Bologiieso 
legation, vases, even with btack figures, have been for- 
merly discovered.* 

Proceeding to the site of Etruria, so prolific in spe- 
cimens of the fictile art, we find that many vases of 
tlie oldest style have been discovered at Valore, in the 
vicinity of Viterbo,' consisting of Archaic amphorae with 
black figures, and cups with red figures ; amongst which 
was one made by the potter Euphronios.^ From tlie sepul- 
chres of Castel d'Asso, some ancient amphora; and frag- 
ments of cups, with red figures, have been obtained. 

Cornelo, the celebrated town of Tarquinii, the birth- 
place of the Tarquins, and the spot to which the 
Corinthian Demaratus fled, taking with him the artists 
Euchcir and Eugrammus,^ yielded from its sepulchres a 

> X>t.Hist.,xizv.c.l6 



"QerlmrdiltapportaValoeQts, p. 116, 

1837. p. 88—97. 

note 8; Builetiiic., 188(1. p. 233—213, 

' BroQgaiirt, TralM.i. 

p. S83; 


1&32, p. 2, I83U. p. 199; Gerhard. 

18S0, p. 21. 

B, A. R, B. 1*1, n. 6. no. 890; Mi- 

• N. amy. c^8. 

cali. Storio, tar. loii. icUi ; Futorka, 

' Bull.. 1847. p. ir. 

Mm. Hu-t. p. BD. 

• Boil., 1838, p. 62. 

• Livj, i. dec. 34 ; Bull, 1831, p. 6. 

• Lund, nut. TM. dipint p. 2B 

1S32.P.2, 3. 


great quantity of the black Etruscan ware, with embossed 
figures.^ Of the painted vases,^ comparatively few 
have been found on this site ; but among thera are 
a key thus of the most Archaic style, resembUng the vases 
of Corinth, or those called Doric* Alabastra of this 
style were more frequently found here than at Vulci.* 
Archaeological excavations were made on this site in 1825 
by Lord Kinneir, and in 1827 by Chev. Kestner and 
M. Stackelberg.^ The vases from this spot, are chiefly 
small amphorsB, of medium size, and good Archaic 
style, but for the most part either of ordinary glaze, or 
unglazed. One of the largest vases found in Etruria, 
however, came from this site ; and on fragments of cups 
found here are the names of the artists Amasis and 

Tliis site has principally afforded vases of the solid 
black or Etruscan ware,^ although a few painted ones have 
been disinterred from its sepulchres, with black figures 
and Athenian subjects.® Some came from Monte 

At Toscanella (Tuscania), only a few vases, and those 
generally with black figures, and of careless drawing, 
have been discovered. 

At Chiusi, the Etruscan Camars and Latin Clusium, 
fragments of painted cups, with the names of the makers, 

1 Annali, 1829, p. 95, 109. 116, n. 3 ; Kuntsblatt, 1823. p. 205, 1825, 

2 Hyperb. Rom. Stud. I. 89; Rapp. p. 199; Annali, 1829, p. 120; Bulletino, 
Vole, note 3. 1829,p.l98; Bull.,1830,p.242,1881,p.4. 

» Ibid., Bullet, 1829, p. 176,197,1830, 7 Bull, 1830,202, 1831, 3; 1833, 

p. 197, 138. • p. 80. 

♦ Gerhard, Rapp. Vole p. 121. n. 36. » Bull., 1829, p. 5. 
« BuU., 1829, p. 2. 9 Bull., 1829, p. 10. 

• Qerhard, Rapporto Volcentc^ p. 

Panthajos and Hioro, and tlie youths Cherilos and Nicos- 
tratus, liave been found.' Latterly, however, the oxca^ 
vations of M. Francois have discovered the magnificent 
crater of the Florence Museum, representing the subject3 
of the Achilleis. 

Many vases of all the principal styles have been dis- 
interred at this site ; those with black figures resemble, 
in general tone of glaze and style, those of Vulci, and are 
of the usual forms. One of them has the name of the 
potter Anakles. Vases with red figures, both of the 
strong and fine styles, abound here ; the most remarkable 
of which are the cups, which have certain local peculiarities, 
and some vases of local manufacture have also been met 
with in the excavations.' 

Many come from the sepulchres of the Val di Chiana.^ 

Vasea of the moulded black ware have been found at 
Sarteano* at Castiglione del Trinoro, in the vicinity, and 
at Chianciano, to the number of several thousands in all, 
but no painted vases. 

The ware of Orbetello is of a pale dull clay, the 
glaze of a dull leaden hue, lilte that of the worst of 
the Apulian and Southern Italian vases ; the forms are 
rude and inelegant, and the subjects, representing satyra 
and Bacchantes, and youths, are coarse and ill drawn. 
Vases, with subjects of the earliest Archaic style, 
together with the usual Etruscan black ware, have been 

• Qerbafd, Rapporto Voleeuto,B. 116, 
Ko. 5 : Bull«tiuo, 1831), p. 244 ; Mua. 
Etr. Cliius. Uv. iiT. 4(t ; QarhiLnl, B. 
A. a, S90, 427; B., IS39, p. 49; 
1840, p. ISO; 1B36, p. 3S) 1B3S, p. S2. 
74 ; laSl, p. 100 : Bull. 1839, p. 25. 

* Jaho, Tuaawmmluiig, Ixxii.- 
tiii; iDghii'ami EtruBco Uuseo obiu- 
lo2ad, 4U). Fie».18S2. 
' Biill.,1811, p, 4, 1835, p. 12S. 
' Deuaia, Elrutia, i. p. 404. 


discovered at Perugia ^ or Perusia, and others at Roselle 
or Rusellae. 

The painted vases discovered in the sepulchres of Vol- 
lerra, Volaterrae, are much inferior to those of Vulci, 
Tarquinii, and Chiusi. Their clay is coarse, their glaze 
neither lustrous nor durable.^ Their subjects are prin- 
cipally large female heads, in yellow, upon a black ground, 
like those of the Basilicata. They betray a comparatively 
recent origin ; and although some fine vases are said to 
have been found there, none of an early style have been 
discovered.^ Some contained the ashes of the dead.* 

Similar vases have been found in Siena, or Sena.* And 
at Pisa, in the beginning of the present century, a potter's 
establishment was discovered. A fine hydria from this 
find is figured by- Inghirami. At a later period vases 
with red figures, both of the strong and fine style, have 
been discovered here.^ 

The excavations in the ancient site of Bomarzo have 
produced some Archaic amphorae, with black figures, of per- 
fect style, and a few elegant cups. Some of the vases have 
red figures, and the flesh of the females is white.^ The 
hydria, or water jar, has not been discovered there. The 
glaze is bad, and the subjects common. The place where 
the vases have been principally found is at Pianmiano, 
the supposed Mseonia of the Italian archaeologists.® 

» Dennis, Etr. i. p. 425; BuUetino, * Bull., 1829, p. 208. 

1829, p. 14 ; Micali, Storiadltalioy Ixxiy. * Lanzi, Vasi, p. 24. 

IzxvL Ixxviii. 2, Ixxix. 1 ; xxiii. 9 ; Ber- * Jahn, Vaseusammlungr, Ixxxiii 

lins Antiken Bildwerke, s. 172 and foil., ^ Gerhard, RapportoVolcente, p. 1] 6 ; 

No. 390, 426. Bull., 1830, p. 233, 1881, p. 7 ; Gerhard, 

2 Dennis, Etruria, ii. p. 203 ; Bull., 1834, p. 60 ; B. A. R, b. 141, n. 8. 

1830, p. 236. « Bull., 1830, p. 233. 

3 Micali, Mon. Ined., p. 216. 



The vases found at Orvielo are a a/Hr, with red, and a 
crater, with black figures ; ' oue bearing the narae of a 
youth, Hiketas, or Niketas, the other having Bacchanahan 
subjects.' Vases of the solid black Etruscan ware are also 
found on this site. 

Veil, or Isola Farjiese, is more celebmted for its black, 
or Etruscau ware, than for its vases of Greek style. 
Several painted v.ises have, however, been found at this 
place. Some of the Veian sepulchres consisted of a large 
chamber, containing sculptured couches, on which the dead 
were deposited ; others were mere niches cut out of the 
tufo, and were capable of containing one vase, and a small 
covered urn of terra-cotta, in which the ashes of the dead 
were deposited. The black vases of larger size were 
found placed round tlie body of the deceased, while those 
of more elegant shape were in the niches, amidst tlie ashes 
of the dead and the gold ornaments.^ The vases were of 
the archaic style, with brown figures upon a yellow ground, 
representing two men fighting for a tripod, stags, panthers, 
and liind, a gryphon and crow, a Hon swallowing Pegasus, 
a man and an amlrosphinx,* rows of animals, and a winged 
figure between two gr)-phons. Several vases were of the 
(Inisbed style, with black figures, consisting of craters, 
cdebe, with the representation of a msnad and satyr.' 
HeoB pursuing Cephalus and Deinomachus, and of am- 
pliurie, with the Centauromacliia ; the first labour of 

I Bull, 1S31, p. as, 35, 67 ; Cf, p. 7. 

' Bull, 1833, p. 9. 

■ A pttrtioulnr deseription of the bo- 
pulelirea of Veii ie given by S. Campo- 
nari, DeBoriiioDo doi Vai ' 

mpnlcLri dell' antics Veil, and u 

fattB Hell' isola FarDBSo, fo. 
Boma, 1S3S, 112; Bull., ISIO, p, 12, 
Cauiiu, Vej. fu. Rom. 164T, Gtr. Uurit. 
I. p. 133. tuT. 34-;i8. 
lUJ., U 

' Ibid.. I 

I. 18 21. 


Hercules, or the conquest of the Nemaean lion ; Tyndareus 
and the Dioscuri ; the car of Heos ; Achilles arming 
in the presence of Thetis. The vases of the finished style, 
with red figures, consist of the shape called stamnosy 
having the subject of Jupiter, Ganymede, and Dardanus , 
the departure of Triptolemos ; the Dionysiac thiasos, 
citharaedi, and athletes. Some cups, with subjects derived 
from the Dionysiac thiasos and gymnastic exercises ; a 
scyphos panathenaicus, with the owl and laurel branch ; 
and a rhyton, with a scene taken from a triclinium.^ 

The vases found in the very ancient tunnelled tombs of 
Cervetri or Caere ^ are of the oldest style. One from Civita 
Vecchia, now in the British Museum, has bands of animals, 
centaurs, and other figures, drawn in maroon, on a white 
coating, in a style of art scarcely a degree advanced 
beyond that of the pale fawn-coloured ware oi Athens? 

The most remarkable vases of this locality are certain 
ones of anomalous shapes, with two or more handles — 
the very oldest example of the Archaic Greek ; the 
figures of a dark colour, on a pale red or yellow back- 
ground, originally traced out in a white outhne, and not 
relieved by any incised lines ; the subject fish, and large 
ornaments. These vases appear contemporary with 
certain others, on which are painted deer and animals, in a 
white tempera outUne, sometimes stippled.* 

Abundance of vases of the early Phoenician or Corinthian 
styles, especially large craters, with stands, called by some 
holmoiy have, besides the usual friezes of animals, such 
subjects as the hunt of the Calydonian boar,^ the mono- 

^ Ibid. Cf. for the shapes, tav. A, B. ^ Campana collection at Rome. 

2 Bull, 1889, p. 20. * MuB. Greg., ii. xc. 

3 Brit Mus. 


machia of Memnon and Achilles,' and the rescue of the 
corpse of the last-mentionod lioro" from the Trojans. 
Otiier vases, such as au (ciiochoe of the Gregorian Museum, 
are of the same style of art, hut tending towards the rigid 
class of black figures, and representing Ajax, Hector, and 
^ncas.' Vases of the hard style of hlack figures also 
occur, as an olpv, with the subject of the shade of Achilles,* 
and among those with red figures is a remarkable stamnos, 
in which is represented the contest of Hercules and the 
Acheloos.* A ci/lij\ with black figures, discovered at this 
place, had the name of tho potter Charitajus,® Many 
vases of Nicostheues were also found there,' Some have 
incised Etruscan inscriptions.^ 

Otlicr vases bore tlio names of tlie potters and artists — 
Pamphajos, Epictetus, and Euphronius. The sepulchres 
of Csre have produced some vases of the fine style, dis- 
tinguished by a deep black and lustrous glaze, distinct in 
tone from those of Kola, and some few of later style- 
But the discoveries made at all the other Etruscan sites 
combined are surpassed, both in number and iutcrcst, by 
those at Vtdci (which name is universally agreed to be 
the ancient designation of the site of the Ponle ddla 
Badia), and, in its vicinity, the supposed Necropolis. It is 
to the elaborate report of M. Gerhard^ that we owe an 

' Hon., il 38 i AtmaH, 163S, pp.310, UitteMtoliao, p. 299. 

811. ' Bull., 1830, p, 124, 18S2, p. 2, 1831, 

1 Hod.. L si ; Aniuli, 1836, pp. SOS- p. 4S, 1830, pp. SO, 31. 

31U. ' Ab that with Urthia, Bull, 183fl, 

» Mui Greg., li. 1, 8. p. 01 ; Bull, 1839, 21. For Cerretii 

• EulL, 1830, p. 243, Vuoa,8es Bull, 1B32, p. S. 

' Roy. Boc Lit., New Serion, ii. p. ■ Cuiled the RApporto Voloaata, iwd 

100 , Aaoali, 1837, p. 183, pablialied In the Ancali, 1839; ace &1m 

• ViMjODti, Ant Mon. Scop., pi. 9 ; Bull., 1S30, p. i. 1832, pp. 1-3-6. 
CiDUMjCere AD^ca,pp. 73,78; Abskaa, 


excellent classification and account of the discoveries at this 
site. They appear to have commenced towards the close 
of the year 1829, during which year about 3000 painted 
vases were discovered by the Princess of Canino, SS. Fos- 
sati, Campanari, and Candelori, at places called the Piano ^ 
deW Abbadia and the Campo Morto,^ in a vast desert plain, 
about five miles in circumference, between the territory of 
Canino and Montalto, known by the name of Ponte delta 
JBadia^ from the bridge which crosses the little stream 
Fiora, by which the plain is traversed. The country on 
the right bank of the river, called by the inhabitants Cam- 
poscala, and that on the left, distinguished by a hill called 
the Cucumella, belonged to the Prince of Canino. Since 
that time continuous excavations made at Vulci have 
brought to light several vases of great interest, although 
the numbers have materially diminished since the first 
discovery. They were found in small grotto-tombs, hol- 
lowed in the tufo, and with few exceptions only a few 
palms under ground. There was nothing remarkable in 
them except the vases, for they were neither spacious nor 
decorated, nor furnished with splendid ornaments, like the 
sepulchres of Tarquinii and of Magna Grsecia. Some had 
seats for holding the objects deposited with the dead ; 
others pegs for hanging the vases up to the walls. The 
wonder was to find such noble specimens of art in sepul- 
chres so homely.^ These vases were of all styles and 
epochs of the art, from those with maroon figures upon 
yellow grounds to the pale figures and opaque ones of its 
last decadence. Hence they comprise specimens of the 

* BulL, 1832, p. 6, 1836, p. 134, 1839, For a view of this, see Men. i. xli. 
pp. 69-77; Gerhard, in the Bull., 1831, ^ Bull, 1829, 3, 18. 39, Hi. 

p. 161, mukes them about 3000-4000. » Bull.. 1829, pp. 4, 5. 


style called Egyptian, of the transition to the black 
figures uj)on a red ground, of ttie hard rigid red figures, 
of those of the most flourishing age of the fictile art, of 
the style of the Basilicata and Southern Italy, of figures 
in outline upon a white ground like those of Locri and 
Atliens, of opaque figures in white or red, kid upon the 
black Tarnish of the vase, and of others of a character 
unraistakeably Etruscan. Besides these, an immense num- 
ber of vases painted black only, without any subject, and 
othei-s of the solid black ware, were discovered in the va- 
rious scpuldirea along with Etruscan bronzes aud ivories, 
and other objects peculiarly Etruscan.' 

This vast discovery naturally attracted the attention of 
the learned in Europe. Notwithstanding the glaring fact of 
their Greek inscriptions, and the light tiirown upon them by 
the researches of" Lanzi,* Winckelmann' and other arcliai- 
ologists, the Itidian antiquaries, animated with an ardent 
zeal for their country, claimed them as Etruscan works.* 
It was eaaier to demonstrate the error of this hypothesis, 
than to explain liow so many Greek vases should be found 

' BoaiJeii tho ulrendy oited B>pporto 
Voleento (Annnli, 1B30, iiL) of M. Obi^ 
bard, tin scuDimt of Ihoaa dis'^ovarici 
will bo fonnit iu the MuBdam fltrurque 
MiUiugen □□ Lute Ducoveriea io Btm- 
tin, Tr. R &>«. Lit. *ol. ii. Sopp. 
1831. *0B ; Scliulti., Allg. Zoit., IB31, 
p. 400; R. Rothttte.Anii., 1331, p. 285. 
See also ArcbKol., xxiU. p. 130, tlie 
BeugUDt, HugDooeuurt, uid Dunrnd 
Calalogueti, sod Uie Reaervo fitnui]ue, 
by U. De Witte, tlut nf tl.e Peoli Col- 
lection, by Cumpuiin, nad all tlie 
rccutit worka upon latiquitica. Cf. Ball , 
1B29, & 49, 1830, 1, 1831, Sii, 161, 103, 

1832.71, 1834,75,1835.111, 

* DeiVuiuiticlii dipiutivulgwmeiild 
ehiamnU Etruschi. 
> Hut. derArt,iii. 3, 10. 
' Bonaparte. L. (P. de CiuiiDo). Mu- 
■ium £tru>'que, 4to, Vitar^Mi, 1926; C^ 
talogo (li Scelte utiehitb KCruachs, 4to, 
Ti(erbD,182l>; Idem, Vaset Etniaquei, 
S livreB grand folio ; Aooali dull' lu- 
ati tut. Arab., i. p. 188; Bull, 183M, p. 
80: Idem, LottTM 4 M. Gerhard; Bull., 
182B, pp. 113.118, 1880, pp. 142, 143; 
Amati, «i]i Vui EtruBchl, Eatnitto 
dal Oiamnle Arcadico Roma, 1 820-1 831) ; 
BulL, 1830, p.lS2; Fnit, Storia dei Voai 
littiti dipiuti, Svo, Itoma, 1S32. 




in an inland Etruscan city. Millingen advanced the opinion 
that they were the productions of an Hellenic population, 
called by him Tyrrhenians, who were subdued by the 
Etruscans between B.C. 600 — 350. Gerhard, on the 
contrary, imagined them to be the work of Greek potters 
settled in Vulci along with the Etruscans, and enjoying 
equal rights ^ with them ; an opinion so far modified by 
Welcker ^ that he supposes these potters to have been 
Metoikoi, or foreign residents, which view was also adopted 
by the Due de Luynes.' Hirt attributed them to the 
300 Thasians who, after the failure of the Athenians 
before Syracuse, might have fled to Cumse and Capua ;* 
while others imagined that they were importations, either 
from Sicily,^ as Rochette supposed, from Athens,® or from 

This opinion was also adopted by Bunsen, but with 
the modification that they might principally have come 
from Nola in Campania, although many specimens of dif- 
ferent styles, he imagines, were brought from Greece.* 
Kramer, on the contrary, disputes all the previous conjec- 
tures, and traces the vases, not only of Italy, but even of 
Greece itself, to the potteries of Athens.^ Such was also 
the opinion of Thiersch ; ^^ while Midler, on the other 

» Rapp. Vole, n. 966; Bull., 1832, 
pp. 78-90, 1833, pp. 74-91. 

3 Rhein. Mus., 1883, b. 341 ; Berl. 
ADt. Bildw., B. 143. 

3 Annali, iv. 188. 

* AnDali, 1831, p. 218. 

* R. Rochette, Journ. des Sav., 1830, 
pp. 122, 185 ; Lettre k M. Schorn, pp. 

^ Hiiller E. 0., Comm. sec. reg. 
scieDt Gott., vol. vii. cl. ; hist, pp. 77- 
118; Bockh., Index Lect. Univ. Berol. 

sem. hib. 1831-32. 

7 Muller K. 0., in Bull., 1832, p. 100 ; 
Cat. fitr., avert, p. vii. n. 3. 

^ Annali, vi. p. 72. See also, Bull., 
1832, p. 74. 

* Ueber den Styl und die Herkunft 
der bemalten Thongefasse, 8vo, Berl., 
1837, 8. 146 ; Bee Campanari, Atti. di 
Pont. Acad. R. Arch., vii. p. 1. 

^^ Ueber die Hellenischeu bemalten 
Va9en, in the Abhandlungen d. I. 01. d. 
Akad. d. Wiss. iv. Bd. Abtb. i. 


hand, considered them to be an importation from the 
Chalcidians, hasing his argument on the Ionic dialect of 
their inscriptions, their discoTery in maritime and not in- 
land cities, the admitted exportations of Athens, and her 
well-known superiority in the ceramic art.' Those who 
inclined to the idea that the vases were a local production, 
based their argiiments upon grounds partly material and 
partly traditional ; as, on the difference observable in the 
vases found at different spot^ ; on the varieties of their 
tone, drawing, and art, which differ in some cases most 
remarkably from those of vases discovered in Greece ; on 
the difficulties of transporting, even with the appliances of 
modern skill, articles of so fragile a nature ; on the uni- 
versal diffusion of clay on the earth's surface ; and on the 
idea, that it is much more probable that the potters were 
imported than their products. Much light, they considered, 
was thrown on the condition of the arts in Italy and northern 
Greece at this period by the story already related of the 
flight of Demaratus, the father of the elder Tarquin from 
Corinth, and his introduction of the plastic art into Italy. 
From this account, which rests on the authority of Pliny," 
it is contended that the art clearly came from Greece. It 
appears, indeed, that Demaratus and his companions emi- 
grated to Tarquinii, then a flourishing city of the Etrus- 
cans ; that lie there married a native woman ; and that 
one of his party, named Lucumo, initiated the Etruscans 
in Greek civilisation.^ Unfortunately, however, this account 
of Demaratus is enveloped in much obscurity, as other 

' Bull, 1832. p. lOa. ThsrautniiLb iiti^lusd w&ro. 

ho oitet, howovor, of the PhcBQiciaua ' N. Q., iixv.c. 3, B. 6. &c. 12, s. 'IS, 

piirchwug Atlienlau vbkb to export to ' C'laero, Da Kep.. Ub. ii. c. 19, a. 0. 
Csriue on tbc Afrlcui conit, applies la 


authorities represent him as being a Corinthian merchant.^ 
The opponents of this theory contest it by alleging the 
traces of an earlier independent art in Italy ; the hesita- 
tion with which Pliny speaks ; * the Ionic character of the 
ware ; the identity of its style of ornament with that of 
vases found at Athens ; ' the fact, that vases made by the 
same potters have been discovered at different places, the 
supposed mystery of the art,* and the extreme rudeness 
of the Etruscan imitations. Some writers have even gone 
so far as to assert, on the authority of Pliny,* that Etruria 
exported vases to Athens. 

When we consider the great space of time occupied by 
the history of Italy, it seems reasonable to believe that 
vases were imported into Etruria from various localities, 
and principally from Greece. It is probable, however, that 
many came from potteries established in Sicily and Magna 
GraBcia ; for it can hardly be conceived that an art esteemed 
so trivial by the Greeks was not exercised in their colonies, 
wherever founded. The influence of these settlers upon 
the Etruscan population appears to have been most marked 
since Lucius Tarquinius Prisons, the last king but one of 
Rome, ingratiated himself into the favour of Ancus Mar- 
tins by his superior education and knowledge — and finally 
obtained the sovereignty. According to Florus ® his ele- 
vation was due to his application to business and the ele- 
gance of his manners ; " for," he adds, " being of Corin- 
thian origin, he combined Greek intelligence with the arts 
and manners of Italy." 

^ Dionysius Halic, Ant. Rom., iii. 48, * Lenormant and De Witte, Introd. 

Liv. L 34 ; Tacit., Ann., xL 14. xix. 

« Thiersch, L c. s. 10. « N. H., xxxv. 12, 46. 

» Thierech, ss. 89-94. « Lib. i 5. 


Tlie introduction of the fine arts, as well as of writing, 
into Italy, is placed by Bunsen at a very remote 
period, when the whole of southern Etruria was in the 
possession of the Tyrrheiio-Pelasgians. Tiie epoch when 
these were expelled fi'om Agylla, Pyrgos, and the coast, 
appears, according to the researches of Niebuhr, to have 
been later than the second century of Home, or at least 
than the first half of that century. But the Attic dialect 
of the races liere under consideration, will not the less 
belong to an epoch later than the invasion of tlie Romans, 
since the tombs of Tarqninii exhibit nothing but what is 

Besides these, many other vases were decidedly of 
Etruscan origin, and were made either at Vulci or in some 
of tlie neighbouring cities. The tutulux, or pointed cap, 
on the head of Juno, in a scone of the judgment of Paris, 
has been supposed to be a proof of tlie Etruscan origin of 
a vase. The same argument has been adduced from a 
vase on which Hermes is represented with four wings, 
and Ganymede with two. The properties of the figures 
of the vases of the paler tone, and of the style called by 
the Italians " national," which resemble in their short 
stature and thick-set limbs, the Etruscan bronze figures, 
has also been considered an additional proof of their 
origin ; and all doubt vanishes when names of persons in 
the language, not of Greece, but of Etruria, are found 
upon them.' 

It is indeed evident that no argument as to exportation 

' Annali, 1$31, p. 6E. AXAE, AohiUea, XIPTN, Cliirou, APTNM, 

' SucbuKAPE MAKAeESA, "denr" Anins, AA3ZAH, Lauai; Asnsli, 1S34, 
' "loTslj" MiMMtLesa, HEAEl, l'oleu«, p. 51. 


or local manufacture can be drawn from the circumstance 
of the different proportion in which vases with black and 
red figures are found at Vulci and Nola, as this may be 
entirely owing to the different epochs at which these cities 
flourished. Yet there are certain differences of style and 
glaze perceptible to an experienced eye, which show, at 
all events, a difference of importation. It is indeed pos- 
sible that the early vases, or those called Doric, were 
introduced into Italy from the Doric states, such as 
Corinth,^ and were subsequently superseded by the more 
active trade and more elegant productions of Athens.^ 
The objection that the Etruscan Larths would have 
taken no interest in foreign pottery, can scarcely be 
serious, for the entire art of the Etruscans is filled 
with Greek symbolism and mythology. Greece, in fact, 
then stood in the same relation to Etruria as France 
now does to Europe in the application of the fine 

The vases found at Vulci consist of all styles till that of 
the decadence, commencing with the early Archaic Greek, 
with narrow figures on yellow grounds, although neither 
so numerous nor of so large a size as those of Cervetri. 
Most of the finest vases with black figures, consisting of 
hydrise, amphora), and oenochoa), many of large size and 
of finest drawing and colour, have been found at Vulci. 
Some vases with inscriptions, often with the names of 
potters or artists, of this style, have been discovered here, 
— a few of the vases, also, with black figures on a white 
ground, chiefly of small size. But as remarkable for 

1 Annali,1834, p. 64. 

' Abeken, Mittel-Italieu, p. 294, places these in Olympiad 70- IK). 



tbeir beauty and number are the vases mth red figures, 
of the strong style, found on this site, consisting of 
amphorse, hydriaj, and craters of large size, cylices, and 
cenochofB. These vases are distinguished by the green 
tone of their black colour, the vivid red of the clay and 
figures, the fineness, energy, and excellence of their draw- 
ing — of the later developed and fine style, comparatively 
few vases have been found. The numerous inscriptions 
■with whicli these vases abound, the occurrence of subjects 
new to classical authorities, the beauty of their shapes — 
contemporary with the best periods of Greek art — and the 
excellence of their drawing, glaze, and colour, has had 
great influence — not only on modern nianufaeture, but 
also on the fine arts in general, and has tended more to 
advance the knowledge of ancient pottei-y than all the 
previous discoveries.' 

Vases with red figures, and Etruscan ones with black and 
white figures on a yellow ground, have been discovered iu 
the sepulchres at Alberoro, near Arezzo, in the north-west 
of the Etruscan territory. Arezzo itself, the ancient 
Arretium, so repeatedly mentioned by the Latin authors, 
and called by Lanzi the Etruscan Samos, has also produced 
a few painted vases.'" 

Other sites iu the neighbourhood of ancient Rome, aa 
Civiti, Vecchia,^ have yielded vases of a bad style, which 
were probably brought thither by the commerce of modem 
dealers. One, remarkable for its high antiquity, has 
been already mentioned. The old hut-shaped vases of 
the Alban lake, near Alba Longa, will be described 

' John, VMenummluDg, IxvuL* ' Bull., IB3S, p. T4. 
Ixxviii. ' Bull., 1832, p. 3. 


under the Etruscan potteries.^ Several lecythi have been 
exhumed at Selva Le Roccay near Monteroni, the ancient 
Alsium,^ and at Monteroni itself, dishes ornamented with 
red bands, and coarse vases of the different styles. Others 
have been discovered at the Punta di Chiardiola, near SL 
MarineUa ; and at Poggio Somavilla, in the territory of the 
Sabines, vases of Etruscan &bric, ornamented with red 
lines,' and other vases, with red figures, having the subject 
of the gods of light, Bellerophon, and an Amazonomachia, 
have been excavated, all of the later style* 


The mass of vases found in central and lower Italy, 
are distinguished from those of Etruria by the greater 
paleness of their clay, by the softer drawing of their 
figures ; their glaze, which, in the case of the Nolan pot- 
tery, is of a jet black lustre, and in the Campanian of a 
duller and more leaden hue ; by their more elaborate 
shape, by the freer introduction of ornaments, and by the 
abundant use of opaque colours. Generally, the vases 
from this part of Italy, whether of the Greek settlements 
of Magna Graecia, or from the sepulchres of the Samnites, 
the Lucanians, and the Apulians, are of the later period 
of the art ; although several, even of the old or Doric 
style, have been found at Nola * and Ruvo, and those of 
the black style in the Basil icata.* Their paste shows a 
great proportion of carbonate of lime ; ^ and beds of clay, 

* See also Abeken, Mittel-Italien, p. ' Ibid. 

324. * The analysis of Gargiulo, Cenni, p. 

2 Bull., 1839, p. 8i, 1840, p. 133 ; 21, gives :— Silica 48, Alumiaa 16, Ox. 

Abeken, Mittel-Italien, p. 267. Iron 16, Garb. Ac. 16, Garb. Lime 8. 

s BiUl., 1838, p. 71. That of BroDgniart has been cited 

* An., 1834, p. 78. before. 


discovered in the yicinity of Naples, and now used for 
making imitations of these vases^ show that the ancient 
ones found in this locaUty may hare been produced on the 
spot. It will, perhaps, afford some clue to the date of the 
use and fabric of many of these vases, to remember that 
the most fiourishiiig period of the Doric colonies was ten 
Olympiads, or half a century, before the Persian war ; that 
Sybaris was destroyed before the expedition of Darius ; 
that the colonies formed by the other emigrations flourished 
from the LXX.-LXXSIV, Olympiad, B.C., especially those of 
Sicily ; that Campania was invaded by the Samnites in 
the Lxxiv. Olympiad, b.c. 440 ; and that in the age of the 
second Puuic war Nola is mentioned as a completely Oscan 
colony. After the arms of Rome had conquered Southern 
Italy, about the second century before Christ, the Greek 
settlements relapsed into utter barbarism. The subjects 
of the vases show an equal deterioration in moral feeling, 
sensual representations of nude figures, bacchanalian orgies, 
and hcentious subjects, having superseded the draped 
figures, the gravity of composition, and the noble incidents 
of heroic myths, or epic poetry.' 

The different condition of the states of Southern Italy 
accounts for the variety of the vases exhumed from the 
sepulchres of different sites. The Greek cities on the 
coast, principally founded by Achsaii colonies, but some- 
times by Dorian adventurers, maintained, at an early 
period, a constant intercourse with Greece ; and their 
sepulchres were enriched with the vases of the oldest 
period and style. The inland cities were generally of 
more recent origin, and their sepulchres contain vases of 

' Abeken, Mittal-Italieo, p. 342. 


the fine and florid styles. The people north-west of 
lapygia appear to have been governed by tyrants or kings, 
generally patrons of the arts. During the war with the 
Samnites, and that between Pyrrhus and the Romans, 
these countries were fearfully ravaged, but enjoyed peace 
from A. c. 272 till A. c. 218, the conmiencement of the 
second Punic war, which lasted 113 years, and ended by 
the Social war and the ruin of Southern Italy. 

In the kingdom of Naples, and the states which compose 
it, many vases of the late style have been discovered. Many 
small vases, indeed, of good style, with redfigures, have been 
found in excavations made on the site of Naples ^ itself, 
although they have not the extremely beautiful glaze of the 
Nolan vases.^ Others were discovered in sites in its vicinity, 
as Giugliano.^ At Cuma, the fabled residence of the Sybil, 
where the sepulchres are either excavated in the tufo, or 
covered with blocks of stone, have been found many vases,* 
which belong to the later days of its ancient splendour, when 
it was held by the Campanians. The most ancient of the 
Greek colonies, founded by the Chalcidians of Euboea or the 
Cumseans of iEolis have produced vases of second style ; 
some, however, with black figures, and most of the later style 
— many of the fine style, with lustrous glaze, only inferior to 
that of Nola. These are probably about the time of its 
conquest by the Campanians and Opici, A. v. c. 338, A. c. 
416, after which it issued a few coins till A. v. c. 409, a. c. 
345, when it fell into the Roman Protectorate. Here were 

> Jahn, VasensammluDg, be, Bull., chri, p. 11 ; Abeken, Mittel-ItalieD, p. 

1829, p. 166. 838 ; Gerhard, Rapp. Vole, n. 631, 632 ; 

* Bull, 1829, p. 164- De Witte, Cat Magn., p. 48; Vases de 

* Bull., 1829, p. 86. Luden Bonaparte, liv. L Nob. 542, 543. 
^ Jorio, Metodo per rin venire i sepol- 


discovered in 1842, craters resembling those of St. Agata 
del Goti, with pale glaze,' and abuiiJance of white 
accessories, and decorated with the Attic subjects of Ceres 
and Triptoleraus, and Cephalus and Aurora ; ' also Pan- 
athenaic amphora, with black figures and inscriptions, like 
those of Berenice.^ The potteries of this city were famous 
even in the time of the Romans, and moulded vases of 
their fabric have been discovered there.* The other sites 
in this province where vases have principally been dis- 
covered, are Massa,^ Lubrense, Marano, Giugliano, Sant 
Arpiuo, Afi'agola, Sorrento, and Mugnano. 


In the Terra di Lavoro, S. Maria di Capua, the site of 
ancient Capua, has yielded many vases of the highest 
interest belonging to the strong style, some with the names 
of makers, as Euergides and Pistoxenos, or with those 
of artists, as Epictetos, have been found here. Those of 
fine style have occasionally been discovered here, but the 
style of the decadence, especially of those with red figures, 
having abundant ornaments, is the most prevalent. The 
most remarkable vase found on this spot is the calpis in 
the Campana collection, having a frieze of polychrome 
figures, with much gilding, representing the departure of 
Triptolemus, round the neck, and a frieze of animals 
round the lower part of the fluted body. One remark- 

' Boll, 182S,p. 104. 


• BqIL, 1842, pp. S.9; Mod. I., Uf. 

■ Miutial, Epigr., 

[».; BnE, Areh.N.p., ii. p.a. 

silv., i». a, 13. 

' Fiorelli, Vwi riuveouti & Cuio.i, fo. 

' Qorliuil, Berl. 

Nap. 1S6S, of. alao Mon. Ant. 4to, Nap. 

Bull, 18211, p. 170, 


able vase had an incised Etruscan inscription. Some 
recentlj discovered there, through the excavations under- 
taken by tiie Prince of Syracuse, are of the most 
magnificent character. Tliey are ornamented with poly- 
chrome figures, some being gilded, and representing 
scenes derived either from the drama or history. Ono 
remarkable vase had the subject of Aurora and Titbouus.' 
A very early crater, of paie clay, with black figures, 
representing a hunt, probably tliat of tlie Calydonian 
boar,* and with very archaic inscriptions, and drawing of 
peculiar style, was in the Hamilton collection. This 
site lias offered vases of a style,^ distinguished for the 
paleness of its clay, the bright red of its figures, and a 
glaze like that of the vaaes of Puglia. Certain vases 
with black figures, carelessly drawn, and with a bad glaze, 
have also been found here, supposed to have been made 
about c. Olympiad, a. c. 381. 

It is uncertain whether this city was founded by the 
Tyrrhenians or con()uered by them from its ancient pos- 
sessors. They gave it the name of Elatria, which the 
Latins changed into Vultumus, and the Samnites on their 
conquest, into Campua or Capua. The arts continued to 
flourish there till a late period, — its coins being all later than 
the second Punic war, when it was called in Oscan Kapu.* 

At Teano, the ancient Toanum, lying between Capua 
and St. Germano, vases of the white style have been 

* Minervinl, Mod. In. 4. 

' Cat. Brit. Maa., No. ess ; D'U&nc&r- 
Tille, pL 1 — 1 ; Inghiratni, Moo. EU',, 
T. Ut. eS; Mtillw, Denkmal. A. ta£ 

^ Bull., 1829, 165 ; Bull Aroh. Nap, 
r.62; Abeken, MitMl-Italieu, p. 311. 
* Millingen, Coiiaiderrtions, p. 1B2- 



At AleSoy the Oecau Aderl, craters with red figures, 
painted with a profusion of white and other colours, of 
the later style of art, have been discovered.' 

The vases found at Nola consist of all the principal 
classes, together with a few local types. Tiieir distin- 
guishing characteristics are the elegance of their shapes, 
and the extreme beauty of their glaze, which is often 
of an intense black colour. Of vases of the old or Doric 
style, with yellow grounds and dark figures, many have 
been found in the ancient sepulchres. These vases are 
easily distinguished from similar oues discovered at Vulci, 
as the figures are smaller, but more carefully executed, and 
the colour darker. A few have human figures, represent- 
ing combats of warriors. M. Gerhard, indeed, is disposed 
to consider these vases as imitations of the more ancient 
style, but it is probable that the difference is rather owing 
to the local fabric. Of the second period of art, viz. of 
vases with black figures, comparatively few have been 
discovered at Vulci. They are also distinguished from 
those of the Etruscan sites by the smallness of their size, 
and by the peculiar black lustrous glaze of the locality. 
A few are hydrise or amphora;, but the great proportion 
are oenochoai or lecythi. Amongst them have been found 
^ a Fanathcnaic amphura, with the usual inscription.' 
H Their drawmg, also, is not so rigid in its details, approach- 
B ing in this respect the vases of Greece and Sicily. The 
H subjects of them are Greek, hke those of Vulci, and show 
H that the same Hellenic mythology prevailed there, A few 
H vases of this style, with cream-coloured grounds, have 
H also been discovered at Nola. The great excellence of 

H ' Bull, 1S29, pp. les, UG. ' Jalm, Vaeoneiunmluug. tii. 


the potteries which suppUed this city is to be seen on the 
vases with red figures. These vases, like the preceding, 
are also of small dimensions ; and the principal shape is 
the amphorae, one type of which, almost pecuUar to this 
spot, tall and sHm, has twisted handles. Besides this are 
the crater J calpis, cothon or scyphos^ (Bnochoey py^ds^ and 
phiale. They are the most charming of the ancient vases. 

Some few vases with red figures are of the strong style, 
or of one intermediate between that and the fine style, — 
the most remarkable of which is that with the subject of 
the last night of Troy.^ 

Some of the vases of Nola are modelled in fanciful 
shapes, such as that of an astragalus, or the claw of a 
lobster. Besides the painting, they were often decorated 
with an ornament punched in, like that on the vases of 
Vulci. These decorations are antefixal ornaments, — as 
stars, and bands of hatched or plain lines. A favourite 
ornament of the purely black vases, which form a large 
proportion of the Nolan ware, is a series of black annular 
bands on the base, concentric to the axis of the vase. 
Their treatment is similar to that of the same class of 
vases found at Vulci, except that it is not so careful, the 
extremities and outline being executed with less finish. 
In many of the vases the presence of white ornaments 
and letters, and the circumstance of the eye being pro- 
vided with lashes and no longer represented in profile, 
show that they belong to the fine style of the art. Inscrip- 
tions rarely occur on them, and those that are found 
are chiefly exclamations, such as, The boy is handsome ! 
The girl is fair ! — the names of personages very seldom 

1 JahD, VasensammluDg. liv. Millin., I. 25-26. 


accompanying the figures. The calpis, or water vaae, has 
rarely more tlian three figures ; the amphora; generally 
one on each side. The cenochots have generally a single 
figure, two sometimes occiirriug. No Uiw can be laid 
down tliat the subject selected alluded to the use of the 
vase, though the inferior figures upon one side show that 
they were intended to stand against a wall. 

Among the shapes particularly local, is a kind of jug 
or (snochoe, better adapted for metallic work than for 
clay. The body assumes the shape of a head, generally, 
but not always, that of a female. The face is of a wai-mer 
tone than the body of the vase, and is sometimes covered 
with a coating of lime or stucco. The hair is painted of 
a light colour, and there is sometimes a necklace moulded 
in the same material round the neck, which has been 
gilded. The upper part of these vases, as well as the 
handle and foot, are usually glazed ^ith a black colour. 
Some are in the shape of a negro's head, the mouth 
being small like that of the lecythi, and the whole face 
covered with a black glaze.' 

The subjects found on the Nolan vases of this class are 
the same as on those discovered at Vulci, consisting of Zeus, 
Athene, and Apollo, Dionysos, Satyrs and Bacchanals,'' or 
Comos and (Enos,^ Ariadne,* Apollo and Artemis ;* Nike,* 
Linos ;' the story of Hermes and Herse f Pha3dra swing- 
ing;' Aurora and Kephalus ;'" Amazonomachite ;" Eroa 

> Oorhord, BcrL Act. Bild.. a. 234, 
S35. 236. tef. i. 3S. 

< Qgrhuil, BrrL Ant. BUd., b. S39, □. 

eoe, «. a, 40. sio 1 b. a. a, iMii. ■. S45, 

845, >. 251. eS7. 

> Ibid. a. 240,848, 
' Ibid. •.241, Sai 

• Ibid. 243, B. 837. 

B Ibid. 1. 242, 633. 

' Ibid.s. 243, 8G5. 

" Ibid. s. 21a, 854, i. 271, BIO. 

" Ibid. >. 249, 85B. 


and female ;' Penelope ; " the judgment of Paris ;^ death 
of Achilles.* The prevalence of Attic subjecta on vases 
found at a town apparently far removed from Athenian 
influence, and certainly not an Ionian colony, together 
with the difference of style, have been used as argu- 
ments in favour of their having been exported from 

Many of the subjects, indeed, of these vases are difficult 
to explain, and have been supposed to represent inci- 
dents of private life,— such as, females in the gynacceum,^ 
marriages, exercises of the Paliestra,^ and the sports 
of youth, or the games of Greece.* There arc, however, 
marks of the decadence of art, showing that it was passing 
from the ideal to the actual — from, the poetic to the 
prosaic feeliug. Future discoveries may clear up some 
difficulties ; and to us these remains would have been 
more precious had they presented scenes derived from 
stirring contemporaneous events. Other vases from this site 
have been burnt on the pyre. They are the salicerni. of 
Italian antiquaries, and much prized by amateurs.^ 

This city was of great antiquity, as it is mentioned by 
HecatiBus, of Miletus, who wrote about a. C. 523 — 500, 
the period of its early vases with yellow grounds, and it 
was placed by him amongst the Ausonii and Opici.'" It 
however, finally placed itself under Roman protection, 
A. T. c. 409, A. c. 346. Its most beautiful vases must 

> n,\A. 2fi4, 877. 840. a. 249, 8fi6-S7. a. 277, Q. 
« Db Witto, An. 1841. p. 261. ' R A. B., n. 248, n. 852, 

> niid. a. Sig, 102S ; Oerhard, BerL 863. 
Ant Bild., tat raiii.-xin. « B. A. B.. b. 243. u. r.834, 

* Ibid. a. 239, 809. • Bull, 182U, p. 1». 

> KramDr,UebeTJisUeTkuDrt,H.14!>. '° Staph. lil;z. vul-o NaU. 

• B, A. B., I. 212, 831, 243, ii. 836- 


have been made before its final subjection. Its predilec- 
tion for Greek art and institutions is well known.' 

The existence of Greek potteries at Nola has been 
conjectured from the vases there found ; and the Greek 
inscriptions on its coins tend to show that a dominant 
Greek population was established there. Nola was a 
colony of the Chalcidian Greeks, who were invited thither 
by the Tyrrhenians, and it is possible they may have 
brought with them the art of making vases. The clay of 
which their vases were made is said to have been found 
in the district.'' 

Vasea of Nolan fabric are distributed far and wide 
throughout the peninsula as far as Psestum and Locris. 
The age of the beautiful vases of Nola is certainly that of 
the apogee of the Greek colonies in Italy. Their age is 
placed about Olympiad xc, and they have been attributed 
to the potteries of Ionian cities.* 

Generally speaking, the Nolan vases have attracted less 
attention than those of Vulci and Cervetri, from their 
smaller size and their less interesting subjects.* 

Other sites in this province, being those of cities once 
renowned in Campania, have also produced several vases 
of late style, as Acirra,^ Sessa, and Calci, or Cales, 
the tombs of which have yielded some of the finest 
and largest specimens of modelled terra cotta of the latest 
style of art The vases of Avella, or Abella, were distin- 

' Dioa;!. Balionni, Excerpt. Beiska, 
p. 3315. 

* Aiinali, 1S32, p. 76. 

' Ab«keD, llitUl-IUIieii, pp. 340-3 jl. 

• A voluma of oagraviDgs of Nolmi 
TiMl. prepared by Angelini, wu ia tbe 
poweaaioa of t)ia bte Dr. Braun at 

Rome, who was to tiKYQ edited them 
with an accompanying t*xt. They 
wersengraTed in theBtyluofTiichbeiu, 
and had been printed at Niples. 

" BiiU, 1828, p. 163; Oargiulo, Cenni, 
p. 16. 


guished by their bad glaze, the pale colour of their figures, 
the fineness of their clay, and occasional good drawing.^ 

Still more renowned from its vases, being among some 
of the first discovered, is the site of St. Agata dei Goti^ 
the ancient Plistia, which at one time gave its name to 
all the vases of later style and fabric. Their shapes were 
principally craters, their drawing skilful, but careless, 
especially in the extremities resembling those of Nola, but 
with the introduction of more red and white tints ; their 
clay is fine, their glaze black and lustrous.^ It is supposed 
that they were made after the occupation of this city by 
the Samnites.^ Vases with black figures are rarely found 


The vases discovered in the Principato Citeriore come 
from Salerno, from Cava, and Nocera dei Pagani^ or 
Nuceria Alfatema. Those from the celebrated Pesto or 
PaBstum, the ancient Poseidonia, resemble in style those 
of the Basilicata, having red figures on a black ground, 
but of a better style of art, the varnish dull, the figures 
pale, with accessories of various colours.^ One of the 
finest vases of this locality is that of the painter Asteas, 
in the Louvre, representing the story of Cadmus and 
the dragon, the principal figures now have their names 
inscribed. Some other vases of this spot, of inferior 
style, represent the toilet of Venus, jugglers,^ and similar 

> BuU., 1829, p. 163; Gerhard, BerL < Bull., 1829, p. 165. 

Ant BilA, 1. c. * md. p. 163. 

2 Bull, 1829, p. 166. « Qoaranta, Mystagogue, p. 214. 
s Abeken, Mittel-ItaUen, p. 341. 


subjects. They are said to he discovered outside the 

The vases found at EboU do not appear to have had any 
particular or distinct style, although some had engraved 
inscriptions in the Doric dialect, under their handles. 
Their subjects were uninteresting.^ Vases had also been 
discovered at Bnttipatjlia, in the vicinity.^ No details have 
been given of those from the sepulchres of iS^ Lucia. 
Those from the plains of Surrento, the ancient Surrentuia, 
resembled in style the fabric of St. Agata dei Goti, and had 
the ordinary subjects of vases of this class, such as Sirens, 
Bacchanahans,* and triclinia. There were potteries here in 
the time of Pliny, celebrated for producing excellent cups." 


Avellino and Monte Sarchio, in the Principato Ulteriore, 
have also produced vases, probably of later style ; so have 
Ise>-nia, in the Contada di Molise, Sansevcra, and Lucera 

in the Capitanata.® 

The vases of the Basilicata comprise a large portion of 
those of the later style of art, and exhibit the local pecu- 
liarities of a native fabric, through the barbaric and other 
costumes represented on them. The Alpine countries of 
Lucania have produced vases differing in style from those 
of the maritinie districts of Magna Graecia. Some, indeed, 

I BulL, 1829. 119. indfoIL; Bull, 1829, p. 18*; 1813, pp. 


* QttiKiulo, Ceoni, p. IS. 


have supposed that a colony of foreign potters, located here, 
introduced among3t the Lucanians the art of painting 
vasea. Their tint is pale, the glaze of leaden hue, their orna- 
ments are distinguished by an abundance of white acces- 
sories, and their stylo of art has already been described in 
the account of the decadence. The high price which vasea 
of great beauty or interest obtained in the European 
market during the 1 7th century, caused researches to be 
carried on in this province with enterprise, and on a 
settled plan. Here the earth is still trenched on sites 
which appear favourable, and when the original soil has 
been disturbed, the excavators continue their labours till 
they have arrived at a part where the earth shows decided 
proofs of being still intact, and by this means are assured 
that nothing remains below. Many of the vases in this 
locality are found broken into fragments, either owing to 
the roofs and tops of the sepulchres having been destroyed 
or burst by the roots of trees. All tlie vases found in 
this province, are of the latest style, with pale red Iigures 
on a dull leaden, black ground, and subjects chiefly relating 
to the Dionysiac orgies. 

Many vases of the finest red style have been excavated 
from the sepulchres of Aiizi, the ancient Anxia, a spot 
teeming with the remains of ancient art. It is the prin- 
cipal place where the vases of Lucania are found. Their 
style nmch resembles that of Ccglie, and is better than 
that of the generality of vases of the Basilicata. A fine 
calpis, found at this spot, and now in the Berlin Museum, 
represents the subject of Zeus and lo.' Some of the vases 


were of the stjle of Nola, others of that of Apulia, and were 
supposed to be made hy foreign potters ostabUshed there.' 

At Armenlo, vases have been found'' with black 
figures of the finest style, an example of which will be 
Been in a crater now in the British Museum, and others of 
an intermediate style, between the latest Nolan and early 
Apuliau. Other vases of large size, fine style, and heroic 
subjects, haye been found at Missanello, where a vase of 
ancient style, and many of later style, generally with 
good, but occasionally of careless drawing, have been 
found in the vicinity.' The other sites of the Basilicata. in 
which vases have been exhumed, are Potensa, or Potentia, 
Cfdvello, and Poinnrico (distinguished for its well- 
painted dishes, with supposed representation of nuptial 
ceremonies), Venosa or Venuaia, and Ptsticci* 

Some vases from Gritmento,- the ancient Grumentum, 
founded by a Greek colony from Thurium, and which 
evidently was flourishing at the time of the second Punic 
wai,' exliibited the same stylo as the vases of Puglia. One 
had for its subject an Amazonomachia. A magnificent 
vase, with the subject of Perseus, but of mediocre drawing, 
was found at Missanello, in the vicinity of Grumento, 
and 18 now in the museum of the Cav. St. Augelo.* 
Other sites in the same province, as Jiocca Nova and Si. 
Arcanqelo, Si. Brancafo, Ardarea. and Nice, Timpaai and 
Sodand' had also produced vases of similar style. At 
Marsiconuova was found a vase with an Amazonomachia, 

I BiUi. 1829, pp. 102, Ifilt. ' Livy, xiUL, c. 87; xirii., o. *. 

» Oarliwd, a A. B. ». 139, 231. * Bull, 1830, p. !4. 

> BulL, 182S, p. ITO. 7 Lombnrdi, Uemorie de I'Institut., 

' Ougialo, Cemii,p.IG; Buil.,lg29. p. 1 95, and foR 



others of both styles occurred at Castelluccio,* so also at 
Vaglio Oppido, or Velia, and Ruoti^ Cdvello, Acerenza^ 
or Aceruntia.^ 


The vases of Puglia * on the coast of the Hadriatic are 
described as so much resembling each other in character 
and style, as to lead to the inference that they must have 
been fabricated about the same period, and almost in one 
pottery. Their epoch is probably that of later days of 
the potteries, and of the Senatiis consultum a. u. c. 
564, suppressing the licentiousness of the Bacchic 
orgies. They are distinguished from those of Northern 
or Southern Italy, by the paler colour of their clay, 
the duller tone of their glaze, the size and recherche 
character of their shape, the mystic nature of their sub- 
jects, the abundance of heroic figures, and their general 
resemblance to the vases of the Basilicata. They differ 
essentially in the Alpine countries from those of the 
cities of the Gulf of Tarentum.* The most remarkable 
of which are a rhyton, with the name of its maker 
Didymus, that of the maker Asteas, in the Louvre, and 
the vase in the British Museum, with the subject of Mars 
and Vulcan contending over Juno, entrapped on the 
golden throne.^ 

Many of the vases of Puglia are the most 
beautiful of the later style of art. They have been 
found throughout the tract of level country extending 

» Panofka, Hyperbor. Rom. Stud., L, < Bull., 1829, pp. 166, 172, 173. 

p. 168. * Ibid- p. 162. 

* Mem., p. 218, 221, 227. * Jalin» Vagensammlung, xxxiz. 
3 Mem., p. 208. 




from Bitoiito to Ruvo, and at Polignano or Neapolis- 
Peucctia), Putignano, Alia Mura,^ aiid Carbonara,^ Terra 
di Bari, Canosa, Ceglie, and Ruvo, the vases of wliich, 
from their superior excellence, merit a separate description. 
These belong to the district called the Terra di Bari. 

The vasea of liari, the ancient Barium, are like those of 
Hubastini, Canosa, and St. Agata dei Goti, and have red 
figures upon a black ground. Among them was one in 
the shape of the head of a female, resembling those of 
Nola, and several were deep bell-shaped craters, called 
oxybapha, having on them mystic and Dionysiac sub- 
jects.^ They have been found in tombs on the sea shore.* 

The vases of Canosa (or Canuaium, a city supposed to 
have been founded by Diomed, and an ^tolian colony, 
which at one time had attained considerable grandeur 
and power, probably in the interval before the second 
Punic war, and was one of the largest cities of Greek 
origin in Italy),* consist of large craters, decorated with 
subjects derived from the mysteries, the drama, and other 
sources which inspired the later artists, and are known 
from the work of Millin. They rank as some of the 
very finest of the florid style of the decadence of the art, 
and bear considerable resemblance to the vases of Ruvo 
and Ceglie.* Lately a magnificent vase, with the 
subject of Darius and Hellas, taken from the Persa3 of 
^schylus, has been di.scovered at Canosa.' One of the 

' Bull. 1829, p. 172; ArtJi. Zeit,. • Stmbo. il 88*. 

ISGl.a. SI. * Mitlin. Tombesui He Canora. fo. 

' BulL, 182S, p. 1T3, Paris, 1816; Bui]., 182B, p. 171; Oer- 

■ Abeken. Hittel- Italian, p. 349 ; B. iiiml, Ant. Bild, iS. 139 ntid 193, uo. 

A. R, «. I»9, Nog. 729, 742. 7S3 ; Bull., SOI. 

1837, p. S3. ' QerhudiHoiuiUbBridbt. iL K. Ak»d. 

' Bull., 1829, [.. 172. WiB.BD. la Borlin, 18.'.7. 


tombs opened here, which contained vases, had a Latin 
inscription, dated A. c. 67, but the kind of vases found in 
it have not been recorded. Some unimportant vases of 
the style of black figures of the last decadence, have also 
been disinterred at Canosa.* 

Close to Bariy at a little distance from the sea, lies 
Conversano. Its vases appear in style to resemble those of 
other parts of Puglia and those of Nola.^ Putignano, in 
the same territory, has also produced vases.' 

The vases found at Muvo, the ancient Ryps or Rubastini, 
are of the same style and composition as those of the rest 
of Southern Italy, and of some found at Athens.* This 
city, of which so little is known from the ancient autho- 
rities, has produced many of the finest vases found in 
Southern Italy. Several styles have been found on this site, 
showing that it was colonised probably by the Achaean^ 
at an early epoch. Only a single vase with animals 
on a yellow ground, of the style called Dorian, Corinthian, 
or Phoenician, has been exhumed. The most remarkable 
with black figures are two Panathenaic vases with the 
usual inscriptions, and a vase with Priam ransoming the 
corpse of Hector, of the strong red style ; and of the fine 
style like that of Nola, only a few vases have been found. 
A polychrome vase, with the figure of a satyr, and the name 
of Alcibiades, as a koKo^, has been discovered at Ruvo ; and 
another, in the possession of Sir Woodbine Parish, repre- 
sents Aurora. The great proportion of vases, however, 
of this ancient city are of the florid style, of large size, 
with volute and ornamented handles, with numerous 

' Jahn, Vasenaammlung, xlv. Ant. Bild., p. 234 ; Bull., 1829, p. 172. 

' See the csnochoe with the head of a » Bull., 1829» p. 172. 

Satyr and Bacchante, Gerhard, Berl. * Bull., 1829, p. 174 ; Bull. 1837, p. 97. 


figures, and arabesque ornaments, sometimes enhanced by 
gilding. Of these large vases, the most important for its 
subject, the elaboration of its details, is that with tho 
death of tho Cretan giant, Talos, at the hands of the 
Argonauts. It would be too bug to specify here all 
the subjects of the vases of Ruvo. Besides amphorie, 
craters, hydria;, and rhyta of fantastical shape are by 
no means of uncommon occurrence in the sepulchres.' 
They are often of considerable size, and most of 
the finest vases of late style have come from this spot. 
The celebrated vase of the potter Meidias, in the British 
Museum, with the subject of the rape of the Leucippides, 
is supposed to have come from thence, on account of its 
resemblance to many other beautiful vases known to have 
been discovered on the spot. Their details are executed 
with great elegance, the hair and also tho drapery being 
indicated by fine wiry hues,' while the figures are of more 
slender proportions than those of the vases of the Basilicata. 
In fact, they resemble the known works of the young 
Athenian School, which commenced about the age of Alex- 
ander, in the middle of the 4th century B.C., and of which, 
in another branch of art, such brilliant examples may 
be traced on the coins of Pyrrhus and those of 
Tarentum. Vases of the lateat style have also been found 

The sepulchres of the comparatively unknown site of 
Ceglie, the ancient Csclia, in Apulia, have much enriched 
the collections at Berlin.* In style these vases have the 

■ For tho Ruvo vun. 

Bee JaliD, 

pp. »7. 98; 1811), p. 187. 

• Bull., 1834, pp.184, 228 

laSfl, r. 

= For tLu iiocouiit of tho 

Hiient Kuvo 

114; 1838, p. 162, 

.<tm in tbs NipleH MuHeu 

m, B„ 1837. 

• Bull., 182S,p. 173. 


general Apulian type, and their art is of the same late 
period. They are remarkable for their size. The principal 
shapes are cups and amphorae, with volute handles and 
gorgon masks. Some have subjects of great interest from 
Lfr repre^ntog «ene8 token from the drama. Among 
the subjects are the usual Eros and Aphrodite^ of this style, 
Phrixus crossing the Hellespont on the ram,^ Orestes at 
Delphi, the sacrifice of the ram of Tantalus,' Actaeon 
seized by his dogs, the burial of Chrysippus,* Bellerophon, 
Meleager, and the Calydonian boar, Hercules, and Geryon;* 
the judgment of Paris,^ the arming of Penthesilea,^ Europa, 
the Centaur, and Amazonomachise,® Omphale,® and others 
of a similar kind. The finest of these vases represents 
the subject of the marriage of Hercules and Hebe.*® These 
vases show the prevalence of Greek ideas and civilisation, 
and were probably fabricated on the spot by Hellenic 

In the province of Calabria Ulteriore the vases dis- 
covered at Loan are perhaps some of the most beautiful 
of the South. The Locri, a branch either of the Opun- 
tii or Epizephyrii, established themselves at C. Zephyrium, 
OL. XXVI., A. c. 673, and appear to have been accompanied 
in their emigration by Corinthians and Lacedaemonians, 
finally becoming a Dorian colony. Their coins are not 
earlier than ol. c, a. c. 374. All these states appear to 

1 Gerhard, B. A. B., 8. 139, s. 279, n. « Ibid. 8. 296, no. 1011. 
995; Bull., 1834, p. 55. ^ Jbid. 1019, 8. 307. 

2 Ibid. 8. 279, n. 996. » Ibid. 1028, 8. 313. 

3 Ibid. 1003 ; Raoul Rocbette, Mon. » Gerhard, B. A. B., 1024, 8. 315. 
Ined., pi. XXXV. pp. 192-196. *" For these vases, see Jabn, Vaseo., 

■* Gerhard, B. A. B., 1010, sa. 295, s. xxxviii ; Gerhard, Apulische Vasen- 
296. bilder, fo. Berlin, 1845. 

» Ibid. no. 1222, s. 309. 


Iiave suffered from tlie ravages of the Lucaniaiia, who, 
OL. XCVi., B. c. 396, advancing rapidly, seized part of the 
country and the maritime cities. These were succeeded 
by the Brettii, who, forty years later, revolted in ol. cvl, 
A. c. 356, and wlio issued gold coins of great beauty, 
probably struck in the maritime cities, showing the high 
state of the arts of the period. The vases are not found 
in covered sepulchres, like those previously described, but 
in the cultivated ground, as if scattered by a barbarian and 
plundering population. So thoroughly have the vases on 
this site been destroyed, that it is almost impossible to dis- 
cover all the fragments of any single one. Those in the 
Berlin Museum, which formerly belonged to Baron Koller, 
were found broken within a sepulchre, and a vase holding 
the ashes of the dead was discovered deposited in another 
of coarser ware, wliich served as a kind of case for it,' 
mucli in the .same manner as glass vases are found holding 
the ashes of the ancient Eomans or Britons in this 
country. They are of different styles of art, com- 
mencing with those of black figures. In the fainter 
colour of their paste, and the duller tone of their black 
glaze, they differ from those of Vulci, and few of the 
earlier kind are known. Among them may be cited a 
hydria or calpis with an erotic subject,' and a lecytkus 
with a Bacchanalian oue.^ The most remarkable of these 
with red figures are the hydria or caJ^is, ou whicii is 
represented the last night of Troy, Neoptolemus slaying 
Priam on the altar of the Ilerceian Zeus, the death of 
Astyanax, and the rape of Cassandra; a.hcythus 'vA'Ca. an 

I UarEiuli>,Cuuni,p.l3; Bull., IS31. ' 


erotic scene ;^ an cmochoe^ with a Bacchanalian one ;^ a 
Nolan amphora, with figures of Marsyas and Olympus f 
a vase with the Dioscuri and their names ;^ a two-handled 
vase with Triptolemus,* and an amphora with Zeus and 
Nike.^ Of the later style of art, and resembling the local 
style of Lucania is an amphora, with the subject of Venus, 
Adonis, and Eros.^ In the Durand collection were also 
some lecythi of the late Athenian style, with polychrome 
figures on a white ground, and of a coarser kind of drawing 
than those of Athens. One vase of this site has a remark- 
able inscription.® 

In the department of Otranto, Brindisiy the ancient 
Brundusiiun, founded before Tarentum and the arrival 
of the Spartan Parthenii, a formidable rival to Taren- 
tum, and one of the great ports of Italy, colonised by 
the Romans a. v. c. 508, a. c. 246, has produced several 
vases. Besides the numerous black glazed plates impressed 
with small ornaments stamped from a die, a great crater 
in the Naples Museum, painted with the subject of Eros 
mounted on a panther,^ came from thence. Vases have 
also been found in the vicinity of Oria,^^ or Hyria, between 
Brindisi and Taranto, a town of great antiquity, founded 
by the Cretans sent in pursuit of Da)dalus, and which 
successfully resisted the people of Tarentum and Rhe- 
gium. At Torre di Mare (the ancient Metapontium, 
supposed to be the Alybas of Homer, but colonised by 
Achseans from Sybaris, the great head-quarters of the 

» Gerhard. B. A. R, 8. 232, 726. « Gerhard, B. A. B., s. 259, 898. 

3 n)id. 728. 7 Ibid. 332, 1057. 

» Gerhard, 1. c. s. 244, 841. 8 KAAEAOKE2, Bull., 1829, p. 167. 

^ Jahn, VaaensammluDg, e. xxxv. ^ Bull., Arch. 1829, p. 172. 

* Gerhard, B. A. B., a. 259, 896 ; w Bull, 1834, p. 66. 
Panofka, Mus. Bart., p. 133. 


Pythagoreans, and subsetjuently, during the Peloponnesiun 
■war, in alliance with Athens ; finally subjugated by the 
Romans after the retreat of Pyrrhus, but subsequently 
revolting to Hannibal), the circumstance of Roman 
sepulchres having been constructed over the Greek ones 
appears to have been unfavourable to excavations in 
search of vases. Some of late style have also been dis- 
covered at Castellaneta,^ at the site of the ancient 
Salentum in its neighbourhood, and at Fasmio? or Gnathia, 
at Ceglie, Genosa, and Ostuni, all of late style. 

At Taranto, or Tarentum, where it might have been 
expected from its ancient renown for luxury that many 
vases would have occurred, few have been turned up amidst 
its ancient ruins. Those, however, which are met with 
maintain the old pre-eminence of the city for its works of 
art, especially as manifested in its coins. Their clay is 
of a fine glaze like the vases of Pomarico, and often 
resembles the finest red figured vases of Nola.' Vaaes 
with black figures are rarely found ; a fine crater with 
an Amazouomacliia was discovered here ;* aud on the 
fragment of a crater in the British Museum is the 
Pallas Athene of the Parthenon, in red upon a black 
ground. It is of the best style of tliis School, probably 
not much older than Alexander, b. c. 330, if not over 
half a century later, or of the age of Pyrrhus, b. o. 280; 
although the medallic art of that time is more like the 
style of drawing found on the vases of Uuvo. Generally, 
the subjects of tlie vases discovered here are unimportant. 


■ Bull,, 1836. p. 167. 1819, p. 174- 

2 A nte with a tiren between two ' Bull., 182n, p. 171. 

rU, was there diwiorered. See Bull,, * Due. de Lujdob, choii. pi. 13. 


Some objects, supposed to be moulds, have also been dis- 
covered on this site/ and the vases here, as at Locri, are 
found broken into fragments. Vases with black figures 
are comparatively rare on this site, those with red figures 
of a free style, having been principally found This 
agrees with its history, the most flourishing period of the 
city having been from b. c. 400, under the government of 
Archytas till its final fall to the Romans, during which 
time the principal sculptors and painters of Greece embel- 
lished the public monuments of Tarentum. Its treasures 
of ancient art at the period of its fall were equal to those 
of Syracuse ; and there can be no doubt, from the beauty 
of its coins, that it not only imported the choicest ce- 
ramic products of Greece, but also employed in its city 
vase painters and potters of eminence. Other specimens 
come from Molto, La Castellaneta, and La Terza, in the 
vicinity ; from the latter they are principally dishes. 
Vases of Campanian style have also been found at Lecce, 
the ancient Lupise,^ at Rugge, or Rudise, and at Rocca 
Nova and Valesio.' 

At the island of Ischia, iEnaria, was found a crater 
with the subject of the infant Dionysus consigned to the 


Sicily, so celebrated for its magnificent works of art, 
has not produced a very great number of fictile vases, 
and the greater part of those discovered are by no means 
pre-eminently distinguished from those of Italy ; some 

» Bull, 1842, p. 120. 3 Mommsen, Unterital. Dial., 58-60. 

2 Reideael, Reise, 230. * Scholz, in Bull, 1842, p. 10. 

reaembling in style the early vases, with black figures of 
Greece Proper ; while others are undistiuguishable from 
those of Southern Italy. The vases with red figures 
especially resemble those found in the ApuUan tombs. 
Many of the vases from the Peninsula are however car- 
ried over to Palermo and sold as Sicilian, so that it is by 
no means certain which are really Sicilian vases. This 
island was anciently renowned for its potteries, and Aga- 
thocles, the celebrated tyrant of tliis island, was the son 
of a potter, and was reported to have dined off earthenware 
in his youth. The various sites in which vases have been 
found at Syracuse, Paleiino, Eliraa, Himera, and Ahcata, 
will be found subsequently mentioned. In Sicily the cities 
of the southern coast have produced the greatest number 
of vases, Agiigentum, the modern Girgenti, abounding in 
the treasures of ceramic art. Fine vases have also been 
discovered at Gela and Camarina. On the east coast, 
south of Syracuse, the cemeteries of the Leontini and 
Acrje have produced more vases than the necropolis 
of Syracuse, which was probably the first destroyed. 
Palermo, Messina, and Catania,' on the north and east 
coast, have produced but a small number of vases. On the 
whole, Sicily has produced far fewer ancient vases than 

The principal sites where vases have been discovered 
are Centorbi, the ancient Centuripie, where a vase was 
found, with encaustic painting, the colours having 
been prepared with wax, and laid upon a roae-coloured 
ground. This vase is ornamented with gilding, and is of 

< Sem di Falco, Bull.. 1831. a troiaiio 

* AtoUo, Delle fattum <li urgilla clic ji. 6. 

u Sicllio, 8 




a late style and period.* At Lentiniy Leontini, vases, 
chiefly of the later style of art, have been discovered, 
many polychrome, and one or two with red figures of 
the strong style.^ The vases found at Syracuse have 
both red' and black figures, and are of both styles, 
but unimportant.^ At Palazzolo, the ancient Acrae, 
vases of the ancient Doric or Phoenician style, of the 
Archaic style, and some with red figures, have been dis- 
covered ; one of the most interesting is that in the British 
Museum, representing Dionysos in a car in the shape of a 
ship.^ Fine vases have been found at Kamarina; at 
Terranovay the ancient Grela, one of the earliest settle- 
ments of the island, vases had been found a century ago, 
both with black and red figures,* and in style like those of 
Nola.^ In 1792, a pottery with furnaces and vases ap- 
pears to have been discovered in the vicinity.^ Quite 
recently vases with black and with red figures, of the 
finest style, have been discovered here. 

In Selinunte, or Selinus, famous for its two ancient 
Doric temples, its archaic sculptures, and for the beauty of 
its coins, both of the ancient and finest style, lecythi of 
archaic style have come to light.® Himera has produced 
only one vase ^ with red figures, and the single specimen 
found at Solus has been doubted.*® 

1 This mode of paintmg vases is 
alluded to by Athenseua, t. 200 b. The 
Tase is not unique, similarly painted 
firagments having been discovered in 
the Bisoari Museum in Catania, at 
Kertch, and in the Durand Collection : 
Roohette, Peiut Ant. In., p. 430, taf. xii.,* 
Bull., 1833, p. 490. 
^ Jahn, Vasensammlung, s. xxxL 
' Gerhard, Aus. Vas. 68, i; Bull., 

1832, p. 177. 

^ Judica, Antiohita di Acre, fo. Mes- 
siua, 1819. 

* DorvUle, Sicula, p. 123 b. 

* Bottiger, Vasen, L p. 39. 

7 Uhden, Arch. IntelL Bl. 1836, p. 33. 
» Gerhard,inArch.Int.Bl.,1834,p.66. 
' B. Romano, Antichita Termitane 
Pal. 1838, p. 139, taf. i H. 
'" Jahn, Vasenaammluug, s. zxxiv. 


Several vases are described in various accounts of these 
remains as coming from Sicily. Several of these with 
black, figures exhibit a style of drawing so rude and pecu- 
liar as to entitle them to be considered decideilly of local 
fabric, as they are readily to bo distinguished from those 
of Vulci, Nola, and Campania. Those with red figures 
have also certain characteristics, such as defects of shape 
and careless style of drawing, which connect tliem with 
the vases of Greece Proper. One of the most interesting 
specimens of this class discovered of late years, is a frag- 
ment, with the subject of Telegonos, Circe, and Ulysses.' 
Most of the vases come from Girgenti, and few from 
Palermo." The vases of Girgenti, or Agrigcntura, with 
black figures, resemble those of Vulci in the rigidity and 
mechanical finish of their details ; among them may be 
cited, a Panatheiiaic amphora, with Hercules and Cerberus, 
licrmes and Bacchanals ;' a lecythus, having on it the 
destruction of the Lemaean Hydra ;* another, with a 
warrior leaping from his horse ;* the amp/iorte of the 
maker Taleides, with Theseus and the Minotaur, and 
a scene of weighing / another with Achilles and Hector, 
and Aurora bearing off Memnon.^ A curious vase of the 
maker Nicostheues ^ has also been found there. From 
these and similar subjects, such as Hercules and Tritons," 

> Bull., I8i3, S2; Arch. Zeit., 1S4S, 

■ Ods, with birtli i 

1 m*magB of 
Diouyios, BuU., 1834, p. 201, 18*3, p. 
£li Arcb. Zeit, ISiS, 13T. 

' Foliti, Aafon Pusateiuuca, 8vo, 
Girgenti, 1S40. 

' P<»liti, U mosCro di Leroa lokitoa 
^S^S^o^D. Svo, Fulermo, 

Sic. Agr., Sfo, Palermo, 1832. 

' Millia, Peiut. A. Vatet Ant., pL i. 
Iiri. ; Eiplic, ii. p. 8B, u. 7. 

' Millingen, Anc Vo. Mon., t pi. 

* Paoofka, Mun. BUc., pi. Ill ; Ocr- 
bud, Lettrea, p. 4U. 

' Puliti, Letbcta a! S. Mellingen su di 
I figullua rappreiieDtnnte Ereote • 

* Foliti, EapowiioDB di aette tow Qr. Noi-eo, Sta, Fulermo, 1834. 



Achilles dragging Hector,^ and Bacchanals,^ it will be 
seen that they are of the usual class found on the best 
and rigid school of vases with red figures. Numerous 
examples of this style have been found in Sicily, such as 
lecythi with females,^ Hera and her peacock,* Nike,^ the 
Dioscuri, scenes from the Amazonomachia,* warriors,^ 
Dionysus,® and birds.® Among the finest vases of this style 
are the amphora of Munich, representing Tityus seizing 
Leto, and Mr. Stoddart's crater with an Amazonomachia.^° 
But that representing the meeting of Alcaeus and Sappho, 
now in the Museum of Munich, is the most renowned 
of all." 

Most of the vases of Girgenti however are of the shape 
of the craters of oaybapha and resemble those of the 
tombs of Lucania. They have such subjects as the Hyper- 
borean Apollo,^^ Dionysiac representations,^^ the return 
of Hephaistos to Heaven,** the Centauromachia,** scenes 
of leave-taking,*® triclinia,*^ and Achilles and Amazon.*® 

' Politi, Cenni su di un vaso fittile 
Qreoo-Agr. rapp. Achille vincitore di 
Ettore, 8yo, Messina, 1828. 

' Politi, Esposizione di sette vasi, 1. 
c; Bull. d. iQst, 1834. p. 59. 

' Politi, Illustr. sul dipiuto in terra- 
cotta, Svo, Girg., 1829. 

^ Politi, Esposizione di sette vase 
Gr. Sic. Agr., 8vo, Palermo, 1832. 

* Ibid. 

* Ibid. 

7 Politi, Un lekitos, Svo, Palermo, 
« Politi, Due parole,8vo, Pal. 1833. 

* Politi, Esposizione di sette vase, 1. a 
^ Politi, Illustrazione sul dipinto in 

terra-cotta, Svo, Giz^genti, 1829. 

^^ Millingen, Anc. Un. Mou., xxxiv. ; 
Xa borde. Vase de Lamberg, pi. lii. 

^ Politi, Illuatrazione d'un vaao 

GrsDCO Siculo rappresentante Nemesi 
trovato nell antica Agrigento, Svo, 
Palermo, 1826, p. 22, tav. ui. 

^ Politi, Cinque Vasi di Premio, ex- 
tracted from La Concordia Giomale 
Siciliano, Num. 14-20. Laglio Anno 
Secundo ; Minervini ; Bull. Arch. Nap., 
L 14; Gerhard, A. Z., s. 61. 

'^ Politi, IlluBtrazione sul dipinto in 
terra cotta, Svo, Girgenti, 1829, tav. 4. 

^ Politi, Cinque Vasi di Premio., tav. 
vi. ; osserv. Svo, Ven. 1828; Minervini, 
Boll. Nap., L p. 14; Gerhard, A. Z., 
1843, s. 60. 

*• Politi, Descr. di due Vasi Grseco- 
Sicoli Agrigentino, Svo, Girgenti, 1831. 

17 Politi, lUustraz., tav. 3. 

1* Politi, Due parole su tre Vasi fittili, 
Svo, Palermo, 1833. The name of the 
Amazon is 2AAE2I2. 


Many interesting vases of the shape called cekbe also 
come frona Girgenti, and are of the more perfect 
style of art, representing Zeus bearing off jEgina,' the 
Eleusinian deities,' Dionysos confideil to the nursing 
of Ariadne,* the departure of Triptoleraus, Aurora and 
Thetis pleading for their sons,* Peleus and Thetis,' and 
some general scenes." Cups with white ground, and with 
subjects in linear outline, have also been discovered there, 
and one in the Museum at Munich has the subject of 
Bacchanals, Hercules killing Cycnus, or the Amazons.' 
The Atticisim of the inscriptions® has been alleged as a 
reason for supposing the vases of tliia island to have been 
imported, but the Ionic colonies, such as Acragas, and 
the prevalence of Ionic and Attic Greek as a polite 
language, may account for the appearance of this dialect. 
Vases of fine style have been discovered at Catania 
and some with black figures at Alicata.' Vases with 
red figures, of good style, have been found at Ademo, 
Adranon, at the foot of Etna.'" 

In the public Museum at Malta are also some vases of 
Phfcnician and later Greek style, with Bacchanalian sub- 
jects. One representfi tlie cnpture of Midaa." Another 

' Politi, Cinque Va«i (UPremio.teY. 

' Politi, niustr, di un Vhro Gttiie 
rappr. Apollo il citaredo e 1e pnce en 
Girgenti, Bto, Pulermo, 182S. 

• Hon., la pi. 17; Aug., 1835. p, 82. 

* Politi, Cinque Ywi di Prcmio, 
Coneord,, ii. 14; Bull, Arcli. Nap., 
ii. p. 16 1 Qerbard, Arch. Zeit, 1843, 
p. U. 

' Politi, Illiutr. ad un Vbbo rappr. 

1828; Hinervbi, Bull. Arck Nap., i. 
p, U;Oerl]ud. A.Z.. 1S13, 61,PuBeidon 
uud AtDymone. 

* Politi, ibid., nlBO Drier, di due Yui 
Qreco-Sicoli, Sto, Qirg., 1H31. 

' Poiiti, D«E. di due V«ti. 1. o. 

' Kramer, Uebor die Herkunfl, ■, 


• Jahn. VMonaamral. s. ixxii. 
1° Bull,. ia*8. p. 12B. 

" De Witte, Bull., 1842, p. 13. 



hafi Eros, with his name.^ These vases are said to resemble 
those found in Sicily and Campania. 


Passing firom Sicily to the coast of Africa, the site of 
Bengazi — the old Euhesperis of the Cyrenaica, which 
subsequently obtained the name of Berenice from the 
queen of Ptolemy Philadelphus — abounds in sepulchres, in 
which have been found a very large number of vases of 
the later style of art, like those of Lucania and Apulia. 
Of these the most remarkable are the Panathenaic 
vases, which have black figures on a red ground, and 
the usual inscription of "[I am] one of the prizes 
from Athens," accompanied with the names of the 
following archons : — Hegesias and Nicocrates, who were 
archons at Athens in the 4th year of cxi. Olympiad, 
A. c. 334 ; Cephisodorus, who was archon in the 2nd 
year of cxiv. Olympiad, A. c. 323 ; Archippus, who 
was archon of the 4th year of the same Olympiad, 
A. c. 321 ; and Theophrastus, whose name occurs as 
that of archon of the Ist year of ex. Olympiad, A. c. 
340, or of cxvi. Olympiad, a. c. 313.^ They are remark- 
able for showing the late period at which black figures 

* Reidesel, Reise, p. 74 ; Jahn, Vasen- 
sammluDg, a. xxix. 

eEN ABAON, R. Roohette, Ann., vi 287, 
n. 2 ; Bockh, Corp. Inecr. Qr»c., ii. p. 
70, No. 2086 ; P. Lucas, ii. 84. Some of 
these vases from the Cyrenaica are in 
the Museum of Leyde ; Lenormant and 
De Witte, ^lite des Monumens, Introd. 

p. xiz. Many of these vases are like 
those found at Nola» while others re- 
semble the pottery of Melos, especially 
the coarser fabrics ; while the appear- 
ance of the head of Jupiter Ammon on 
a vase indicates a local fabric ; Lenor- 
mant and De Witte, ]^lite, Introd. 
xziv. and n. 2. Jahn, Vasensammlung, 
B. xxviii. xxix. 


were used.' These vases, from tbe Atticism of their 
inscriptions, are conjectured to have been imported 
from Athens. Two other vases of a supposed historical 
import have also been found tliero — tme representing a 
Persian king attacked by a lion, tlie other Aristippus 
between Arete, his daughter, and Aplirodite.'' These last 
have inscriptions in the Doric dialect. 

The principal excavations on this site are those recently 
made by M. Vattier de Bonrville and Mr. Worry. 
Besides the prize vases, many small vases and a few large 
of later style, some few polychrome, with subjects of little 
interest, and resembling the later vases found at lluvo, 
Apulia, and the Basilicata, have been exhumed here, and 
at the adjoining spots of Pinlematn, or Ptolemais, and 
Tukera. A selection of Sir. Werry's vases are in the 
Biitish Museum. 

Of the vases in the Louvre, 3Ir. Newton, Vice-Consul at 
Mytilene observes : '■ The collection of the vases from the 
Cyrenaica is very interesting. The two vases with black 
figures, with the names of Athenian archons, are in a 
style of complete decadence. The figures have the small 
heads aud general proportions of the school of Lysippus ; 
the drawing is very coarse, and, compared with the 
drawing of other vases, may be called cursive. On each 
of the two columns, between which Pallas stands, is Nike, 
holding an aplustron. Their form is the late Basilicatan 
kind of amphora. A number of very interesting vases 
and terra-cottas have been brought from the Cyrenaica. 

' Lenormuit, Revue Anih£oIogique, Gnec, 1 il p. 70, Ko. 203S. 
IdlS p. 230; Paul Lucas, t. ii p. 84, ' Lenormuit, Nouidlei AuiilM, 

cd. AiDit, ITH; I36okh, Corp. Iiiicr. 1617.381. 


The vases seem to be of Athenian manufacture. Among 
them are many polychrome, like the pyxis of Mr. Burgon's 
collection. They have ornaments in relief, gilt. On one 
most curious vase is a mixture of painting and bas relief. 
Cupid is seen, seated on a rock, fishing. The rock is raised 
in slight relief, the wings of the Cupid are painted red, the 
accessories are gilt. Before him are two figures hauling 
in a net ; the whole in a very slight relief, on a black 
ground. The composition is elegant and graceful, like 
the mural paintings of Pompeii. There is also a vase 
with a curious caricature of Hercules, after his Libyan 
victory, standing in a chariot driven by Victory, to which 
four Centaurs are harnessed. The faces are of the 
Nubian type ; those of the Centaurs very grotesque, and 
fiill of comic expression. These are now in the Museum 
of the Louvre." 

Vases have also been found at Tripolis, on the same 
coast. They are also of late style, few with black figures, 
the greater portion with red figures, and unimportant 
subjects, principally ornaments. A few of like style have 
also been discovered at Leptis} 

To the other vases found on the African coast and in 
Egypt, allusion has been already made — such as those 
of Coptos, famous for being made of an aromatic 
earth. ^ Naucratis was celebrated for its phialts having 
four handles, and a glaze so fine that they passed for 
silver. They were not made upon the wheel, but modelled 
with the hand.' In the catacombs of Alexandria, vases 
with a pale paste, and painted in the last style of 

' Jahn, VascDsammlung, s. xxiz. ' Brongniart, ibid ; Athensens, x. c 

» Brongniart, Traits, i. p. 582. 61. 


Greek art, have been discovered, some of wljicli are now 
in the Louvre,^ and others in the British Museum. Their 
paste occasionally is of a violet colour.* 

The northernmost point at which vases have been found 
is A'c'WfA.tlieanciciit PanticapeyjinijOMG of the other colonies 
of the Milesians, in the Cimmerian Bosphorus, celebrated at 
a later period for its commerce, and in A. c. 120, finally 
subdued by Mithradates. About 400 vases, scarcely a 
fourth of which have subjects of the least importance, have 
been found in this locality. Few have black figures, and 
their drawing is in the careless and free style of the Greek 
potteries. Tlio rest are principally small vases, with red 
figures, of the later style of art, and some of these are 
polychromatic, and ornamented with gilding. The most 
remarkable of these vases is that of the Athenian potter, 
Xeiiophantns, having for its subject a combat of gryphons 
and the Arimaspi, a story of local interest. These vases 
appear to be about the time of the Bosphoran king Lcucon, 
who flourished a. c. 393-353. Fragments of a vase of the 
artist Epictetus have also been discovered in this vicinity.' 
Most of these are now in the Hermitage of St. Petersburg. 
They are probably Athenian, most of them ill-preserved. 
M. Brongniart describes one from this site, at present in 

' nroDgninrt, L c. 5S'2. |i. 105 ; K-iliue in the Bullo^ do 1« 

3 Hub. da Sevres, i. IS. Ejoc. Arch. & Num. du St Peter*- 

' Farthe TMseBtaimd lieresee Annali, burg, ii. T, ; Jiihn, Tasensauimlung, 

1832, p. 8i DuboU de MontjHSreui, b. iiriii. A coin of Leocon wm found 

Vojagfl autour da Ciiucue. Pad. with a tkm. Anuali. xU. 13. ; Ouvaroff, 

1S13. PI. 7-lE; Aalilt. Bo!.[j1i. lUich. AntiquitiH du BoB|)hore Ciinmerien, 

tta Od. 1848-19, iii. t, 9. 36; Bull. 181], -vol. iii„ p, xlvl.-livjii. 

voun. N 



the Bibliothfeque Imperiale at Paris, as having a beautiful 
black glaze, and a bas-relief in the midst of it.* The vases 
have red figures, and are of the style of the decadence 
of the art, the workmanship being coarse, and the subjects 
uninteresting ; such as, the Dionysiac thiasos,^ gymnastic 
scenes,^ and those of private Ufe.* Their shapes were the 
hydria, calpis, pdice^ and lecane} 


In the sepulchres of Greece, the Islands, and Italy, 
a' class of ware has been found, quite distinct from the 
preceding, and resembling the enamelled stone ware of 
the Egyptians and Babylonians already described. Many. 
Egyptian perfume vases have been found in the sepulchres 
of Etruria ; and as their hieroglyphs ^ are identical with 
those found in Egypt, it is probable that they were 
imported into Etruria from that country. There are, 
however, some other vases of this class of ancient fayence, 
or porcelain, which are not so decidedly Egyptian — such 
as certain jars, ornamented with zigzag white ornaments 
and maroon petals, on a pale, dull green ground, and 

1 Brongniart, TraiU, L 578. En- 
grayiogs of these vases will be found in 
Dubois de Montp^reuz, Voyage autour 
da Caucase, etc., Paris, 1848, 6 vols, 
atlas folio, and Anton Ashik, Bos- 
pboriBche Altertbumer, Odessa, 1848; 
Ct Annali, 1840, p. 6. 

^ Oerbard, 1. a s. 195; Dubois de 
Montp^reux and Aahik, 1. c. 

' Ibid. These principally are draped 
and enveloped figures. 


Bull., 1837, p. 47, 1841, pp. 108, 109; 
Dubois de Montp^renx, Voyage autour 
du Caucase, V. Classe at Kertch; 
these va8«8 exhibit proofs of a local 
fabric; Lenormant and De Witte, 
Introd., xziii. 

* Bull., 1841, p. 108. Dubois de 
Montp^reux, Atlas, pL vii. ; Gerhard, 
Denkmaler Forsohungen und Berichte, 

* Mioali, Mon. Inedit., tav. vii. 


which may be imitations by Greek potters of this foreign 

The specimen here represented was found by Cam- 
panari in a tomb at Vulci. 
Some very beautiful specimens 
have been discovered in the 
tombs of southern Italy, A 
beautiful small calal/ius-shaped 
vase, procured by the late Mr. 
Chambers Hall at Naples, and 
by Iiim presented to the British 
Museum, is of a pale green. 
inlaid with blue and white 
ornaments ; and a prockoos, 

or bottle, in his possession, is most delicately decorated 
with ornaments of the same kind. 

Several lea^thi, or little toilet vases, of this ware, have 
been discovered in the tombe of Melos and Crere, and at 
Vulci. Their shapes show that they had not an origin 
purely oriental, having been delivered from moulds, and 
then glazed. They are iu the shape of a female kueelnig, 
and holding a jar, the heads of satyrs and nymphs, alec- 
tryons and hedgehogs. In the Egyptian grotto of the 
Polledrara at Vulci were found acarab.-ei and beads, also of 
this ware. At Athens one waa found in the shape of a 
double head of Hercules and Omphale,^ and at Melos 
another in the form of a hedgehog,' 

' Mua. Etro*. Vfttio. ii. iv. 

' Ponoriu, Kech., p. 26, pL iii 6S. 

s Bull,, 1831, pp. 18*-B0. 



The discovery of painted vases, and the general admira- 
tion which they excited among the lovers of the fine arts, 
gave rise to several imitations. The first of these were 
made by Mr. Wedgewood. His paste is, however, heavier, 
and his drawings far inferior to the antique in freedom 
and spirit. At Naples, chiefly through the researches and 
directions of Gargiulo, vases have of late years been pro- 
duced, which in their paste and glaze resemble the 
antique, although the drawings are vastly inferior, and the 
imitation is at once detected by a practised eye. They 
are far inferior in all essential respects to the ancient 
vases. Even soon after the acquisition of the Hamilton 
collection by the public, the taste created for these 
novelties caused various imitations to be produced. Some 
of the simplest kind were made of wood, covered with 
painted paper, the subjects being traced from the vases 
themselves, and this was the most obvious mode of 
making them. Of late Mr. Battam has made very excel- 
lent facsimiles of these vases, but they are produced in a 
manner very difierent from that of the ancient potters, 
the black colour for the grounds or figures not being laid 
on with a glaze, but merely with a cold pigment which has 
not been fired, and their lustre being produced by a polish. 
Such a process by no means gives them the extreme beauty 
of the better specimens of the ancient potteries, and in 
technical details they do not equal the imitations made at 
Naples, some of the best of which have occasionally 
deceived both archseologists and collectors. Even in the 



times of antiquity many counterfeits existed, for tlie 
potters evidently often endeavoured to assume tlic names 
of their rivals, without infringing tbe laws of their respec- 
tive states, by inscribing them on their vases in an illegible 
manner. These, however, can scarcely be classed in the 
category of ancient forgeries, like the Etruscan painted 
vases, imitated from the Greek. These are chiefly found 
on Etruscan sites ; but some few from Athens itself show 
that they were manufactured at home. They may possibly 
have been a particular style of fabric, introduced as a 
novelty to attract the popular taste, and subsequently 

One of the most remarkable fabricated engravings of 
these vases was that issued by Brondsted and Stack- 
clberg, in a fit of archaiological jealousy. A modern 
archaiologist is seen running after a draped female figure, 
called <l>HMH, or " Fame," who flies from him exclaiming, 
EKA2 nAI KAAE, " Be ofi", my fine fellow ! " This vase, 
which never existed except upon paper, deceived the 
credulous Ingliii-anii, who too late endeavoured to cancel 
it from his work. Other vases, evidently false, have also 
been published.' 

In the ancient times of Rome, these vases bore a high 
value, and sold for enormous sums to connoisseurs, which 
has also been the case in modern times. Cleopatra spent 
daily on the fragrant or flowery ware of Rhossus, a 
Syrian town, six mina).' Of the actual prices paid for 

' liighinmi, Vui FitUli, i. Ut. uiL ; ii. 81 ; D'HuKnrtille, il Tl. 
II FeiIm vaaQ lUgo is (lublubei] in Piia- 
iiari,i;i:o.,iuidtuiutlii:r in D'HuiCMvitte, 


>^thnnti#*9. ^e^ :& :«i mosc orobabie diac vnaea of the 
:)^9>t ^l^im. 'h#» orrvincta of emmesc Tnuucefs. obtained 
(*x^n^Aprr^^^ pno??r. Anum^ the ^TirekH. Torka of mmt 
T^i^r^ ^ %H :iiiw»9 hanciaoiiieiT rsmm^^aecL uni it is 
omi^h(e tbfil vmch of exmlencp skared die :seoefal 
fJt^onr ^h#>wTi to the nne artSL W)r .fmka o€ uifeiiui. 
m^t only ^fm^kW sninfl ':f«re paid, la wiil be seea by 
x^fTfin^ to the ch;ipter on iiiaeripniHi£L whick were 
mr^f^ on their t>et. and which mentioneil their contem:- 
p^yrrry vnlne. In modem times lirde is known abonc the 
prir^ paid for these works of art till qnice a reeoit 
period, when their fragile n»nains have realised con- 
j«der>hle ^mmn. In this «^raitnr die coilectiGns of Mr. 
Townley. .Sir W. Hamilton. Lord Rlgrn, and 3fc Payne 
Rniflfbt, pM contained painted vases : yet as they indnded 
^h^t ^je/^, it is diiRcnlt to determine die value plaired 
on th^ 7^Hf>!H. A snm of 500/. was paid in conaderation. 
of r\\^, A^h^nian vases in Lord Elgin'a coEection. which 
\% Ky no m^an» large when the extraordinary nature of 
th^f*^. 7i^f^M i« /y>nfridered, as thev are the finest in the 
world r^ th^, old primitive vases of Athens. S400/. were 
^id for tho \ra«^.» of the Hamilton collecuon, one of the 
tf}(i^t f^markahle of the time, and consisting of many 
Mfffitifid sf>f»<'.im^,ns from southern Italy. The great 
df«<',ov^ri^« of the Prince of Canino, in 1827, and the 
«t|^m^<'jIlf»r^fc sal^. of numerous vases, gave them, however, 
n d^finif/^ markrt value, to which the sale of the collection 
of iJflTon F)urand, which consisted almost entirely of 
t««oH, /ifl'orrls fl(;rno rluo. His collection sold in 1836 for 
'18,M)0 frnncH, or about 12,524/. The most valuable 


Specimen in tbe collection was the vase representing 
the death of Croesus, which was purchased for the Louvre 
at the price of 6600 francs, or 264/. The vase vrith the 
subject of Arcesilaus brought 1050 francs. Another 
magnificent vase, now in the Louvre, having the subject 
of the youthful Hercules stranghng the serpents, was 
only secured for Prance after reaching the price of 
6000 francs, or 240/ ; another, with the subject of 
Hercules, Dejanira, and Hyllus, was purchased for the 
sum of 3550 francs, or 142/. Kcrater, with the subject 
of Acamas and Demophon bringing back j$!thra, was 
obtained by M. Magnoncourt for 4250 francs, or 1 70/. A 
Bacchic anaphora, of the maker Execias, of the archaic 
style, was bought by the British Museum for 3600 francs, 
or 142/., in round numbers. Enough has, however, been 
said to show tlie high price attained by tlie most re- 
markable of these works of art. The inferior vases of 
course realised much smaller sums, varying from a few 
francs to a few pounds ; but high prices continued to be 
obtaineil, and the sale by the Prince of Canino in 1837, 
of some of his finest vases, contributed to enrich the 
museums of Europe, although, as many of the vases were 
bought in, it does not afibrd a good criterion as to price. 
An cenochoe, with Apollo and tlie Muses, and a ht/dria, 
with the same subject, were bought in for 2000 francs, 
or 80/, each. A cj/Hj^, with a love scene, and another with 
Priam redeeming Hector's corpse, brought 6600 francs, 
or 264/. An amphora with the subject of Dionysus, and 
a cup with that of Hercules, sold for 8000 francs, or 
320/., each. Another brought 7000 francs, or 280/. A 
vase with the subject of Theseus seizing Helen, another 


with the arming of Paris, and a third with Peleus and 
Thetis, sold for 6000 francs, or 240/. Nor can the value 
of the finest specimens of the art be considered to have 
deteriorated since. The late Mr. Steuart was offered 
7500 francs for a large crater, found in southern Italy, 
ornamented with the subject of Cadmus and the dragon ; 
3000 francs, or 120/., were paid by the British Museum 
for a fine crater ornamented with the exploits of Achilles ; 
2500 francs, or 100/., for an amphora of Apulian style, 
with the subject of Pelops and (Enomaus at the altar of 
the Olympian Zeus. For another vase, with the subject of 
Musaeus, 3000 francs, or 120/. were paid, and 2500 francs, 
or 100/., for the Athenian prize vase, the celebrated Vas 
Burgonianum, exhumed by Mr. Burgon. At Mr. Beck- 
ford's sale, the late Duke of Hamilton gave 200/. for a 
small vase, with the subject of the Indian Bacchus. 

The passion for possessing fine vases has outstripped 
these prices at Naples ; 2400 ducats, or 500/., was given 
for the vase with gilded figures discovered at Cumae. 
Still more incredible, half a century back, 8000 ducats, 
or 1500/., was paid to Vivenzio for the vase in the Museo 
Borbonico representing the last night of Troy; 6000 
ducats, or 1000/., for the one with a Dionysiac feast; 
and 4000 ducats, or 800/., for the vase with the grand 
battle of the Amazons, published by Schulz. But such 
sums will not be hereafter realized, not that taste is less, 
but that fine vases are more common. No sepulchre has 
been spared when detected, and no vase neglected when 
discovered ; and vases have been exhumed with more 
activity than the most of precious relics. 

The vases of Athens, with white grounds and polychrome 


figures, have also been always much sought after, and 
have realised large prices, the best preserved examples 
fetching as mucli as 70/. or 100/. Gcuerall}' tbosc vases 
which are finest in point of nrt have i-ealiaed the highest 

—Ley thin. Triumph 

prices, but in some instances they have been surpassed 
in this respect by others of high literary or historical 
value. As a general rule, vases with inscriptions have 
always been most valuable, tbe value of these objects 
being much enhanced when inscribed with the names of 
potters or artists, or with remarkable expressions. The 
inferior kinds have fetched prices much more moderate, 
the cylices averaging from 5/. to 10/., the amphorae from 
10/. to 20/., the hi/dria- about the same, the craters from 
5/. to 20/., according to tlicir general excellence, the 


cnuochoe about 5/., and the miscellaneous shapes from a 
few shilUngs to a few pounds. Of the inferior vases, the 
charming glaze and shapes of those discovered at Nola 
have obtained the best prices from amateurs. Those of 
Greece Proper have also fetched rather a higher price 
than those of Italy, on account of the interest attached 
to the place of their discovery. Many charming vases of 
unglazed terra-cotta have rivalled in their prices even the 
best of the painted vases.^ Although there are scarcely 
limits to the desire of possessing noble works of art, it 
will be seen that vases have never excited the minds of 
men so much as the nobler creations of sculpture or of 
painting ; nor have they reached the fabulous value of 
Sevres porcelain or Dutch tuHps. Even at the present 
day their price in the scale of public taste has been dis- 
puted, if not excelled, by the porcelain of the supposed 
barbarian Chinese, and Chelsea may pride itself that its 
china in value, if not in merit, has surpassed the choicest 
productions of the furnaces of Italy and Athens. 

^ Some account of the prices paid for tion des Andquit^s du cabinet de feu 

yases will be found in the " Description M. le Chev. E. Dunmd '** and in the 

des Antiquitds et Objets d'Art qui ** Description d'une collection des vases 

oomposent le cabinet de feu M. le Chev. peints et bronzes antiques provenant 

E.Durand,"byM.J.DeWitte,8vo,Paris, des fooilles de rEtrurie/' 8vo> Paris, 

1886 ; in the ** Supplement & la Descrip- 1837 ; also by M. De Witte. 

Etruscan Tem-CotUs — Statues — Busts— Baa-reUeh — Sarcopbagi—Taaes— Brown 
W»f»— Blftek Ware— Rod Warn— Yellow Ware— Pftinted VaaeB— IniitntionB 
of Greek Vnaoa— Subjecta and Mods of Exooution— Age— Vases of Urbetello 
and Volaterra — Vases with Ktmscan .luBcriptions — Latia iDicriptions on 
Eoamellad Ware — Other «to8. 

Prom Grecian pottery we naturally pass to tlio Etruscan, 
as that people derived their arts from their Hellenic masters. 
Pew remains, however, of their productions have reached 
the present day with the exception of vases, of which an 
immense number has been found, and which convey a very 
distinct notion of the Etruscan art. It is not, however, pos- 
sible to trace the Etruscan arts in clay in so distinct a 
manner as the Greek or Roman, owing to the want of a lite- 
rature among the Etruscans. Bricks and tiles they seem to 
have seldom employed, most of the public buildings and se- 
pulchres having been composed of tufo. Gori lias, indeed, 
published several tiles, some plain and others with flanges. 


from the Museum 6uccellianum,| having inscriptions in the 
Etruscan language, either engraved or painted upon them, 
commemorating the name and titles of the deceased, Uke 
the inscriptions upon the sarcophagi. According to 
Buonarotti, tiles were employed for closing the recesses in 
the chambers within which were placed the little sarcophagi 
which held the ashes of the dead.^ These were principally 
found in the sepulchres of Chiusi or Camai-s. One spe- 
cimen had, besides the usual inscription, the figure of the 
dead incised upon it.^ At a later period, such tiles were 
also used in graves, to cover the body laid at full length. 
Some, which bear bilingual inscriptions, in the Etruscan and 
Latin languages, show them to be not much older than the 
latter days of the Roman republic, or the commencement 
of the empire. According to Strabo, the walls of Arre- 
tiuniy or Arezzo, were made of these tiles, but no traces of 
these ancient walls remain.^ Some portions of the archi- 
tectural decorations of tombs were made of terra-cotta ;* 
and sometimes certain altars, or other embellishment of 
sepulchres, decorated with bas-reliefs, were moulded of 
the same material. At Cervetri have been found the 
antefixal ornaments at the end of the large imbrices or 
joint tiles, with representations of the Gorgon's head, 
modelled in the style of the earliest vases with yellow 
grounds, and painted with colours in engobe. From the 
same locality are said to have come the revetment of 
the walls of a tomb made of slabs, about four feet high 
and one inch thick, having painted on them a series of 

1 Gori, Mu8. Etrua. torn. III. p. 184 * Strabo, V. p. 226 ; Dermis, II. p. 
.and foil, t xxviii. xxz. 421. 

2 Dempst. it supp. xxvL p. 86. ' Dennis, II. 479. 
« Gori, p. 185. 


mythical repreeentations, treated in an archaic style, 
having some resemblance to the figures on the vases with 
yellow grounds. The figures on these slabs are prin- 
cipally painted in red and black on a cream-coloured 
ground, but it is difficult to say whether all the colours 
have been burnt in. 

Notwithstanding the reputation of the EtruBcans for 
their works in clay, few statues of importance have 
descended to us. Although some of the Greek authors,* 
and of the modern Italian writers,' claim the priority of 
the art of making figures in terra-cotta for Italy, there can 
be no doubt that the Etruscans, in their modeUing, imitated 
the Greeks. It must be conceded that the art of model- 
ling in clay preceded that of working in metals, in wliich 
last the Etruscans particularly excelled,^ especially in the 
mechanical treatment. The arrival of the Corinthian 
Demaratns, and of the artists in his train, in Italy, is the 
earliest record, that can be referred to, of the art of mo- 
delling clay ; working in bronze having been imported 
from Greece. 

The most remarkable for its size and execution is a 
group of a male and female figure, reposing on a couch, 
in the Campana collection, of the same style of art as the 
early bronzes, and wall paintings of the sepulchres of 
Italy, — the figures life-size, of rather slender proportions, 
with smiling features, and flat and formal drapery. This 
group is made of a clay, mixed with volcanic sand, 

' Tatian. Drat. o-iv. Onec c. !. 
' CampaiiB, Ant. op, in Plasticn 

p. 10. 


resembling the red ware, and is decorated with colour. 
It is said to come from Cervetri, where similar figures in 
relief of pale red terra-cotta, have also been discovered, 
all probably older than the foundation of Rome. 

It is chiefly from the Roman writers that our know- 
ledge of Etruscan statues in terra-cotta is derived, as the 
Romans, unable themselves to execute such works, were 
obliged to employ Etruscan artists for the decoration of 
their temples, as will be subsequently seen in the descrip- 
tion of Roman statues. Volcanius or Turianus of Fregellae, 
at Veii, was employed by Tarquinius Prisons to make the 
statue of Jupiter in the Capitol, which was of colossal 
proportions.^ The quadriga placed on the acroterium of 
the same temple, and a figure of Hercules in the Forum 
Boarium, were modelled in the same material.^ Numa 
also consecrated a double statue of Janus, or a statue of 
the two-headed Janus, of terra-cotta.^ 

According to Pliny, the art of statuary was so old in 
Italy that its origin was unknown.* There was an export 
trade thence even to Greece the greater part of which, 
in all probability, consisted of works in metal.^ The art 
of working in terra-cotta, according to the same author, 
was principally cultivated in Italy, and by the Etruscans. 
They may indeed have worked from foreign models, and 
perhaps from the statues of the Egyptians, with which they 
first became acquainted when Psammetichus I. (a. c. 654) 

' Pliny, N. U. xxxv. xii 45; Of. » Pliny, loc. cit xxxiv. viL 16. 

SlUig. Diet of Artists, 8vo, London, * n)id. xxxiv. c. vii. 16 ; xxxv. 44, 1. 

1886, p. 137. c. 54 ; Dionysius, III. c. 46 ; Strabo, V. 

« Plutarch, Vit Poplic. L 409 ; PUny, c. 2. 

N. H. xxxv. c. 45 ; Cf. also Martial, * n)id. loc. cit 
xiv. Ep. 178. 


threw open Egypt to the commerce of the world, in the 
second centnry of the era of Rome. It was subsequently 
that the Romans employed Etruscan artists, and Tar- 
quinius Priscus placed in the Capitol a terra-cotta statue 
of Jupiter, made by Volcaniiis of Vcii or Turianus of 

Besides these, there were numerous fictile statues in the 
temples of Rome called si^na Tuscanica, distinguished by 
their barbarous rigidity, and resembling in many respects 
the works of the ^ginetan school. The Etruscans pro- 
bably continued to supply Rome with statues till southern 
Italy submitted to her arms. The popular legends 
mvested these fictile statues with a halo of superstition. 
The horses in the quadriga on the apex of the temple of 
Jupiter Capitolinus were reported to have swollen instead 
of contracting in the furnace — a circumstance which was 
supposed to prognosticate the future greatness of Eorae.^ 


No vestiges of any of these statues remain, and remark- 
ably few small figures have been found in excavations 
made in Etruria, but some singular busts and models of 
viscera have been discovered on the sites of the ancient 
Gabii and at Vulci. The busts represent the face in 
profile and the neck ; the back is flat, to allow of the busts 
being attached to the wall, and has in the centre a hole 
for a peg to fix it. Models of hands, feet, of the breast 

' Pliny, N. H. wixv, c *5 ; Campana town. Seo Silliga notes to Pliuj-, 
(loa oit p. 13), profers the rewHog loc. 
'' FreganiB-to-'Frcgillis," tha VDlflcinii = Fcetui, t. Rntunioiia. 


and viscera, have also been found, some having phig-holes ' 
for fixing them to statues, either made of other materials, 

or in separate pieces, like the acrolithic statues of Greece. 
Some of tiieso may have been charisieria, or thank-offer- 
ings, like those at Athens. 


No bas-reliefs like those employed by the Romans to 
decorate the walls of edifices have been discovered in 
recent excavations, although it is probable that some of 
the temples were decorated with terra-cotta friezes. In 
the tombs, however, a considerable number of sarcophagi 
have been discovered, the greater part of small proportions, 
ornamented with subjects in bas-relief. The bas-relief 
models found at the ancient Gabii have been already men- 
tioned ; in connection with which we may advert to some 

D'AgLiicourt, Racaeil, PI. iviii. 4-7 ; iiii. 1-5. 


bas-reliefs found in the Sabine territory, and engraved in 
the work of D'Agincourt. 

Although the more important sarcophagi of the Etrus- 
cans were made of alabaster, tufo, and peperino, a con- 
siderable number, principally of small size, were of 
terra-cotta. Some few were large enough to receive a 
body laid at full length. The reliefs in the amaller ones 
seem to have been moulded. The colour of their paste is 
either pale red or pale yellow, and some which were dis- 
covered in the tombs of Tarquinii and Volterra contained 
traces of pyroxene. Two large sarcophagi, removed from a 
tomb at Vulci, are now in the British Museum, The lower 
part, which held the body, is shaped like a rectangular 
bin or trough, about three feet high and as many wide. 
On the covers are recumbent Etruscan females, modelled 
at full length. One has both its cover and chest divided 
into two portions, probably because it was found that 
masses of too large a size failed in the baking. The edges 
at the point of division are turned up, like flange tiles. 
These have on their fronts either dolphins or branches of 
trees, incised with a tool in outline. Some of the same 
dimensions are engraved in the works of Inghirami and 
Micali, and are imitations of the larger sarcophagi of stone. 
Many of the amaller sort, which held the ashes of the dead, 
are of the same shape, the body being a small rectangular 
chest, while the cover presents a figure of the deceased in 
a recHning posture. They generally have in front a com- 
position in bas-rehef, freely modelled in the later style of 


Etruscan art, the subject being of funereal impdrt ; such as 
the last farewell to the dead, combats of heroes, especially 
one, in which an unarmed hero is fighting with a plough- 
share ; * the parting of Admetus and Alcestis in the pre- 
sence of Death and Charon,^ and demons appearing at a 
repast.^ Some few have a painted roof. All these were 
painted in water-colours, upon a white ground, in bright 
and vivid tones, producing a gaudy effect. The inscrip- 
tions were also traced in paint, and not incised. 

A good and elaborate example of taste in the colouring 
of teiTa-cotta occurs on a small sarcophagus, presented by 
the Marquis of Northampton to the British Museum, and 
obtained by him at Florence. Here the flesh is red, the 
eyes blue, the hair red, the wreath green, and the drapery 
of the figure is white, with purple Umbus, and crimson 
border. The pillars are red, with purple and blue stripes. 
The beards and hair are bluish purple, the aims blue, the 
inside of the shield yellow, with a blue ground ; the 
chlamydes yellow, purple, and crimson ; one blue, lined with 
purple ; the mitrse red and blue. Even the pilasters are 
coloured white, with red flutes ; the festoon of the capital 
is green, and the abacus red, the dentals yellow, with a 
red boss. The inscription is in brown letters, on a white 

Some specimens of terra-cotta sarcophagi have been 
engraved by Dempster * and Gori.^ According to Lanzi 
and Inghirami ^ they are seldom found at Volterra, while 

' Brongniart, Mm. Cer. I. 3 ; In- * De Etruria regali, L tab. liii.-ly. 

ghiraini, Mon. Etrusc. tab. xxxviiL ** Mas. Etr. III. Prsef. xxil, torn. I. 

p. 25. p. 92 ; Of. Tab. civil clviiL cxcL 

^ Inghirami, L p. 324. ^ Mon. Etrusc. L tay. iii. p. 15. 

» Bull 1844, p. 87. 


they are frequently discovered in the sepulchres of Chiusi 
and of Monte Pulciano.' They are the prototypes of the 
Roman urns, which were ranged in niches round tlie 
columbajia or sepulchral chambers. 


We will now proceed to the consideration of vases, of 
which several, differing in paste and composition, have 
been discovered in the difForent tombs of Etniria. The 
principal varieties are, 1, Brown-ware ; 2, Black-ware ; 3, 
Red-ware ; 4, Yellow-ware. 


The brown-wares are apparently the oldest. Their 
colour is a grayish brown, probably from their having 
been imperfectly baked ; sometimes, liowever, they are 
red in the centre. Some vasea of this class, the fabric 
of which is exceedingly coarse, and which are orna- 
mented with rude decorations, consisting of punctured 
or incised lines, spirals, raised zigzags, bosses, and pro- 
jecting ornaments applied after they were made, re- 
semble in their character the Teutonic vases found on 
the banks of the Rhine, and certain Celtic ones that 
occur in France and Britain, from which they are often 
scarcely to be distinguished." They consist of jugs, ceno- 
choa;, small vases with two handles, and wide cups like the 

■ See alu Mot. Etr. Iiiiil x(I^i.; < Brotigiuart,Trkit4, L p. 417; Dorow, 

Oori, I. tab. IzviL L p. ISfi; Ub. olvii Potoriea Rtruaqaes propranieiit dite^ 
dviii. oil. ilo. 132B. 


a/atkos. In the nideness of their shapes, and peculiar 
treatment, they seem to be imitations of vases carved out 
of wood, such as we know the cissibion to have been. The 
most remarkable and interesting of them are those found 
under the volcanic tufo, near the Alban lakes, which are 
in the shape of a tugurium or cottage, and must have con- 
tained the ashes of the early inhabitants of Latium. Con- 
siderable difference of opinion has however prevailed 
respecting the age of these vases.' By some they are 
supposed to be relics of the primitive inhabitants of 
ancient Eome ; by others, of those of Alba Longa. One 
in the British Museum, presented by Jtr, W. R. Hamilton, 
is filled with the ashes of 
the dead, which were in- 
troduced by a little door. 
This door was secured by 
a cord passing through 
two rings at its sides, and 
tied round the vase. The 
cover or roof is vaulted 
and apparently intended 
to represent the beams 
_ of a bouse or cottage. The 

N... in.-T(it(urium vmiij rtoni Aibano. extorior has been orna- 

mented with a mseander 
in white paint, traces of which still remain. They were 
placed inside a large two handled vase which protected 


' UruB in ahttpe of oottagea, of brown 
Etniei^BD wiiTG (Bull 1846, p. 91), BUfh 
posed to be at tbe Swiss guarda in the 
■erviee of the Romaoi, were found nesj 
Albuio. Thej wen SKOLvnted in 1617, 

b; Quiaeppo Cunevali of Albftno, and 
illiutnted b7 Sig. AlesKmdro Vitconti, 
Sopra alcmii vui sepolcrali riuveiiuti 
□ells vicinnnEO delle anticn Alba-Longa. 
Ronift, 1317. 


them from the superincumbent mass. Although the fact 
of their having been found under beds of lava, origi- 
nally led to an exaggerated opinion of the antiquity of 
these vaac3, there can be no doubt tliat they are of the 
earliest period of Etruscan art. The curious contents of 
one of them, pubhshed by Visconti, confirm their very 
primitive use. They have no glaze upon their sui'face, but 
a polish produced by friction. At Cajre have also been 
found some 

of the earUest 
specimens of 
painted va- 
ses, evidently 
ed upon the 
spot by the 
native set- 
tlers, and 
traces of 
Greek rather 

thanof Etl-US- K^. 17Ik-Oi™p <•! v.™, oca In .Impo «f » hut. From Allai- 

can art The 

paste of whicli these vaaea arc made is pale reddish brown, 
speckled black, with volcanic sand, and gleaming with 
panicles of mica. Upon the ground of these vases the 
subjects have been painted in white upon a coarse black 
back-ground, or in the natural colour of the clay. Dental, 
helix, herring-bone, and calix patterns abound, some 
covering the whole vase, but on some of the vases of thia 
class are mtroduced birds, lions, gryphons, and even fish. 


Some of the figures of animals are small and drawn in 
outline like those of the fawu-coloured vases found at 
Melos, Thera, and Athens, hut many of the others are 
large coarse figures, resembling in style and treatment 
those of the earliest Greek vases of the style called 
Phoenician or Egyptian. None of these early vases have 
incised lines scratched ou the figures to aid the effect of 
the painting, which was an opaque colour, laid on as 
fresco, and not burnt in as encaustic on the vases. The 
drawing was sketched out in white outliue, somotimes 
consisting of a line of dots, by the artist, and the back- 
ground subsequently filled in. 

The shapes of these vases also differ considerably from 
those of the later Hellenic vases, but resemble those of the 
fawn-coloured vases. 

Similar to these are two other ones, published by Micali, 
which were found at the ancient Ca;re or Cervetri. One 
in the shape of a Panathenaic amphora has more mica or 
tufo in its paste ; — but the other, a hydria or three-handled 
water jar, more resembles the paste of the vases just 
described, and has a polish on its surface. All these have 
had subjects painted upon them in opaque colours, like 
those used on the sarcophagi, and in the mural paintings 
^H of the tombs, in blue, white, and vermilion ; one nith the 

^H Atlienian legend of the destruction of the Minotaur.' 

^H From the remote antiquity of their shape, the absence 

^H of human figures, the tempera character of their drawing, 

^H they are evidently to he referred to the oldest period of 

^H Cajre or Agylla, probably to that historically designated 

^^t as the age of the Pelasgi and Aborigines, which succeeded 

^^^^^1 luDditi, PL iv. 


the occupation of the Siculi, during which period Agylla 
had maintained an intercourse with Greece Proper.' The 
subsequent conquest of the Etruscans probably introduced 
a different style of art," that of the black and red 
Etruscan stamped and modelled ware —while the Greeks 
supplied the city, through the Port of Pyrgi, at a later 
period, with vases of all the principal styles of their art.^ 

Some objects resemltliug curling pins 
or bilboquets of this ware have also been 
found at Vulci. 


The next class are made of a paste entirely black, though 
rather darker oa the edges than in the centre,* — and 
when imperfectly baked, tlie black has sometimes a lustrous 
jet-like polish. Some think that this ware is made of a 
black bituminous earth found in the Etruscan territory ; 
according to othecs it is of a clay naturally yellow, hut 
darkened by casting the smoke of the furnace upon it. 
Although some have conjectured that it is sundried, yet 
an attentive examination shows that it has been baked in 
kilns, but at a low temperature,* There are, however, 
several varieties of this ware, dependent upon the place of 
manufacture. Sometimes it is thick and heavy, at others 
thin and light. It is found only in the sepulchres of 
Etruria, and belongs to the subdivision of lustrous vases 

' Lepmns,UeberdieTjrrhBaer,p.3B, 
Dcnnii, ii. p. G8. 

' BrotigDiu't, Tnutd, 1. c 

* Cimioa, Cere Aotiiia, p. 16. 

the Jcdlcalioa uf 

tu ApoUu at 

Dtflphi, Stmbo, v. 220, and iu caiuutUu{ 
the orade, Harodut.). 167. 

• Bronaninrt, Trail*, i p. 413-41B. 

> Micati, Moil- Id. p. ISO. 


with a teuder paste. In many specimens the lustrous 
appearance ia a mere polish, probably produced on the 
lathe. This ware was an improvement on the brown 
Etruscan sort already described, and exliibits the highest 
degree of art attained by the Italian potteries. An ana- 
lysis of its paste gives a mean of 63"34 Silica, 14"42 
Alumina, 7'9 Ox. Iron and Manganese, 325 Carb. 
Lime, 2-12 Magnesia, 7-34 Water, 1'83 Carbon. 
They are for the most part made with the hand, rarely if 
ever turned on the wheel. The ornaments are often incised 
with a pointed tool, and in such cases consist of flowers, 
resembling the lotus, festoons, rude imitations of waves, or 
spirals resembling the springs or armillfe known at a later 
period, and very similar to the ornaments on the early vases 
of Athens. Sometimes they appear to have been punched 
in with a circular stamp, and run round the vase ; while 
in other instances figures of horses and other animals are 
stamped in the interior.' Many of these vases have bas- 
reliefs, either modeUed on the vase, or pressed out from its 
mould, which are disposed as a frieze (fuiCSioy) running 
round its body. These friezes have been produced by 
passing a hollow cylinder round the vase, while the clay 
was moist, and before it was sent to the furnace, a process 
identical with that employed by the Assyrians and Baby- 
lonians, in order to prevent the cyhnders which they used 
for written documents being enlarged after they had been 
inscribed.' The treatment of the subject on the friezes is 
peculiar. The conventional arrangement of tho hair, the 
rigidity of the Hmbs, the smile playing on the features,^ the 

' Dennis, iL 3G2. pinti, in the Diffiortsziono dalla Pontt- 

' StoriiL d'ltalia, torn. ii. p. 27S, et Boq. Gcia Acsademin Rotoiuia di Arcbao- 
' Campauari, Intotno i nd fittiU di- losin, torn. viL 18Sfl, p. 5-7, 


rudeness atid archaism of the forms, not unmixed, how- 
ever, with a certain plumpness and softness of outline, 
reminds us of the early schools of Asia Minor and jEgina, 
as well as of the bas-relief of Samothrace, and the coins 
of Magna Griecia ; all which belong to the style of art 
caUed by some Egyptian, In some instances the rudeness 
of the forms seems to be the effect of the material rather 
than of the artist's conceptions ; and in this respect their 
bas-reliefs may be compared with the rude asses of the 
Etruscans, the circulation of which did not extend below 
the fourth century B.C, Other specimens exhibit all the 
characteristic of Oriental art in the 
arrangement and treatment of the 
recurved wings, the monstrous ani- 
mal combinations, such as the 
scrupulous exactitude of detail, and 
the ornamental repetition of the 
subject. The monotony of the 
moulded figures is often reUeved by 
incised marks by which the minor 
details of the dress are indicated. 
Those who conceive that they ex- 
hibit traces of imitation should 
remember that imitative art is the 
product of a universal decadence — 
the evidence that a nation has ex- 
hausted its intellectual capacity : 
and tliat Etruria fell in her meridian, when the arts of her 
neighbours bloomed in unrivalled beauty. 

The only traces of imitation which they display are 
those of other Etruscan works in metal. The bronze 


rases and shields found at Ceiretri, Casre, are ornamented 
in the same manner with circular iriezes chased on the 

The idea of imitation from works in metal ia still more 
strongly suggested by the detached figures in complete 
relief which decorate the covers of these vases — the 
heads — such as 
cows, rams, and 

shaped stoppers." 

From the shapes of thiB class of vases we may draw 
some conclusions derived from Egyptian, Chaldrean, or 
Phtcnician sources, respecting tlie uses to which they were 

' MuB. Etr. VaL G. 11. xcvl-icvii. '- Mua. Etr, Vat-, icviii. 


applied. They evidently formed part of the furniture of 
the Etruscans.' We find amonj; tliem the canlharos, or 
two-handled cup ; the ofatkus or cissybion, another kind 
of drinking vessel somewhat resembling the modern tea- 
cup, the cothon, or deep cup with two handles ; and a 
small cylip. A peculiar kind of goblet, to which the not 
very satisfactory name of holcion has been giveu^as to 
judge from the description given by Herodotus of that 
made by Glaucus, it is rather a kind of crater — is by no 

3. ITO.— Trayor Ublo 

means uncommon." The phiale, or saucer, and pinax, or 
trencher, frequently occur ; and the vessel called kolmos, 
probably a crater for holding wine at a banquet, is also 
found. The oenochoe, or wine pitcher, either with the vine- 
leaf shaped or the circular mouth, is of frequent occurrence ; 
but the leci/thus, or oil cruse, is uncommon, and the alabas- 
iron altogether unknown. The two-handed vase with a 
cover, called lecane is found, which seems to have served 
the purpose of a bo.\ or basket among the ancients. There 
are also vases of unusual shape, and even of grotesque 

' DeDalH, ii. 

= H)Ld. Cr. BrongDiwt, TmiU, PL x: 



appearance ; among them a kind of cubital, the use of 
-which is utterly unknown. Objects supposed to be braziers, 
or trays,^ are also to be found among them ; but these are 
probably stands to hold other vases. They often contain 
spoons as ^ell as other curious little vases of unknown 
use. The celebrated rhyton or drinking cup -which could 
not be set down, is also found among this ware.^ The 
most extraordinary appUcation of it, however, was to 
sepulchral purposes. Here the potter has exhausted all 
the resources of his art. He has endeavoured to invest 
the clay with metallic power, and to work it up into 
shape that conveys an idea of metaUic strength. One of 
the simplest forms of these vases is the canopos or jar 
resembling those in which the Egyptians placed the 
entrails of their mummies. 

The Etruscan canopi are rude representations of the 
human figure, the heads which are coifed in the 
Egyptian manner forming the covers.^ The eyes 
are sometimes inlaid. They have large earrings 
which are moveable. They have holes supposed 
to be intended to allow the effluvia of the ashes to 
escape. When they had received the last remains of 
mortality, they were placed in the tombs on chairs of 
oak or terra-cotta. In this respect they resemble the 
{ufo sepulchral figures of early style found at Chiusi," 
which separate into two pieces, and have in their lower 
part a hollow bowl scooped out to receive the ashes of 

' See DenniB, iL 325 ; Inghirami, ^ For vases see Hioali, L o. ziv.- 

Mus. ChiuB. tav.40, p. 39; Mod. Etrusc. xxvii. 

vi tav. 6, 5; liicali, i\ntic. Pop. tav. * Dennis, 11.356, n. 8; Micali^ Men. 

zxYL-xxiiL ; Brongniart, Traitd, PL zz. In. p. 151. 
fig. 12. 


the dead. This method of placing the mortal remains of 
a person within a representation of himself, is peculiarly 
Egyptian, and recalls to mind the orientalism of certain 
Etruscan remains. The circumstance of burning the 
dead cannot be considered as a fatal objection to the 
antiquity of these vases ; and although the canopi are 
probably not anterior to the 4th century B.C., they are not 
to bo regarded as modern,' 

A vase found at Cervetri ia a remarkable instance of 
this style. It is a modification of the holcion, and ia 
supposed to have been used as a thymiaterion. The bowl 
or upper part is ornamented Tvith a star and lune, it ia 
attached to the side, or upper part of the stem by objects 
resembling studs rather than columns, and the stem ia 
divided into two bowls or inverted cups.^ 

Unfortunately the subjects in the small friezes are 
imperfectly defined, especially the attributes ; yet enough 
is seen to enable us to draw some general conclusions.' 
They seem to be later than the early vases of Athens, 
with their elongated animal forms, or than the early 
Doric ware with its extraordinary human and animal 
figures, as seen on the vase of Civita Vecchia, representing 
the battle of the Lapitha) and Centaurs. Yet the 
mythology which they present seems obscure and 
shadowy, and in a state of transition from its Asiatic 
prototypes. It is not Etruscan, for none of the local 
divinities appear ; it is rather oriental Greek, with all its 
primitive monstrous combinations of human and animal 

■ AbekeD. Hittel-iUlien 273 thiuki ' BrongniMt, Tr^W, PI. u. fig. 1, 

them modeni ; Denoii, I. c p. 3G9. 3, 4, 5, S, 7, 9, 10, is. Ilk 13. 

» Dennb. iL p. 68. 


fonns, before it had been refined by the national genius 
and taato, and endowed with ideal beauty. It is ante- 
Homeric, since the legends are either entirely different 
from those of the Epic cycle, or else such as are alluded 
to, or borrowed, as antecedent traditions, in the Iliad and 

^H Odyssey. The Corinthian legend of Bellerophon repre- 

^V sented on them, has like the Milo terra-cotta an unwinged 

^M Pegasus, the hero and his son Peisander. The grand 

^M e:(ploit of the Ferseid has tn'o Gorgons, one with the head 


of the horse Pegasus issuing from the neck, and tlie swan 
or Graia. On others are divinities grouped like those on 
the Harpj monuments at Xanthiis. 

The vases of this style have no inscriptions referring 
either to the subjects, the artist or the potter. This 
is a remarkable fact, and confirms their Iiigh antiquity; 
for in the middle period the use of inscriptions was com- 
mon. When inscriptions do occur they arc not essential, 
being subsequent to the fabric and scratched iu with a point 
after it has been made. These subsequent inscriptions 
which seem to be the potter's memoranda, are placed at 
the bottom of the vases, having black and red figures, 
and are generally in the Etruscan language. 

Many vases of Etruscan black ware have these inscrip- 
tions, and that on a cinerary am is mi tesan heia tarckit- 
menai} One jug is known that has an inscription, and 
several inscribed slabs have been found. In the tombs of 
Cervetri,' two of these rases, which had probably been 
employed as an ink-stand, had a Greek alphabet and 
syllabarium scratched on them, but this, like the other 
inscriptions, is incidental rather than necessary. All 
these vases precede the period when names, whether of 
the figures or of the artists, were introduced. Aa the 
arrangement of the alphabet just alluded to differs from 
that established by the Alexandrian grammarians it 
may be useful to give it here, viz, : B, C, Z, H, Th, M, N, 
P, K, S, Kh, Ph, T. 

At Bomarzo' another vase had an Etruscan alphabet 

' Uicali, Mod. In. Ut. ly. 7. Dehor dio Tjirhencr-retaiger, p. 311, 

' Deanu, ii p. M. 42. 

* Lepiiui, Annkli, 1836, p. ISe, SOS, 


thus arranged : A, C, E, P, Z, H, Th, I, L, M, N, P, S, T, 
XJ, Th, Ch, Ph. 

From the form of the letters, especially from the g or 
aspirate, and the R, it is evident that the inscription is 
contemporary with that on the helmet of Hiero I. in the 
British Museum; while the introduction of the double 
letters proves it to be of the age of Simonides. Of these the 
Archaic H, written 0, is excessively remarkable, and points 
out the original form as analogous to the aspirate which is 
thus shaped on the early coins of Thebes. On another 
vase of this class was found what has been called a Pelasgic 
inscription, supposed to be two hexameters.^ 

The vases of this class are discovered only in a limited 
range of country. They scarcely appear to the south of 
the Tibur, and the most northern sepulchres in which 
they are found are those of Siena. In the old tombs of 
Cervetri ^ or Caere Vetus, on the site of Veii, Orte,* and 
Viterbo,* at Vulci,^ at Palo, the ancient Alsium,^ at Chiusi 
or Clusium, Sarteano, CastigUoncel del Trinoro, Chianciano,^ 
and Cesona,^ six miles to the west of Chiusi ; also at 
Magliano,^ Orbetello,"^ Orvieto," especially at Volaterra,^^ 
and Cortona,^^ numbers of these vases are found. 

The vases of the diflFerent locahties are, however, distinct 
in style ; those from Chiusi, Volaterra, Magliano, and 
its neighbourhood, have figures in bas-relief, while those 

' Dennis, Cities. 1, 225, y. In. zxviii.-zxzl ; Mus. Chius. xiL-xix. 

' Dennis, Gem. and Cit. p. 58. xxi-xlv- Ixxxii ; Dennis, iL 848. 

* Ibid. 164. 8 itid. p. 402, 425. 

< Ibid. 197. • Ibid. ii. 296. 

« Ibid. 410. w Ibid, a 265. 

« Ibid.ii. p. 72-73. " Ibid, il 628. 

' Dennis, il p. 101, 409 ; Micali, ^ Ibid. ii. 203. 

Ant Pop. Ital. tav. xxii. xxvi. ; Mon. » n,id. ii. 442. 


from Palo ami Veii, have the figures incised or engraved. 
In many instances, they are entirely plain. The solution 
of the question as to their relative antiquity has been 
much retarded by the uncritical and careless manner in 
which the tombs have been opened. At Palo the incised 
vases were found in excavated tunnel tombs, hke the 
Egyptian speoi, and in these were what have been called 
Egyptian remains, as painted ostrich eggs, and beads of 
an odorous paste. At Magliano such remains were found 
in sepulchres with tlio scarabsei. The vases with subjects 
in bas-relief, appear to be found in tombs with the alabaster 
sarcopliagi, most of which cannot be placed earlier than 
the third century, B. c. In none were found coins which 
would have been of mucli service in fixing the aga 
of the vases of this class. Most 
of them appear to be prior to the 
circulation of the as grave of 

There is some reason to belie 
that this black ware was that 
supposed to have been made by 
the corporation of potters in the 
days of Numa, B.c. 700 ;' for 
Juvenal mentions it as being in 
use at that period : " who dared 

, „ , ,,, , ,. , , No. IBI -minted Mtrioliere. VuJcl. 

then, be says, ' to ridicule the 

simpuvium and the black saucor of Numa 1 " {nigrumque 
catinum) ', while Persius ' styles it the Tuscum Jiciile or 
Tuscan pottery ; and it appears from Martial that 


Porsenna,^ B.C. 507, had a dinner set of the same y^are. 
Horace also speaks of the Tt/rrhena sigUhy or Tyrrhene 


The next class of vases to be considered is that of the 
red ware, of which there are two or three diflFerent kinds. 
The first consists of certain large jars resembling the cask 
(pithos or keramos) in which wine and other things were 
stored, and which, long before the time of Diogenes, 
afforded a retreat to Eurystheus when he fled at the 
sight of the Erymanthian boar. Such a rase also formed 
the prison of Ares, when bound by the twin Aloids — 
Otus and Ephialtes. The bodies of these vases are reeded, 
and there is usually a bold modelling running round the 
neck, for which a frieze, with figures of animals, is some- 
times substituted, resembling those on some of the black 
ware. Sometimes the friezes have hunting scenes of 
animals chased by persons in chariots ; at other times they 
represent entertainments. These vases often have handles, 
thus forming a kind of large amphorse or diotSB. They 
generally stand in flat circular dishes of a similar ware, but 
of finer paste, the broad and flat lips of which have friezes 
of similar subjects impressed in bas-rehef with a cylinder. 
These vases are very old, probably B,c. 700, and are chiefly 
found in the old Etruscan cemeteries, in the tunnelled 
tombs of Cervetri^ or Caere Vetus, or at Tarquinii, 
and on the site of Vcii. Their paste is of a dullish red 

* " Lautug erat Thuscia Porsenna fie- ^ Epist. II. 2, ▼. 180. 

tilibuB/'— 3 Mus. Etr. Vat. u. xcix. c. 

Martia], Epig. xiv. 98. 

colour, and of a gritty material, apparently mixed with the 
tufo of Ihe soil. Sometimea they are of a pale salmon hue, 
mingled with black specks or ashes, probably of a volcanic 
nature. The bodies of these vases are too large to have 
been turned upon the wheel, and they must consequently 
have been modelled. 

As they are found in tombs which contain no painted 
vases, they evidently belong to the earliest period of the 
Etruscan conquest. They are about three feet four inches. 
with expanding mouth, and body tapering to a cylindrical 
foot. A festoon or zigzag line in relief usually runs 
round the neck of these vases, the body of which ia 
reeded, and a ring or band in bas-relief round the foot. 
On the shoulder of tliese vases is a frieze or zoidion either 
impressed from a cylinder and then run in a continuous 
repetition round the neck, or else stamped from a mould 
about 2^ inches square, depressed hke metopes. Tlieir 
upper surface is flat like work in ivory, and they seem 
moulded from bronze or other metallic work. That 
these were separately stamped ia evident from some hav- 
ing been double struck, and others having beon only half 
stnick, owing to their interfering with the part already 
impressed. These latter ornaments or metopes contain 
generally only one figure, while the friezes have a subject 
successively repeated. The connection of these vases 
of Cfere with the early raetalUc works of Egj'pt 
and Assyria will appear from the animals and monsters 
represented, which show an acquaintance with Asiatic 
art, either derived from the early commerce of the 
Etruscans, or introduced to them by other means from 
Asia. Such patterns probably passed over to Greece and 


Italy from the Western coasts of Asia Minor and from 
the Phoenician sea ports in Syria. The most remarkable 
of these representations indeed are to be found on the 
silver cups and other gold objects discovered in the 
tombs of Caere, which show a style of art immediately 
derived from Egypt, and such as existed in Egypt during 
the reign of the Psammetichi, when the ports of the 
Nile were thrown unrestrictedly open to Greek com- 
merce, and Egyptian art and even language appears in 
the annals of Corinth about the 7th and 8th century 
before Christ. At this period the Etruscans had probably 
developed a brisk trade in the Mediterranean, and ivory, 
ostrich eggs, amber, Egyptian porcelain, and tin found 
in the articles of adornment of the oldest sepulchres, 
show the extent and activity of the national adventure. 
The vases of Greek Proper indeed had not yet been im- 
ported, but the great casks or dolia, of which mention is 
now made, were manufactured on the spot, probably under 
the direction of colonies of Greek and other potters. 
This admixture of Hellenic art is visible in the sub- 
jects, which are Sphinxes, centaurs, horsemen, wild birds 
perched on the back of the horse, Pegasi, Gorgons, and 
Chimaeras, winged lions uniting in a common head, man 
hunting a stag, lions, birds, and similar subjects. These 
so nearly resemble the vases of pale clay with friezes of 
animal figures, that they must have immediately preceded 

Of a deeper red, but of rather finer paste, and covered 
with a coating of red paint, are certain dishes found in 
the sepulchres of Vulci and other places, and almost 
resembling the Aretine ware. Many jugs or oenochoaB, 


phialfD or saucers, ascoi or bottles, and a few ciipa, are also 
fouiiii of a red paste, more or 
less deep in colour and fine 
in quality. 

The most remarkable vases 
of this sort are those which 
held the ashes of the dead, 
rudely modelled in shape of 
the human form, the cover re- 
presenting the head, and hav- 
ing in front small rude arms 
and bands. These were placed 
in the tombs in curule cliairs, 
as if the dead still sat there 
in state. 


Of pale yellow ware of fine quality, but imperfectly 
baked, are certain lecyihi and perfume vases, found in the 
more ancient sepulchres. These very much resemble the 
painted vases called Doric, but are not decorated with 
figures. They are modelled in the shape of animals, of 
Venus holding her dove, &c. ; and some were perhaps 
made by the Etruscans. Various unglazed vases of a 
light-coloured paste come from the Etruscan sepulchres, 
and such may be occasionally contemporary with the 
earlier vases, but the genera.1 mass of this pale ware 
appears referable to a later period. 



Although the Etruscans executed such magnificent 
works in bronze, exercised with great skill the art of 
engraving gems, and produced such refined specimens of 
filagree work in gold, the}' never attained high excellence in 
the potter's art. The vases already described belong to 
plastic rather than graphic art, and are decided imitations 
of works in metal. Their mode of painting certain vases 
in opaque colours, in the manner of frescoes, which were 
not subjected a second time to the furnace, has been 
already described. These were probably their first 
attempts at ornamenting vases with subjects, and such 
vases are as old as the sixth century D.C, 

These vases are quite distinct from the glazed vases of 
the Greeks, which, however, the Etruscan potters imitated, 
although not at their first introduction into the country. 
They subsequently produced imitations of the black and 
red monochrome vases, as appears from a few specimens 
which have reached the present time, and which are in 
the difierent Museums of Europe. In order to make these 
imitations they used diS'erent methods. The vases with 
black figures upon a red ground were produced, either by 
making a vase of pale paste and painting upon it a subject 
in a black glaze of leaden hue, or else by painting an 
opaque red ground in an ochrous earth over the black 
varnish of a vase entirely coloured black, of which an 
example may be seen in the hydria now in the British 
Museum, representuig the subject of a giant attacked by 
two gods. In this case the inner engraved lines are 


xisually omitted. This mode was, however, not exclu- 
siyely Etruscan, for a vase found at Athens by Mr. Burgon 
has its subject painted in a similar manner, in red upon a 
black ground. Another vase in the Bibliotheque Imperiale, 
at Paris, with the subject of CJiiron, has been painted 
upon the same principle, and this process has been adduced 
as a proof that the art of making painted glazed vases 
was a mystery to the Etruscans. But there are several 
vases of pale clay, painted with a dull leaden glaze, and 
of treatment so bad, and drawing showing such remark- 
able analogies with other works of Etruscan design, that 
their origin is undoubtedly local, and they are called by 
Italian antiquaries " national." 

The subjects of these vases generally show traces of 
Etruscan influence, and often resemble the friezes of the 
solid black ware, abounding in wiuged figures and mon- 
strous combinations, not capable of explanation by Hellenic 
myths, or else have scenes derived from private life. Many 
of these vases are evidently much later than the vases 
with black figures, which they attempt to imitate, and 
must have been fabricated at a late epoch. To produce 
imitations of vases with red figures, the Etruscan potter 
adopted the processes already described. In the vases 
with black figures he stopped out, with an opaque red 
ground, all but the required figures ; hut to produce a vase 
with red figures, the required figures were painted in an 
opaque red, apparently a pulverised clay, on the dull 
leaden back ground of the vase. The figures were relieved 
by passing a tool, not so sharp as to cut through the 
black glaze, tlirough the required details of the opaque 
red figure down to the black glaze, thus producing the 



inner black outlines usually painted on the red figures of 
the Greek vases of the more finished style. But they also 
manufactured a ware of paler paste, with figures of a 
pallid tint, and glaze of a leaden hue, drawn in imitation 
of the finer Greek vases. Their drawing is bad, and the 
subjects generally unimportant. Sometimes Etruscan 
deities, such bb Charon with his mace, are represented on 
them, which decides their Etruscan origin. The general 
mass of the vases of this style and period resemble those 
of the later Greek potteries found in the sepulchres of 
Puglia, and of the BasiUcata. Although their shape is 
less elegant, their clay less fine, and their inscriptions 
generally more local than those of the Greek vases, yet 
their subjects are generally derived from the Greek 
mythology, treated in a manner consonant to the Etruscan 
taste, and to the local religion, while their drawing is of 
the coarsest kind. On a vase of this class (formerly 
belonging to Dr. Braun, at Rome, having for its subject 
the farewell of Admetus and Alcestis,^ with Etruscan 
inscriptions accompanying the figures, and an Etruscan 
speech issuing from the mouth of one of them), there is 
depicted, behind Admetus, one of the horrid demons of the 
Etruscan hell, probably intended for Hades or Thafiatos^ 
girdled in a short tunic, and holding in each hand a snake. 
Behind the faithful wife is Charon, with his mace. On a 
second vase of the same style and fabric, found at Vulci, 
Neoptolemos is represented killing a Trojan prisoner, pro- 
bably Polites, also in the presence of the Etruscan Charon ; 
while, on the reverse, Penthesilea, or her shade, is seen, 

^ Engraved in DenniB, "The Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria/* toI. ii. 


accompanied by other figures, to which are attached an 
undecypliered Etruscan inscription.' A third vase of the 
Bame class has on it Ajax, designated hy his Etruscan name, 
committing suicide by throwing himself upon his sword, after 
the fatal judgment respecting the armour of Achilles ; while, 
on the rererse, is the unfortunate Action, also designated 
by his name, killed by his own dogs." On another of these 
rases, the Etruscan name, Mlenai, of " Helen," inscribed 
upon an oval object held by a female, and addressing a man, 
is supposed to represent Leda showing Tyndareus one of 
the eggs from which spring the Dioscuri, Helen, and Clytem- 
nestra.^ The age of these vases is universally referred 
to the very latest time of the existence of the potteries, 
and those with the opaque red figures are supposed 
to have been made between the fall of V^eii, A. V. c. 359, 
B, c. 395, and the civil wars of Marius and Sylla, 
B. 0. 90.* 

Connected with these vases are certain others of pallid 
clay, figures of a light tone, white accessaries, dull glaze, 
and coarse shapes, discovered in the sepulchres of Orbetello 
and Volatona, on which are painted figures, armed with 
the long oval buckler, and the square Roman scutum.* 
These vases are almost the last examples of the glazed 
kind produced in Italy, and were succeeded by a class of 
excessive interest, of which, however, only a few examples 
have been found. Their subjects are painted in opaque 
white colour upon a black ground, in drawing of tlie 

' Haoul Rochetts, Sur deui Tiues * Mic*li, Hon. Id. izxTiii, 

peiutaduitjleatde tnviullo^tniBque, * Aniuli, 1S31, p. 81-83; Oerlnvd, 

Aiink]i,lti34,Z71iCuapa[iiin,DUaertu, Rap. Vo!c. p. 31, u. ITT. 

1. e. * Iiijjbinuiii, Vu. Fit oooItuL 


coarsest kind, far inferior to the best examples of this class 
of yases found in southern Italy, and consist of figures of 
Cupids or Erotes, accompanied with old Latin inscriptions, 
such as Yolcani pocolom, Heri pocolom, Belolai Acetai 
pocolom, the cup of Vulcan, of Hera, of Bellona or Acetia, 
in Latin as old as the age of Ennius and Plautus : why 
these inscriptions were placed upon them is uncertain. 
Perhaps, as all of them have the names of deities, they 
may have been placed before the images of the gods, or at 
their lectistemium. The archaic form of the word Poc(h 
lamy resembling that of Romano-m of the coins of the 
Bomans struck in Campania, shows that they were 
made about the time of the Social War, b.c. 200, at the 
earUest, and probably much later. They were found 
at Orte.^ 


The inscriptions which accompany the Etruscan vases 
are of two kinds, like those on the Greek, namely, such 
as are painted on the glaze of the vase itself, descriptive 
of the figures and other circumstances connected with the 
subject, and such as are incised. The former are painted 
in an opaque colour, white or red, and are in the Etruscan 
language, resembling those which accompany similar 
figures on the engraved scaraboai, or bronze mirrors. 
Such are the names of the deities YADV, Charu[n], or 
Charon ; of the Centaur >K IDV, Chiru[n], for Chiron ; and 
of the heroes AIFAZ, Aivas or Ajax ; ATDESTE, Atreste, 
or Adrastus ; AKTAIVN, Actaiun, or ActsBon ; and of the 

' Secchi. Bull 1837, p. 130, 1843, p. 127; 1843, p. 72. 





















females EMNAI.Elinai (of) Helen; Ave STI,Alce8tis; and 
PENTASIAA, or Penthesilea. Some other of these painted 
inscriptiona are not equally intelligible, having such wordsas 
HINOIAATVPMVCAS,Hinthia(l)Turmucas,"the crowds of 
sliades" which accompany Penthesilea, and EC A : EDSCE : 
NAC: Airovr^l iBLEnOOCE sclte : crsdie : nac aqrum : 
wlerthche, the speech of Charon at the parting of Alcestis 
and Admetus. Some few of the inscriptions, painted on the 
vases after the haking, seem to refer to the vase itself, 
4>i'AA2l4AI»1,'m(7flmaa(^5 AMM^AIzeAqAI^I,^ f»/ 
aratksU guna, which are painted in white and red. On a 
deep crater is found ZV\/37^4A^ :23 I3VI31 veneies 
Larthoeltis, and on another crater '.2l40A:23haH3'1, 
veneies Aphns} As the Etruscan word mi is supposed to 
stand for "I am," it is probable that the inscriptions refer 
to the vases themselves, or to their proprietors. 

A still larger class of inscriptions are the incised, or 
engraved. They are found on Etruscan vases of all 
classes, but more frequently on the solid black wai'e than 
on the painted vases, on whicli last, however, some 
examples occur. Thus, a rhyion, formerly in the collec- 
tion of the Prince of Caniuo, and now in the British 
Museum, has under one of its handles, 23IN''A4<0 
'MM ■y/'^yJ'^.XOA'i'A^^ , Efpupoi iiliilun plaqies s\>^axeiii\j 
an address to Ululuns, or the Etruscan Dionyaos.* Gene- 
rally, however, the name alludes to the proprietor, as on 
the vase found at Tarquinii. republishod by Inghirami, 
reading, ^3*«>Z3>K 23I-MA32 2AAH'4A*i V^mi 

Uiu. Etr. V«t U. » 


de VaseB peiul^■■ 8vo 

Parifl. 1837 

Ibid. 8. 

)9S- Perliflps-pUqia 


Ibid. 3. 

" Uiuu pleoBcat." 

M. Da Witto, Dusc 


a Coa 


Marqaaa Seniles Questes, "I am [the dish of] Marcus 
Sentius Cestius." ^ In the numerous examples given in 
the work of Micali,^ other inscriptions are unmistakeably 
the names of the ancient proprietors, as, 2AMMVA2, 
Spurinas; l>IVl13>i, Senuli, or Menuli; 2A142A4, 
Lasnas. Some other inscriptions appear to refer to ladies, 
and are prefixed by the word, iT V A^ , imitated from the 
Greek, as A23 0AlilV>^3>/A^, Kale Mukathesa, 'Hhe 
lovely Mukathesa f but it is difficult to feel sure about 
the meaning of many of these inscriptions, as they 
frequently consist of truncated words, whilst others do not 
recur elsewhere. A small vase found at Bomarzo, and 
another at Cervetri, were incised with the Etruscan 
alphabet. The presence of incised inscriptions^ in the 
Etruscan language under the feet of vases has been 
alleged as a proof that these vases were made in Italy; 
but this, of course, turns on the circumstance, whether the 
inscriptions have been incised after the clay was baked.* 
Even at Nola a few vases have been found inscribed 
with Oscan inscriptions,^ supposed to be the names of 
their former possessors, and some terra-cotta tablets 
inscribed with Oscan characters were found in the valley 
of Gavelli, at a place called La Motte, six miles from 
Hadria.^ A few vases of the later style of art, when 
pottery had fallen into discredit, have the Latin inscrip- 
tions already-mentioned painted in white letters on them, 
and intended to describe their use, as KERI : POCOLOM, 

» Inghirami, Mon. Etr. Tav. vL b. vi. < Bull. 1844, p. 18; Berl. Aot. BUd. 

T. 0. 8 7. no. 1667. 

s Antichi Monumenti, fo. Flor. 1832. ^ Berlins Ant. Bild. no. 1613, 1629. 

Tav. cL ® Muiatori, dix. 2. 

* Arch. Zeit. 1844, a. 885. 


the cup of Kerus, or Janua; VOLCANI : POCOLOM. 
the cup of Vulcan ; EELOLAI : POCOLOM, the cup of 
BeUoiia ; LAVIIRNAI : POCOLOM, tho cup of Laverna ; 
SALVTES : POCOLOM, the cup of Salus ; AECETIAI : 
POCOLOM, the cup of Aecetias. 


The enamelled perfume bottles, and other objects of this 
ware, sometimes found in the tombs of Etruria sot as 
jewels, in frameworks of gold, and considered by Italian 
archeologists to be certainly discovered in these sepul- 
clires, are products of the Egyptian potteries. The 
Etruscans, masters of the seas, imported enamelled ware 
from Egypt, glass from Pbosnicia, shells from the Red 
Sea, and tin from the coast of Spain or Britain. This 
ware is generally with a tarnished hue, and often 
of a pale grass green colour, resembling that which 
was made in Egypt at the time of the 26th dynasty 
or the 7th century, b. c. It has been previously 


Many terra-cotta statues, bas-reliefs, have been found 
in other cities, the art of modelling and working terra- 
cotta having been in activity all over the Italian Peninsula. 
Notices of the vases, and other objects in glazed ware will 
be found in the chapter on the distribution of the pot- 
teries, It would require a long research to describe all 


the Italian sitea where terra-cotta remains have been 
found, and in style of art and method of execution they 
resemble Greek or Roman terra-cotta, according to the 
site where they have been discovered. Those from the 
cities of Southern Italy, Magna Graecia, and Lucania, 
such as Calvi or Cales, Canosa, Psestum, Tarentum, are 
in all respects similar to contemporary productions of 
Greece Proper. Some bas-reliefe found at Capua,^ not of 
very early work, about B. c. 200, are supposed from their 
style and representation to be Samnite, while a consider- 
able collection of terra-cotta statues from Ardea, in the 
Campana collection at Rome, exhibit the style of Latium 
in the days of the Republic, and consist of figures of con- 
siderable merit, of rather a severe style of art They are 
important, as this city had a great celebrity for its ancient 
fresco or tempera paintings. 

^ Ricdoy Not d. soay. d. buoL d. ant. Capua, iio, Napoli 1855. 




BriokB — ^Lydia — Tetradora— Pentadora — Siae— Pasta — Use — Houses — Tombs — 
Grayes — Tiles — Tegulsd— Imbrioes — Antefizal ornamentation — TUe-makers 
— Flue tiles — Wall tiles— OmameDtations — Drain tiles— Tesserse or teasell» 
— Inscriptions on tiles — Stamps — Farms — Manufactories — Legionary tiles 
— ^Devices— Columns — Corbels — Spouts — ^Friezes. 


In treating of the Roman pottery it is not necessary 
to repeat the description of the technical parts, as they 
were the same as among the Greeks. We shall, therefore, 
commence with bricks, which were called *^ LatereSy* 
" because,'' says Isidorus, " they were broad, and made by 
placing round them four boards." ^ Their use was most 
extensive, and they were employed as tiles for roofing 
houses, as bricks for structures, as slabs for pavements, 
and covering graves. 

The simplest kind were made of clay merely dried in 

> Origin, ZY. 8. 


the sun, called lateres cmdi, or raw bricks, and were used 
for building waUs. The clay of which they were made 
was called argUla or limus; and they were cemented 
together by clay or mud, called lutum} 

According to the Roman writers, bricks were divided 
into three classes. " Three kinds of bricks,'* says Vitru- 
vius, " are made ; one, which the Greeks call Lydion which 
our people use, one foot and a half long, and a foot broad. 
The Greeks build their edifices with the two other kinds. 
One of these is called the pentadoron. For the Greeks 
call a palm ScSpor ; whence the presentation of gifts is 
called dor on, for that is always borne in the palm of the 
hands. Hence, that which is five palms long every way 
is called peniadorony irfprahSpov^ and that which is four, 
tetradoron. Now public edifices are built with the penta- 
doron, private with the tetradoron!* ^ Pliny states nearly 
in the same words, " Their sorts [of bricks] are three, the 
Lydion, which we use, one foot and a half long, and one 
foot broad ; the second, the tetradoron ; the third, the 
pentadoron. For the ancient Greeks called a palm a 
doron, and hence dora are gifts, which are given with the 
hand. Therefore, they are named from their measures 
of four and five palms. Their breadth is the same. The 
smaller are used in Greece for private buildings, the 
larger for the public edifices.'^ ^ There is, indeed, some 
discrepancy in the dimensions of bricks, as Palladius 
makes them measure two feet long and a foot wide, while 
the others give their dimensions as a foot and a half long 

> Pliny, N. H. xxxv. 13, 49. Varro, de » Vitnivius, iL 8. 

Re RuflticA, L 14 ; Columella, de Re Rus- ^ pii^y^ ^ H. xjtxv. 14, s. 49. 

tic&y ix.L 


by a foot wide and four inches thick, but their dimen- 
sions may have been altered in the interval hetvfeen 
these writers. Two dimensions are recorded by the 
brick-makers in the numerous inscriptions, hipeddes, or 
two-foot bricks, and sectpedales or sesguipedales, one 
and a half, which occur amongst the names of the 
makers of the opus doliare. The Li/dian,^ were probably 
so called from their resembling those used in the palace 
of CriEsus, at Sardis, the dimensions of which were rec- 
tfingular like the didoron, of which they appear to be 
but another name. In their proportions they resemble 
our tiles rather than bricks, being very flat and thin in pro- 
portion to their size. They are generally square or rec- 
tangular, with the exception of the cylindrical hand bricks. 
The smallest size, the tetradm-a, generally measure between 
seven and eight inches square. Pentadora are often found 
measuring fifteen inches, by seven and a half inches 
broad. Some of the larger, which are twenty inches 
square, are the Hpedales. Their thickness varies from 
one and a quarter inches to two inches. They are not 
made with mechanical accuracy, the edges being rounded 
and the sides not always parallel. In military works they 
were often used alternately with flint and stone, and for 
turning arches of doorways. For this purpose the two 
sizes were sometimes combined, in order to bond the 
work, or, the hipcdaks tegul(s, or " two-foot tiles," as 
Vitruvius calls them, and the sesguipedales, or " tiles of 
one and a half feet." The dimensions of the bricks found 
in Sicily varied from two palms six inches to one palm 
nine inches in length. Those of Trfeves were one foot 

' De Ke RiuticS, vl 36, 12. 




three inches broad, one and a quarter inches thick ; others 
from Civita Vecchia, in the Museum of Sevres, measured 
0-65" long by 0-5" thick. 

The general size of the Eoman bricks was 15 x 14 
inches by two inches thick. The hypocausts had the 
pillars of their floors formed of bricks, from seven or 
eight inches to ten inches square, bessales, and sometimes 
of two semicircular bricks joined at their diameter, and 
so forming a circle.* Occasionally the upper bricks 
diminished in size, in order to give greater solidity to the 
construction. The upper floor bricks, or tiles, were from 
eighteen inches to twenty inches square, and formed 
the floor of the laconicum. All these were laid with 

The great building at Treves, called the palace of Con- 
stantine, is built of pmtadora burnt bricks, 15 inches 
square and 1^ inches thick.^ 

Baked bricks, called cocti or codileSy were in general 
use. Clay, which was either whitish or decidedly red, 
was preferred ; and, as is evident from inspection, was 
well ground and mixed with straw. It was then kneaded 
and stamped out from a frame or mould of four boards. 
The bricks then went through the usual process of 
drying in the brick-field, indeed some of them bear the 
marks of the feet of animals and birds, which passed over 
them while the clay was yielding and unbaked, and on 

' See Caumont, Cours. D'Antiq. ii. Corinium, p 64 — 66. The bricks of the 

PL XX. figs. 1-5, p. 161-5. pilse were 8 inches square ; the floors 

3 Caumont, Cours. PI. xx. p. 170-1 ; were made of flange tiles, 

cf. Backman and Newmorch, lUustra- ' Wyttenbach, Guide to the Roman 

tions of the remains of Roman Art in Antiquities of Treves, p. 42. 
Cirencesteri the site of the ancient 


a brick at York are the nails of the shoes of a boy ; 
on those in the Museum of Shrewsbury, the imprint of the 
feet of a goat. The bricks were then baked — an opera- 
tion expressed by the pliraae lateres ducere ' — in kllna 
apparently covered as the fornax. They were then ready 
for use, but were kept for two years before they were 
employed. Much care was taken in their preparation, 
and it was generally considered that the spring was the 
most favourable time for making them, probably because 
they dried more slowly and were less liable to crack during 
the operation, in autumn the rain interfered with the 
making, and in winter the frost. 

The paste of the Itoman brick is remarkably hard, and 
generally of a fine red colour, although sometimes of a 
pale yellow intermingled with fragments of red brick 
ground up with it to bind it together. Both kinds 
are found even in the same locality. 

In the museum of Sevres are fragments of bricks of a 
red paste, from diiferent parts of France and Italy, as 
the Therma; at Civita Vecchia, the pavement of the 
Coliseum, the theatre at Lillehonne, and the Thermje 
of Julian ' and Trajan. Among those from Civita 
Vecchia, were some similar to the so-called hand bricks, 
which are rude conical lumps of red paste, roughly 
fashioned with the hand, and supposed to be used for 
draining marshy roads, one having been found in the bog 
of Mareuil near Abbeville,^ cut in facettes, and with stri- 
ated marks. Some from Italy were baked almost to a stone 
ware, and others from Byzantium were of a similar red 

' PUoy, N. H. rii. E7. » Ibid. IT. 

' BrangmHTt. Huu^, p. Ifl IS. 


paste.* The bricks formed one of the great staples of the 
manufacture in baked earth among the Romans, who appear 
to have derived it from their Etruscan ancestors. Baths,^ 
whether pubUc or private, military towers, and walls were 
constructed with bricks, as they were better able to resist 
the battering ram than stone ; as well as tanks for holding 
water, amphitheatres, palaces, temples, and other pubUc 
edifices.^ The tombs of Cumae of the Roman period are 
made of brick. Gigantic brick walls erected near CumaB,* 
and great arches of brick still remain in the amphitheatre 
at Puzzuoli.* The magnificent aqueducts, the prototypes 
of the modern viaduct, broad enough for a horseman to 
travel along them, were constructed of the same material.^ 
The vill», insulse, and houses of Rome were of brick 
during the time of the republic, and Dio mentions how 
an inundation of the Tibur destroyed the bricks of the 
houses in the time of Pompey. Augustus boasted that 
he had found Rome of brick and left it stone,^ and 
Vitruvius mentions that brick was no longer adopted for 
Roman houses in consequence of the laws which pro- 
hibited the thickness of the walls exceeding 2J feet, thus 
preventing their being made two or three bricks thick, 
which was required for the joists. From the time of 
Trajan however the use of bricks revived, and public 
edifices were made wholly of them. They were laid in a 
manner called the optis reticidatum, or 'network/ A 
common mode of construction, especially in the military 

^ Brongniart, MuB^e, p. 18. di Pozzuoli, di Qaetano d'Ancora, p. 120. 

3 Martial, Epigram vii. Ixxvii. ^ Avolio, p. 35 ; Q. d*Anoora, p. 61. 

' Avolio, p. 10. « Avolio, p. 36. 

* Avolio, p. 34 ; Guida Ragionata per 7 Sueton. Aug. c. 29. 
le antichiU et per le curioaita natural! 


works, was to lay them in double courses horizontally with 
stone abore and below, which bonded the stone-work and 
lessened its monotony by the red veins wbicli they pre- 
sented to the eye of the spectator. Sometimes thoy aro 
disposed in chevrons or Vandykes. 

A hand-brick found in Guernsey is in the collection of 
the Museum.' It is 3f in. long, 2^ in, diameter above, 
and I^ below ; of a coarser and more gritty composition 
than the regular tiles. 

. the showers, 

The word tile (tegula) was evidently derived from 
tegere, "to cover;" called "tegula," says Isidorus,' 
"because it covers the house." The curved tile was 
called imbrex, because it received 
and those which resemble the 
French festierea are called by 
Phny * " latercuh frontati." The 
tile is distinguished from the brick 
by its greater thinness in propor- 
tion to its superficies, and by its 
being employed generally for 
roofing houses. Tiles arc much 
more commonly found tlian bricks 
The margin of the tiles is called 

The most distinctive mark of tiles is the flanges. The 

■ Arclueologic&I Jounal, toL lii. p> 
* Origin, y. S, " Taguhi, quod nde* 

* n>ic]. " Imbrex, quod accipiitt 




paste of which they are composed is compact and dense, 
very similar to the brick, but generally not so fine. 
Their clay when baked is either of a pale salmon or light 
straw colour. In some specimens, portions of bricks 
appear to have been ground up and mixed with the paste 
in order to bind it. Small stones, and fragments of 
vegetable remains, are also occasionally seen amidst the 

Tiles, like bricks, appear to have been made by means 
of a mould, but two boards were probably sufficient for 
the purpose. A hole was then driven through them by a 
peg when they were intended for roofing, especially for 
the opus pavonacemn, or " peacock's work," in whicli they 
are arranged like scales, being hung by one corner. The 
flange tiles were probably made in the same way, and the 
flanges subsequently turned up by the hand of the work- 
man. They were then dried in the sun, evidently by 
being laid flat upon the ground, and subsequently baked 
in a kiln. How tliey were transported, or what they cost, 
or were taxed, tmfortunately are among the particulars 
which have not reached us. 

M. Brongniart, in his catalogue of the Museum of 
Stivres, has described many of these tiles either of yellow 
or of red paste, and turned up at the edges, and showed 
that they were used for roofing, from the remains of 
Koman villas and baths in France. Some were for hypo- 
cauats,' others for pavements,'^ and others for roofs of 
houses.^ Similar tiles are found all over England and 

' As tlie ODe from Heilenburg, Mub. Laan, p. 17 ; alao kt PoDtcliBrtrain ; 

.II. 13, p. 17. ibid. 

' From the Tower of Dagobert Bt » From Mt. Ganslon, ibid IS; at 



Germany, wherever traces of Roman occupation occur, 
and were made on the spot. 

Tiles having their edges turned up, were principally 
employed for roofing, but some were occasionally placed 
in the walls when others were not at hand.' Those found 
in France are said to be distinguished by the sand and 
atones found in their paste.^ In the ruins of villas they 
are found scattered about the floor, the roofs having fallen 
in. The flanges are generally about 2^^ inches higher 
than the lower surface of the tile. They are bevelled on 
their inner side in order to diminish the diameter of the 
imbrex, but have no hole by which to nail them to the 
rafters. In order that the lower edge of one tile might 
rest on the upper edge of that which came next to it, the 
two sides were made to converge downwards, as seen in 
the cut. Those joints were of course covered by the 
semi-cylindrical tiles called imbrices, and the roof was 
thus rendered compact.' The rain flowed down each row 
of broad tiles into a gutter ; the end tiles being lapped 
up at their outer edge, and provided with a spout, in 
shape of a lion's head in bas-relief, for the purpose of 
carrying off the water. The imbrices were plain semi- 
cylindrical tiles, except the last, which had an upright, 
generally semi-oval, and ornamented with antefixal or 
other ornaments. The end tiles were always flanged on 
their exteriors, and had a mx'andor or antefixal ornament 
1 upon them.* 

BlizoD, ibid. IS; mixed with whita ' Ibid. 184. 

quartmee Buid at NojelleS'nir-Hi'r, ' Xenopljoa, MemorabiluL, III. 

ibid. c. 7. 

> CnuuiDDt, Coun. ii. p. 182. * Diet. Autiq. Tegula, {). 039. 


The tiles from private houses, as will be seen by the 
one found at Oatia, were upon the same plan as those 
useJ for the temples. The use of tiles for the roofa of 
private edifices as well as temples is proved by the 
ordinary expression of descending from the tiles, being 
applied to those who came down from the roof ^ 

The tiles with two of their parallel edges turned up 
called flanged tiles, were principally used for roofing ; 
but they were also employed for the floors of the laconica 
and the hot batlis, in which case they were inverted, the 
flanges being placed on the pilff^, aud the stucco floor 
was laid on them.^ Several of these tiles, of red and 
yellow paste, from the Roman Thcrmie near Saintea 
are in the Museum of Siivres, as well as others from 
the ancient potteries at Milhac de NontroQ ; also some 
tiles of red paste mixed with calcaieous remains found 
at Palmyra.^ In England in the military castra these 
flange tiles are also found of a red or yellow colour, the 
latter apparently having fragments of red tiles mixed in 
the paste. They are worked in the brick bonding of 
the walls. 

Of two tiles found at Boxmoor, and now in the British 
Museum, the one plain, the other a flange or roof tile, 
the dimensions are nearly similar. The plain tile measures 
1 foot 4 inches long, by 10^ inches wide, and 1^ inches 
thick. The flange tile 1 foot Sj inches long, by 1 foot 
wide, and the highest part of a flange 2;^ inches high. 
These are probably the tiles of one foot and a half in 

' Tsrent. Eun, iil. fi, 60; Qeltius, x. ^ BrongQinrt uid lUocreui, Mub. de 

16 ; St. Luke, v. 18. StvroB, I. I 

' C£ Buckuian and Newmaruh, p. 04. 



length, the sesquipedales of the inscriptions. In the same 
collection are two tiles, sub-multiples of the above, mea- 
suring 8i inches square, by li inches long. They are 
not quite square, as usual. In tlie same collection are 
several other fragments of flange tiles, which have appa- 
rently been of the same dimensions. The flanges, how- 
ever, are always bevelled on the inner side. 

One of the most interesting facts connected with tiles 
is their use in the graves of the ancient Romans. The 
largo bipedales tiles were set up in a prismatic form, one 
forming the floor, and the two others the pointed covering 
{en decharqe), which protected the body from tlie superin- 
cumbent earth. In some of the graves of Greece, 
apparently of the same age, semicircular or vaulted tiles 
were used. On these bricks were impressed in large 
letters the names of the legions which garrisoned the 
various cities. Thus the tiles of the Roman graves at 
York ' are inscribed with the name of the sixth and ninth 
legions which were there quartered, while at Caerleon, the 
old Isca Silurum, the bricks bear the name of the second 
or Augustan legion." The stations of the twenty-second 
legion may also be traced by the bricks placed over 
the graves of its soldiers in this manner.^ They were 
placed at the foot of the sepulchre in order to indicate, 
like tomb-stones, who was buried beneath. The inscrip- 
tions in most cases are written across the breadth of the 
tiles in Greek or Latin.* The inscriptions given by Gori 

■ WBllbdared, Eburacitm, p. 33, 34, ' Wiensr De Legion. Rom. IS38, p. 

118. loe-lST. 

' Lee, Dpliocation of liora»u m- * See Gori, Mm. Etr. liL T«b. xxviL- 

Uquihe* fouud at Caorloon. PL iiiL ; SIX. 
Oeut. Hag. Not. 184S, p. iW. 


are of very different age, some apparently as late as the 
introduction of Christianity. 

At RoystoD, in a supposed ustrinum, roof tiles either 
covered the mouths of the sepulchral urns, or they were 
placed around them as a septum} 

Tbc name of the imhrices, as already stated, irom their 
use iu keeping off the showers, tmbres, from the joints 
of the roof tiles ; and the roof of a bath, found at Ostia, 
will illustrate the manner in which they were placed over 
them. They were semi-cylindrical, about 3 feet long, and 
3 inches in diameter, and \\ inches thick, made of the 
same material as the flange tiles, and apparently with the 
hand, but are not stamped like them with potters' names. 
The imbrex close to the edge of the roof had a perpen- 
dicular semi-elliptical piece, called the antefix. The tiles 
were connected at their edges, being laid for that purpose 
across the rafters, pastes, of the roof, tectum? The'scmi- 
oval upright plate, or antefixa of the imbrices, was not large 
enough to admit of much ornament. The usual one is the 
floral antefixal ornament, sometimes, indeed, replaced by 
acanthus leaves, accompanied with the msander. Busts, 
from tlieir elongated shape, were peculiarly appropriate 
to these plates, and those of Juno,* Venus, heads of the 
Gorgon, and Neptune between two dolphins, and tragic 
masks, have been found.* In this case the bust is 
stamped in a mould, and applied to the antefixal 
ornament. Two found at Ostia had groups instead of 

' Arcbntol. xivi. p, 370. 
> Bayardi, Catalogo degli Astkbi 
Honumanti di Ercolano, p. 234-285; 
letiuB, Aatiq. Neomag. p. 83. 

' Campuia, PL xi. on 
found on the Palatine HilL 
' Campuia, Tav. viL U. Oal 


busts, — such as Neptuno sailing over the sea iu his car 
drawn by hippocampi, and the statue of Cybcle In tho 
ship drawn by the Vestal Claudia." These came from 
the ridge of a house, the tiles of which were inscribed 
with the names of Consuls in tho reign of Hadrian. 

Sometimes the antefixa of the imbrex was strengthened 
by a band behind, examples of which occur in the roof 
tiles at Pompeii. Tlio edge tiles of the roof were 
flanged so as to form a gutter, and eitlier externally 
decorated with subjects moulded in bas-relief, — such 
as antefixal aud floral, and floral architectural ornaments, 
— or else painted in encaustic with majanders, and other 
patterns. A space was cut out to admit of the insertion 
of the antefixal ornament of the imbrex. The ancient 
tiles were made by special makers, distinct from tha 
brick-makers, and called tegtdarii,^ tilers, or Jiguli ab 


For warming tho rooms of the baths and other 
chambers a peculiar kind of tiles -were used. The 
manner in which they were placed along the walls of the 
room will be seen from a plate of M. Caumont. They 
are hollow parallelopipeda, with a hole at one side for the 
cjectiou of the air which traversed them. Sometimes the 
whole side of tho wall was composed of flue tiles covered 
with cement. Their sides are always scored with wavy 
or diagonal lines, apparently to make the cement adhere 

' Campina, Tar. vi, >t Ostio. 

' Uuretori in MoDgai; Brongniart, Tmilji, I. 367. 



better to tliem. Sometimes these marks assume a more 
regular and ornamental appearance, 
such as the shapes of lozenges or 
chequers, nnd the fleurcttes, as 
of the Roinau villa, at Hartlip,' and the 
lower tiles have scores of squares.^ 
They are generally of the same paste 
as the roof tiles,.ind are found scattered 
amongst the desolate Roman houses. 
The flue tiles were sixteen and a half 
inches long, six and a half inches wide. 
five inches deep.^ A similar mode of 
constructing walls is found in the build- 
ing called the house of Agathocles at 
Acradina,* some of the walls of which 
were made of hollow cylinders. The 
tepidaria of baths were lined with rect- 
angular hollow tiles, with holes for the 
introduction of warm air to heat the walls of the chambers- 
These tiles were plastered over with stucco." Cisterns 
for holding water were made of brick, fine examples of 
which are found at Taormina or Taurominium * and 
Selinunte or Selinus.' 

' R. Smith, CollectitiM, vol. II. p. I. 
p. 21, PL Yiu. Eg. 1, 3. 

» Ibid. 

' SpeoimenBaf tliei<etilpBwill beaeen 
eDgraved id CanmoDt, Co'ira d'Anti- 
quittcs, t. ii. p. 172. PI. xiiL Sg. 3 and R ; 
and DucknuLQ nnd Nowmarcb, IlluBtra- 
tiona of tbo ranmiiis of Roman art in 

tba Aacient Cariuium, 4to, 1860, p. S4, 

* TorroRezxoaico, Viaggio di Siciliae 
MalU. torn. y. p. 227 : AvoUo. p. 9. 

' One at Cawibili, near Symouso; 
Avolio, p. 21 ; ef. Aiolio, p. 2, 4. 

' IliBcari Visggio, p 7. 



Of the nature of tiles were large thin squares of terra- 
cotta, which were often two Roman feet square, and hence 
called bipedalis, used for casing or reveting the walls of 
rooms. They are found in the different Roman villas, 
and are ornamented on one side with various incised 
ornaments by the potter, apparently with a tool upon the 
wet clay. The decorations of some, found in Essex,* 
represent mEcanders, tlie Greek border, rosettes, and other 
ornaments. They were often covered with the stucco 
with which the rooms were plastered. 


Terra-cotta pipes, tubuU, joined with moi"tar, were 
especially used for draining lands/ and for drains of 
amphitheatres.^ They were eiyht inches in diameter. 

As among ourselves, fragments of brick and tile were 
used to the very last, being employed for the second of 
the five strata, called tlie ruda-alio, of the road, while the 
third, called the nucleus, was formed of bricks and of 
large stones.* The Roman mortar was made of sand, 
chalk, and pounded brick.* 

' Arohsoologia, xiv. 6i, 73; BroDg. FBEzelli, Decod. L lib. ii. 
iiiart, Traits, 1. p. 3a;'. ' Avolio, p. 21. 

' Some have been fouod at Tern * Avolia, p. 37. 

NuQva, Alesa, uid Alicnta !□ Sicily, * Pitiacua. 


The tessons used for Mosaic pavements were made of 
marbles, glass, and of a red brick. These pieces were called 
by the Greeks psephoi i^ij((»oi, or psephides i/zij^iBes, pebbles ; 
and by the Komans tessellte, tessera, lamina. They vary in 
size from an inch to almost a quarter of an inch square, and 
were made either by fracture and cutting of the ordinary 
Roman tile into small squares, or else were stamped in a 
small mould. They supplied the red colour for the opus 
mmivnm, or mosaic work, especially for pavements, and 
aided in the composition of the various subjects. At the 
time of the Byzantine empire such mosaics were intro- 
duced iuto ceibngs. The early mention of mosaic pave- 
ments in the book of Esther, and the anecdote of 
Aristarchns, show that they were in use before tlie time 
of Augustus, although no extant mosaic is earlier than 
that ago, and most of them are of the period of the 

The larger tiles of the tesselated pavements were 
called icsser/E or lesserfs magnfrr, the smaller spicata 
teslacea. The word tessellee was particularly applied to 
the pjfvements. It evidently comes from the Greek word 
tessera, "four" (sided), of which fesseZ/a is the diminutive ;' 
and thus signifies a diminutive cube or die. The term 
testacea spicata was applied to pavements, the tessm'te of 
which were not flat cubes, but packed with their ends 
pointed upwards." 



A considerable number of the Roman tiles are inscribed 
■with the names of the consuls of the current year in 
which they were made, presenting a long and interesting 
series, commencing with the consulship ofL. Licinius Sura 
and C. Sosius Senecio, a.d. 107, and terminating with that 
of Alexander Severus, a.d. 222. Many of these consul- 
ships, however, do not appear to have been recorded in the 
regular fasti consulares, or official lists, and they were 
probably the " sufFects " whose names were not recorded 
after their temporary elevation. Since many of the 
potters indifferently inscribed, or omitted, the names of 
the consuls upon their ware, it is probable that the tiles 
BO dated were destined for the public buildings, and were 
80 marked to prevent their beUig stolen with impunity. 
They are fewer in number than those which have merely 
the names of the potteries, or of the farms from which 
the clay was procured, but are yet sufficiently numerous 
to be an invaluable aid to the chronological inquirer in 
tracing the succession of consuls for upwards of sixty years. 
Inscriptions of this class belong to the opus doliare only, 
and are found on the tiles of Italy alone, and it is pro- 
bable that their appearance is owing to some law passed 
by the senate, about the roigti of Trajan, to regulate the 
potteries. It has been, indeed, stated that the law obliged 
the brick and tile-maters' to affix their distinctive mark 
or emblem upon their bricks. The emblem in the circular 
stamps is in the centre, surrounded with the inscription, 

■ CoBBioder, I ■- kxt.; II. s. xx<ml 


as on medals, and resembling the countermarks or little 
adjuncts on the currency of the republic, and the seals or 
stamps of the eponymi of Bhodes. On the Roman tiles 
these marks are generally circular, with a circular portion 
cut out at one part, but they are occasionally oblong or 
rectangular. The use of such a mark was to guarantee 
the quality of the clay of which the tiles were composed,^ 
and which, in some instances, is found so remarkably fine, 
so compact, and so well baked, that when struck it rings 
with a metallic sound. It is of these bricks and tiles that 
the greater part of the edifices of ancient Rome were 
made, and Theodoric,^ when he repaired the walls, made a 
present of 25,000 tiles for that purpose. The boast of 
Augustus, that he had found Rome built of brick, and left 
it constructed of stone, could only apply to some of the 
principal monuments and quarters of the city. The 
visitor of the Vatican will remember a great number of 
these tile marks inserted in a wall of that magnificent 
museum. Such tiles have been removed from the prin- 
cipal edifices of ancient Rome ; the Coliseum, Circus 
Maximus, the so-called Thermae of Titus, the Thermae of 
Caracalla, the Basilica of Constantino, the Praetorian Camp, 
the Cemetery of Priscilla, the Mons Coelius, Mons Viminalis, 
Mons Vaticanus, and the Pons Sublicius. Such marka 
have also been found on tiles removed from the ancient 
edifices, and now placed on the roofe of many of the 
churches of modern Rome. Large collections of them 
are, and were, in the museums of the Vatican, and in the 
Villa Albani. Cortona, Bologna, Tibur, Pagnani, and 

^ Seroux d'Agincourt, Recueil, p. 82, ' CassiodoruB, Vaiiar. i. 25, ii. 23. 

PL zxxiL 


Ostia have also reYealed numerous tiles of this class, — 
important remains of the golden days of the imperial 
city, when the best of the emperors embelhsheil it with 
new edifices, or restored those of their predecessors wliich 
exhibited symptoms of decay. To the topographer they 
are of the greatest vaJue ; and had the Eomans stamped 
on them the names of the buildings for which tliey were 
destined, the sites of the great edifices of the city might 
have been indisputably fixed. Besides the value of these 
tiles in settling the succession of the consuls and the sites 
of tlie monuments, they also throw great light upon the 
economy of the Roman farms, and the possessions of the 
great landed proprietors. Perhaps from Nero, and cer- 
tainly from Domitimi, till the age of Commodus, after 
which these marks almost disappear amidst the general 
wreck of the fine arts which tlien ensued, an uninterrupted 
series of names of proprietors, potters, and estates, tells 
much of the internal condition of Italy, and one of the 
sources of revenue to the Koman nobility.' 

Before, however, entering further upon this subject, it 
is as well to show the nature of these inscriptions ; and the 
accompanying example, taken from a tile removed from 
one of the edifices at Rome, will illustrate their nature in 
the fullest manner. The whole is in bas-relief, and was 
probably made witli a stamp or die of bronze,^ wood, 

' Fabratti, Inicr. Antiq. to. 1S09, 602, 
£08; BolcJettiiOwerTadoQiMpraeiinBte- 
rij, p. S57; Oori, Inicr.Ant. IlL p. IfiS, 

163; CsyluB, III. PL liriiL p. 2fi3, 

• Oori, Iiucr. in. 118, 


stone, or terra-cotta, a bronze stamp of this kind hav- 
ing been discorered.' 
In the centre of the 
circular stamp or 
medallion is seen a 
figure of Victoiy 
— the mark or sign 
that the potter used. 
Commencing with 
the inscription on 
the outer band, the 
following words may 
be read : — OPVS 
DOL[iare] DE 
FIGVL[ini8] PVB- 
" Pot work from the Publinian potteries, from the estate of 
Emilia Severa." The most complete stamps have the 
date of the emperor or of tho consulship, the name of the 
estate which supplied the clay, that of the pottery which 
baked it, and of the potter who prepared it ; sometimes 
even of the slave who moulded the tile, and the very 
dimensions of the tile itself. The earliest stamps look hke 
the first attempts at a methodical manner of impression, 
and the later ones betray a comparative neglect. Not 
only are the names of the Emperors and Csesars given at 
the beginning and end of the series, without indications 
of the consulships, farms, or proprietors, but singular 
expressions are also introduced. Thus the tiles of 

■ Ilia. Briliuli Hiumim. 

• Gori, Inwr. iii. 118, 



Theodoric show that his gift excited national or official 
enthusiasm, for he is styled upon them the good and 
glorious king, with the addition of " Happy is Rome ! " 
At all times, indeed, as is shown in the stamp already 
figured, the inscriptions were in contraction, and even the 
consuls were mentioned only by the initial letters of their 
name. Still, by comparing tlie numerous series, it is 
possible to place them in their order. Many tiles, indeed, 
have no date, although it is evident that they were made 
in the imperial times, but the general impression, on 
examining the series of stamps, is that the potteries of 
tiles or bricks were in active operation during the reigns 
of Trajan and Hadrian, especially in that of the last 
mentioned emperor, and continued so till the close of the 
reign of Marcus Aurehus. After the twentieth year of 
Antoninus, till the eighth year of Alexander Severus, the 
inscriptions are few and irregular. Moat of the public 
edifices had been built or amply repaired. The political 
convulsions left no time for architecture ; the law respect- 
ing the stamps had probably been abrogated, and estates 
had changed hands. 


The estates from which the tiles came, or to which some 
probably belonged, are called " possessions," possessiones ; 
private property, pfivala; 8ha,res, rationes ; blocks, iHsttte; 
or more generally estates, prtsdia. There is indeed, some 
ambiguity about the expression ejr prediis, but it appa- 
rently means that the brick or tile was " from the estate," 
the uncertainty being in what sense this is to be taken. 


Prtedium, indeed, means a property, either in the town 
or country ; but the word fundus, which means a country 
farm, is also found impressed upon some bricks. It will 
however be seen, from some apparently exceptional in- 
stances, that the names of the edifices to which the tiles 
belonged are combined with those of the potteries and 
potters, so that the expression ej,' pradiis possibly means 
that the tUes or bricks belonged to the houses or other 
property in the city of Rome of the person named. The 
designation of the place, for example, for which the tiles 
were made occurs on those stamjjed with the name of the 
Prajtorian Camp, and of the Chapel of the August!, and 
can hardly refer to potteries estabhshed in that quarter. 
A critical examination of the series would enable the 
enquirer to arrange the entire sequence of the properties 
to which the tiles refer, and, on comparing the evidence, 
it is probable that the prcedia are the estates which pro- 
duced the clay. The proprietors of these estates were 
the Emperors and Ctesars, persons of consular dignity or 
equestrian rank, and sometimes imperial freedmen. The 
names of the estates are rarely mentioned, although the 
Salarian, the Ulpian, and a few others are recorded. 
Many of the tiles record merely the imperial estates, 
without designating the name of the reigning emperor ; 
and at a later period, as on the tiles of the Basilica of 
Constantino,' the stamps record the estates of our Augusti 
and our Csesars. Of the family of the Antonines there 
are several names. The Empress Plotina was evidently a 
large landed proprietor. Annius Verus, and his wife 
Domitia Lucilla, the parents of M. AureHus, have left their 

' Auikli, 1818, p. 1G8. 


names upon many tiles ; so have that emperor himself, 
Aelius Csosai', the adopted heir-apparent of Hadrian ; 
Arria Fadilla, the aunt of M. Aureliua ; Julia Procula, 
Cusinia Gratilla, Faustina, anti others. It would be 
tediotis to repeat all the names of inferior proprietors 
unknown to fame, such as Q. Servilius Pudens and T. 
Tatinius Satrinus. Some belonged to imperial freedraen, 
for such names as Umidiua Quadratus and Quintua 
Agathyraus are evidently of this description. The most 
remarkable fact connected with the history of the pro- 
prietors is the prevalence of female names ; and the 
quantity of tiles which came fi'om their estates is 
enormous. The occasional renunciation by the emperors 
of their private fortune in favour of their female relations ; 
the extensive proscriptions by which, owing to a defect of 
male lieirs, estates devolved upon females, as well aa the 
gradual extinction of great families, consequent on the 
corruption of public morals, may be traced on a tile aa 
readily as in the page of a historian. As to freedmen, 
their rise and progress is not in the scope of the present 
chapter, but they were alike the ministers of the palace, 
the agents of the nobility, and the wealthy proprietors of 


The potteries of the tile makers were of two kinds ; the 
Jiglinee, or " potteries," and the officintx, " or manufac- 
tories." The figlincB are the most numerous, and form a 
class by themselves ; the term officina, or workshop, being 
commonly stamped on lamps and smaller vases. The pot- 
teries are mentioned in a subordinate manner to the 


prtBdia, or forms, and, in many instances, tbe - names of 
both occur on the same tiles. The prcpdia, too, are often 
omitted, and only the figltnee recorded. Attached to the 
term Jiglinte la often an adjective, expressive of some 
quahty or name. These epithets are sometimes geogra- 
phical, as the Corinthian, Macedonian, Rhodian, or Tern- 
pesine, and the greater or lesser Ocean potteries. Some- 
times their names were derived from the reigning 
Emperor, as the Neronian and Domitian potteries, but 
the greater number were called by a Gentile or family 
name, as the Bucconian, Camillian, Furian. Terentian, and 
Voconian potteries. There are, however, many potteries 
only distinguished by the names of their proprietors, who 
were generally freedmeu or slaves. One of the names 
■which most frequently recurs in the series is that of L. 
Brutidiua Angustalis, a freedman ; while other tiles are 
stamped " from the potteries of Primigonius, the slave of 
our Lord " the Emperor. There were many potteries of 
imperial slaves ; but there are also numerous tiles from 
the potteries of the Emperors and other wealthy pro- 
prietors, although undoubtedly under the administration of 
of freedmen or slaves. 


The officina:, which are also recorded upon tiles, served 
to distinguish the quahty of the different figlmtt. Thus 
tilesarestampedwith the titleof theofficinseofL. Aurehua 
Martialia, of Domitius Decembris, and of M. Puhhcius 
Januarius, freedmen, named after the mouths in which 
they were horn. The establishment of the last of these 


freetlmen was called the doUariee qfficince, a term which 
will be more fully explained in the sequeL Another 
oflScina is called " Domitiaai," either after its proprietor, 
or out of flattery to the Emperor. Sometimes a second 
manufactory of the same proprietor is mentioned. Other 
tiles are stamped with the fanciful names given them by 
the potters, as Claudians, Domitiana, Bmtians, Sec. A 
few tiles are stamped both with the name of the potter 
and that of the proprietor of the estate, as the tiles of 
C. Cosconius, from the potteries of the celebrated Asinius 
Polho, and the tcgulte doliares, or pot-work tiles of Julia 
Procula ; the Bipedales, or two-foot tiles of one Crispi- 
nianus, and the " Secipedales" or " one foot and half" 
tiles of Julia Procula. This expression is distinguished 
from the previous one by having after it the name of the 
wealthy proprietor, and not of the poor slave who made 
the tile. While, indeed, the potteries of private pro- 
prietors were under the direction of liberti and libertini, 
those of the Imperial estates were chiefly managed by 
slaves, from whose labours the Roman nobles derived so 
large a portion of their revenue. The work itself was 
called opus Jiglinum, " earthenware," or opus ddiare, 
" pot-work ; " and, in the contracted form of either, " opus" 
or " doliare." Such work is always found accompanied 
with the names of freedmen or slaves. The imperial 
slaves have two names, those of private individuals only 
one ; but the liberti had three names. Such names as 
Arabus, Arestius, Modcstus, Tertius, Zosimus, are clearly 
servile. In some cases, the form fecit is substituted for opus ; 
but in all instances the makers were of inferior condition, 
A regeut of France might amuac himself 'witli making glass, 


and a German Emperor with compounding sealing-wax, 
without the loss of the respect of their subjects ; but a 
Roman historian cites, as an instance of the degraded 
taste of Commodus, that in his youth he had amused 
himself with making cups of earthenware.* 

'' Let him who made it, and who belongs to Cneius 
Domitius Amandus, prosper/^ is stamped on one remark- 
able tile. Sometimes the work is stated to come from 
particular potteries, without mentioning the potter. Some 
of the potters, indeed, impressed mottoes on their tiles, as 
utamur feltceSy " may we use happily," " Fortune who 
brings back is to be worshipped," and " the Constantinian 
age." But such an inscription as Poppina talis, " what a 
tavern," is hardly credible, and probably a joke. 


Only few of the tiles have inscriptions indicating the 
places for which they were destined. This is particularly 
the case with those employed for military purposes. These 
inscriptions probably had a double use. First, they showed 
that they were made by the soldiers, thus indicating that 
in the legions, as in modem armies, there were many 
soldiers acquainted with handicraft trades ; secondly, they 
prevented the tiles being stolen or removed, and were thus 
stamped with the Roman broad arrow of the pubUc pro- 
perty. At Rome, indeed, there was no necessity for the 
legionaries themselves making tiles and bricks ; and, 

1 ^1. Lampridius, Vit Commodi, Init 


accordingly, one Sextus Attius Silranus appears to have 
supplied the carap. The clay he obtained from the estate 
of Uniidiua Oppius. The actual maker was a freedman, 
who bore the name of L. Silvinus Helpidianus. The 
sacellum, or ahrine, of the Augusti, which held the 
standards and eagles of the PrBBtoriaus, appears to have 
been roofed, or partly constructed of tiles from the 
potteries of Paniscus, Hermetianus, and Urbicus. A few 
tiles from the Via Salaria, had only on them " Caatrum," 
or camp. Some fragments of tiles or bricks, evidently 
the semilaieres, or balf-biicks, of Vitruvius, dug up on 
the site of the Post-office in London, were impressed 
with the letters P P. BR. LON., denoting the residence 
of the Roman proprietor in Britain.' Still more inter- 
esting are the inscriptions stamped on the tiles relating 
to the legiona and other military divisions stationed 
throughout the provinces of the vast empire. These 
are chiefly found in their graves, camps, and quarters. 
They contain the number and titles of the legions, and 
mark the limits of the Roman conquests. The route of 
the XXII. legion has been traced through Germany ; and in 
our own country an examination and comparison of these 
tiles show the distribution of the military force, and the 
change of the quarters of the different legions which held 
Britain in subjection. These are seldom circular like those 
of the imbrices and flange tUes, but are in shape ' of a foot, 
or oblong, with the letters in relief, sharply impressed, pro- 
bably with a metallic die. The principal legions of which 

' Mr. Roach Smith, CoUfcWme^, i. ' Anetb. H;pocaiutum, 4to, Wion, 

U3. 1BG6, taf. iiL 


tiles have been found are the 1st assistant ; the 2nd augost^ 
the 6th victorious, pious, and fortunate, and 9th Spanish ^ 
legion, stationed at York ; the 8th august, Armenian and 
fortunate ; the 10th, called the double, pious, and fortunate; 
the 20th, Valerian and victorious, discovered at Chester ; 
and the 22nd and 30th legions, the tiles of which have been 
traced throughout Germany.^ Subordinate to the legions are 
the cohorts, the tiles of which have been also found, as, for 
instance, those discovered at Niederbieber of the 4th 
avenging ; * and of the 4th of the Breuci, exhumed at Slack, 
in Yorkshire. Besides which are the tiles of the " three 
standards '' of the British fleet or marines, found at Dover 
and at Lymne, the ancient Portus Lemanus.^ Sometimes 
a maker's name is added to that of the legion.^ Some tiles 
appear to have been numbered in the order in which thej 
were to be built into the pubUc works. Thus, a tile dis- 
covered at Nola was mscribed " the water is received in 
the chapel, tile 90." Many tiles have only initial letters 
of words uiscribed upon them, and when so contracted, 
it is always difficult, and often impossible, to guess what 
the inscriptions were intended to express. 


All that remains to be considered is the devices which 
accompany these stamps. The device occupies the centre 

^ Wellbelovecl,Eburacum,8vo,York, * R. Smith, Ant Richborobgh, 4to, 

1842, p. 104. Lond. 1860, p. 258. 

2 See List in the Appendix. & r. Smith, iL 132. 
« R. Smith, ii. 140. 


as in a medal, and the inscriptiooB on the oval stamps are 
disposed on the outer circle running round it. A common 
ornament, or device, is a plain circle or ball, touching the 
inner edge of a larger circle at one point, thus giving the 
rest of the stamp a lunated shape. Sometimes the device 
is left out altogether. The devices are not numerous, nor 
is it always possible to discover the principle upon which 
they were adopted. They were, of course, the potter's 
seal, and he selected his devices, or coat-of-arms, as it may 
be termed, as he chose. Some can, however, be traced 
to their origin. One potter, named Apcr or Boar, adopts 
that animal for his device ; another, called Hermes, or 
Mercury, has a caduceus. Other devices represent a 
favourite deity, or some idea connected with the gstate. 
Rome, of course, is found. The Caninian potteries had a 
star, in allusion to the dog-star. Divinities, animals, stars, 
crescents, palm branches, pine cones, crowns, &c., are among 
those found. It was the practice of the ancient world to use 
these emblems in various manners. The Rhodian and 
Cnidian potters placed them upon then* amphorEc, the maker 
of strigils on the handles of that instrument ; the mint- 
masters of Greece and of Rome in the consular times, intro- 
duced them upon the area of the coins issued during their 
tenm'e of office, and the potter followed the general rule. 
So interwoven was art in the mind of the ancients, and so 
dominant was the love of animal form, that the work of 
the potter was deemed incomplete unless he impressed his 
device upon it. This resume of the information afforded 
by the marks on tiles, is drawn up from an examination 
of a very great number of inscriptions. 



The use of terra-cotta in architecture was most exten- 
siye for capitals and columns, bases of columns, sills and 
frames of windows, the crowning portions of cornices, 
gutter spouts, &c.^ 


The corbels which supported the cornices were also 
made of this material, either moulded or else stamped out 
of mould. Indications of the use of terra-cotta corbels 
occur in a lararium at the entrance of the house of the Faun, 
and in the fragments discovered amidst the ruins of the 
buildings at Pompeii. Some of the wall paintings in 
which interiors are represented, also show cornices 
supported apparently by figures of terra-cotta, which 
have been painted entirely in accordance with the mural 

Between the columns were suspended masks and heads 
of terra-cotta, called cli/pea, painted and decorated and 
suspended by long cords, in the same manner as lamps 
are in reUgious edifices at the present day. On some of 
the Greek vases similar objects, osciUa, are seen suspended 

^ Serouz D'Agincourt, Reoueil, p. 78. valley of the Fouutain of Egeria ; Cf. 

Some of the columns and windows of also D'Agincourt, Histoire de TArts 

this material were found outside the Architect. PI. xii. xx. 
gate of St John Lateran, and in the 


firom the boughs of trees, along with tablets or paintings. 

The gutter spouts under the ridge tiles were a very 
decorative and interesting part of terra-cotta architecture.*- 
The most ordinary form of these spouts was a lion's head, 
which is constantly seen in fountains, and which is found on 
the walls of the bath at Oatia and at Pompeii, moulded in 
salient relief. Sometimes the whole fore-part of a lion is 
substituted, with a trough placed below the feet for the 
water to flow out. 

The liead and the fore-parts of dogs," and comic and 
tragic masks, whose open, shell-shaped mouths (concha) 
were particularly adaptetl for this purpose, were sometimes 
used, and also female heads.^ These objects are generally 
of the same piece as the gutter tile, and were stamped out 
of moulds. Yet, after all, spouts of this description must 
have been a very imperfect contrivance, and disagreeable 
beyond measure to pedestrians in the streets. 

Terra-cotta ornaments were used largely both in the 
interior and exterior decoration of houses, a custom which 

' Sm) the ODB, Dae de Lujnee, He- Boni, Lettera.Svo,I905; Guattom.HoD. 

UpooM, pi. vu. inod. 4lo; 180B, p. 108. 

' Cf. tl' Agio court, Pl.ixii.; HUtoire > Threo mukl o( tami-oott 

de I'Art. XX.; UarquoE, Dell' ordine &t Muauno, BulL IBSO, p. 41. 
Doiieo ricKTOhe, Sve, Roma, 1 80S ; and 



probably arose from the imperfect knowledge possessed by 
the ancients of the uses of gypsum, especially in orna- 
mental work ; hence they substituted terra-cotta for such 
purposes. Bas-reliefs of terra-cotta, antejica^ formed the 
decorations either of the impluvium ^ of the house, or else 
went round the exterior. They were formed of flat slabs, 
about eighteen inches in length, and nine inches wide, 
and were decorated with a variety of subjects. The style 
of art is bold and vigorous, and the slabs were evidently 
cast in a mould, although in some instances they were 
apparently retouched before they were transferred to the 
kiln. Circular holes are left in them for the plugs by 
which they were attached to the woodwork or to the 
masonry. They were painted after they were fixed. No 
great variety of subjects occurs ; but the treatment, which 
is essentially Roman, exhibits illustrations chiefly borrowed 
from mythology, such as the birth of Zeus, who is cradled 
by the Corybantes ; the Gigantomachia ; the birth of 
Dionysos — his thiasos — especially his being supported by 
the satyr Comos ; Pan ; the Tritons and Nereids ; 
Neptune, Apollo Musagetes ; the dances of the Spartan 
Virgins at the statue of Minerva ; Minerva and Tiphys 
fabricating the Argo, the Centauromachia ; Theseus de- 
stroying the huge Eurytus ; Perseus, aided by Minerva, 
killing Medusa ; iEneas consulting the oracle of Apollo ; 
Machaon curing Antilochos ; Victory ; sacrifices ; Bar- 
barian prisoners, and architectural ornaments. Some few 
slabs have been found which, in the false taste of the 

* " Antefixa, qua ex opere figulino * Festus, voc. Impluvium. Varro, de 

toctis adfiguntur sub etillicidio." — LL. 4. 
Festus, voce. 


period, represent the land of the Pigmies, hippopotami 
browsing on the banks of the Nile, and gigantic cranea 
perched on the cottages of the diminutive race, who 
are navigating the river in boats. As many of these 
slabs went to the formation of a large composition, they 
were numberoil, in order to assist their arrangement.' 
The subjects on these slabs are disposed in bas-reliefs on 
the flat surface, and their treatment is of two kinds. In 
the first sort the figures are gronped with targe flat sur- 
faces between them, in accordance with the later style of 
Greek art ; in the second, they are introduced as acces- 
sories to floral and scroll ornaments, forming centres from 
which these ornaments radiate. The slabs are ornamental, 
with bands or corniches, in the shape of artificial flowers, 
or with the usnal egg and tongue moulding above, while 
plain moulding and artificial ornaments occur below. The 
bas-reUef is exceedingly high in the narrow hands and 
friezes destined for some of the architectural mouldings, but 
in other instances it is flat and scarcely raised a quarter of 
an inch above the surface. The treatment, although free, 
and in many cases noble, is essentially architectural. These 
slabs are by no means choice specimens of ancient art, like 
those which decorated public buildings, but were in- 
tended merely, as ornaments for private dwellings, or for 

All these ornaments, even when used e-xternally, were 
coloured generally with pure colours, such as red, blue, 
and black ; while, in some instances, as in the decoration 
of the antiiixje, green and yellow were used. In Greek 

' CamtNUM, Antioh* opare in pluli<n, fa. Hoou, 1843. 


edifices, it is probable that the painting was in vax, as 
mentioned by the pseudo-DicsBarcIms ; and some, indeed, 
of the Pompeian buildings appear to have been coloured 
in encaustic. These ornaments were probably not much 
later than the time of Severus, In some instances tlie 
name of the potter occurs upon them, as those of Annia 
Arescusa, and Antonius Epaphras. Some late examples of 
this style are in the Museum at Sevres, and exhibit Vulcan 
standing between Apollo and Abundance, Minerva and 
Mercury, and Minerva, Vulcan and Mercury, or else 
subjects such as Perseus and the Graire.' Two of these 
reliefs hear the names of their makers, Fecinus and 
Verecundus, who were either frcedmen or slaves. 

The bas-reliefs in the collection of the British Museum 
were found in a dry well, near tlie Porta Latina at Rome.' 
In 1761, a subterraneous place, divided into many 
chambers, was discovered at Scrofano, about sixteen miles 
from Rome. The dome of the largest chamber was 
enriched with paintings in fresco, representing animals. 
The whole of the frieze below the dome was enriched 
with bas-reliefs in terra-cotta, which were fastened to the 
wall with leaden nails. Many tombs on the Appian 
Road, as well as the temple dedicated to Romulus, 
near the Circus of Maxentiua, were ornamented in a 
similar manner with terra-cottas ; and there are several 
ancient chambers still visible in the neighbourhood of 
Rome, in which, though the bas-reliefs have been long 
since removed, the places which they occupied are per- 

' BroDgnlart uid Riucreui, tbe Dtlier, " VerecimduB f [ecit].'' 
Wttbs, p. Jfl. Oneoftbeaa wasO'SSo = Taylor Combe, De»cr. of Andent 

O'lS b. One hBa"Fsdiius teial" — TamCottaa,4to,LondoD,lS10,p.vLTiL 


fectlj distinguishable. Similar slabs were discovered, 
forming a frieze round the four sides of a chamber of .the 
house of the Caedlii, at Tusculum.^ 

Some found between the Porta Salaria and Pinciana 
were used for roofs, and stood considerably raised above 
the height of the roof, with a narrow gutter and a ridge, 
over which was placed an imbrex.^ 

^ Campana, p. 81. ' D'Aginconrt, Recneil, pL Tii. 

VOL. IL 8 



Statues — Signa Toscanica — ^VolcaniuB — Numa — Qorgasos — Cato — Ponis and 
Aroesilaa — Size — Models — SigiUaria — Festival of Sigillaria — Fabrio— 
Potters — MisoellaneoxiB usei of pottery — Coiners' moulds — Crucibles — 
Toys — ^Lamps — Names — Parts — Shape — Age — Powers — Subjects — Great 
Gods — Marine deities — Hercules — Fortune ~ Victory — ^Foreign deities — 
Emblems— Poetical subjects — Fables — Historical subjects — ^Beal life — 
Games of Circus — Gladiators — Animals — ^Miscellaneous subjects — Christian 
lamps — Inscriptions — Names of Makers — Of places — Of pottery — Of pro- 
prietors — Date of manufactures — Dedication to deities — Acclamations — 
Illuminations — Superstitions. 


Most of the ancient statues of the Romans are of terra- 
cotta/ a fact which is constantly alluded to by their writers.^ 
In the early days of the republic the fine arts were at the 
lowest ebb, all objects coming under this denomination 
being either imported from Greece, or procured from their 
more refined neighbours the Etruscans who cultivated the 
glyptic and plastic arts with complete success. Hence the 
Romans purchased such statues as they required ; and 
these which appear to have been terra-cptta and called 
signa Tuscanica^ adorned all the principal temples of their 

1 Pliny, N. H. xxv. 12, 46. "FictUis et nuUo violatus Jupiter 

2 Pliny, N. h! xxxv. 1 2, 46 ; Muratori auro." 

Tbesaur. torn. ii. p. 237. — Juvenal, Satyr. xL 1, 16. 

' " Jupiter angusta yiz stabat in *' Cogita illos [deos] cum propitiiesaent 

eede, fictiles fuisse. 

Inque Jovis dextra fictile fulmen erat." — Seneca, EpistoL zxxi. a fin. 

— Ovid, Fasti, 1, 201-202. " Tunc per fictiles deos religio jura- 
'^ Fictilibus crevcre diis base aurea batur." 

templa.** — Consolat ad Helv. c. 10»2. 

— Propertius, Eleg. lib. iv. 1, 6. 


gods. The most celebrated works of republican Kome 
were made by the artists of Veii, and those of the 
Volscian Fregellso or the Etruscan Fregenfe. The 
celebrated quadriga made by Volcanius of Fregellaj, 
which surmounted the pediment of the temple of Jupiter 
Capitolinus, which was treated with superstitious awe and 
considered one of the safe-guards of the Imperial city, 
shows the low state of the arts among the Romans.' 
Numa, however, ever attentive to the Roman arts and insti- 
tutions, is said to have founded a corporation of potters.^ 

In A.C. 491, Gorgasus and Demophilus ornamented 
with bas-reliefs and terra-cotta figures the temple of 
Ceres at Rome. They were natives of Himera in Sicily, 
and their labours were probably ratiier of Greek, than 
Etruscan style, which was previous to them. In the reign 
of Augustus the temple was burnt, and so great was 
the esteem in which the works of these old masters were 
held, that they were taken out of the walls and framed in 
wood. They were of the ^ginetan style of art.' It has 
been conjectured that the want of white marble in Italy, 
none being discovered till the Imperial times, caused the 
extensive use of terra-cotta.* The gradual conquest of 
Campania and of Greece Proper, which supervened after 
the fall of Etruria, unfolded to the eyes of the Romans a 
new school of art, and after the siege of Corinth the old 
terra-cottas fell into contempt and neglect. From this time 
the temples of the gods and the houses of the nobihty 
became enriched and beautified with the spoils of Grecian 

' Pliay, N. H. x. xiv. a. zii. ' Tacit. Annul [i. 49 ; Dio CuaiuB. 

15. 50, 10. 

' ServiiM ad Virgil, .^Eneid, vij. ' Uirt. QoHnh. d. Bild. Kumt. s, 117, 



art, ill 8tone, marble, bronze, and terra-cotta. The artists 
of Greece hastened to pay their court to their new masters, 
and received great encouragement, in spite of the protests 
of the old conservative party of the aristocracy led by 
Cato. On the occasion of the attempt to abolish the 
Oppian law, which was in fact a sumptuary one for women, 
Cato, who was then consul, inveighed against the increasing 
luxury of the state, and especially against the statues 
which conquest had brought in its train, "Hateful, 
believe me," says he, " are the statues brouglit from Syra- 
cuse into this city. Already do I liear too many who 
praise and admire the ornaments of Corinth and Athens, 
and deride the terra-cotta figures, antejira,^ of the Roman 
gods. For my part, I prefer these propitious gods, and hope 
they will continue to be so if we allow tbem to remain iu 
their places." ' 

Towards the close of the republic, great works con- 
tinued to be executed in terra-cotta, and were much 
esteemed. The modellers, Possis and Arcesilaus, are cited 
by Varro,* and the former made for Julius Cassar a statue 
of Venus, which was highly prized, although the artist 
had not completed it. Virgil's father was a potter in the 
neighbourhood of Mantua ; and some of the remains of 
terra-cotta, extant in the Museums of Europe, can be safely 
referred to the first century of our era.* 

' "Irnede CoiiPordife,Tictoii»,quHiin • Livy, isiiv. c 4, 

oulmiue erat icta decuiBBqiie ad Tic- ' Fli^y, izxt. o. 12, 45. 

toriaa qDS3 in antefiiig enmt."— Livj, ' Soroui D'Agincoiirt, Rocueil, p. 7. 
lib. xxvL ; Vitruvinc, iii. c 3. 


Few statues of any sine in this material liavo escaped 
the injuries of time. In tlie regal days of Rome, Numa 
prohibited all statues above three feet high, a regulation 
probably agreeable to the practice of the neighbouring 
nations, and by no means favourable to the arts. At least 
there are no large Etruscan figures. Of the few large 
figures known, one is the Torso in the British Museum, the 
arms, legs, head, and extremities of which were mortised 
to it in another material in separate pieces. That such 
was the practice appears from tlie fable of Plifedrus 
about Prometheus, who after he had made the human 
race out of clay, in separate pieces, having been invited 
to supper by Bacchus, on his return home applied the 
wrong limbs to the bodies.' 

Four figures in this material found at Pompei are larger 
than life. They represeut an jEsculapius and Hygieia, 
and a male and female comedian. There is also a bust of 
Pallas, rather larger than life, with a buckler at the right 
side. Figures however of this size are of great rarity,^ 
one of the latest of these terra-cotta figures, mentioned in 
ancient authors, is that of Calpurnia, wife of Titus, one 
of the thirty tyrants, " whoso statue," says Trebelliua 
Pollio,^ " made of clay, but gilded, we still see in the 
temple of Venus." 

In the Vatican is a figure of Mercury of this material, 

' Phiodnu, lib. iv. Fnb. iit. »ar»taai.'' TrilW, (Ob Crit I. 4 c 0, 

' WinckelinuiD, Stor. li. p. 273- p. 328) reads " Ar^llHcnaiD." Winckel- 

> Vita Titi, " Cujtu sUtuam iii tempio mwD, Hiit. de I'Art. ill p. 260. 
Vecerii odliuc vidcinuis Argoliiaiia lud 



about the size of life. Some figures, about three feet high, 
representing Muses, and some terminal busts of Bacchus, 
almost the size of life, used to decorate gardens, were found 
in the same well as the friezes near the Porta Latina. These 
were of the same coarse red material as the friezes. They 
are in the British Museum.^ 

It appears that the artist was obliged to make first a 
model in clay of the statues in bronze or marble, which 
he intended to execute. This process was however not 
very ancient, as Pliny states that it was first used by 
Lysistratus, the brother of Lysippus. Pasiteles, an artist 
of the time of Augustus, is stated by Pliny never to have 
made a statue except in this manner ; but the custom was 
by no moans general. These sketches, called p-oplasmata, 
■were often much sought after, as they exhibited the full 
freedom of the artist's conception and style, and those of 
Arcesilaus, an artist of the period, fetched a high price." 


The majority of figures were of amall size, called sigilla, 
or sigillaria, and were used for votive purposes, or as toys, 
presents, and for the lararia. They represent all kinds of 
figures of gods, actors, aurigse, nioriones or buffoons, dwtirfa, 
portraits of Imperial personages, and philosophers, like 
those of Greece, but of coarser execution, and are found 
throughout the Roman Empire. Few specimens, indeed, 

ro-cotU* in the British 



have been discovered in Britain, and those found are of 
a coarse red clay.* Some were found in the rubbish pits 
of Richborough.' More than 200 at a time have been 
discovered in France.^ A very common type is a nude 
figure of a female seated in a chair, sucked by two children, 
supposed to represent the Dea; Matronte, or Matres. A 
manufactory of them was discovered some years ago at 
HeiUgenberg, near Mutzig, ou the Brusche. Many of 
these figures, in the British Museum, found in the neigh- 
bourhood of Lyons, are of a very white paste, and represent 
Mercury, Venus Auadyomene, and other figures. 

A great number of figures -were probably prepared for 
the festival of the Sigillaria. This is particularly described 
by Macrobius, and like all the Itoman f^tes was supposed 
to have had a mythic origin, Hercules, after the death 
of Geryon, and the capture of his cattle, was stated by 
tradition to have thrown from the Pons Sublicius, into the 
Tiber, the images of the companions whom he had lost in 
his wanderings, in order tliat they should be carried by 
the sea to their native shores. The hypothesis of Macro- 
bius is equally fanciful, for he thinks that caudles were used 
by the Pelaagi, because the wor<l 0wv, or ^ws signified both 
man and light, and that oscilla, or masks of terra-cotta,* 
were substituted instead of human heads around the 
ahar. " They keep," says Ausonius. " the festivals so 
called from the figures." ' Macrobius thus touches on the 
Saturnalia. " The Saturnalia were [originally] celebrated 

' Cr. that of Litloej P&rk, Ljaona, ' Cnumont, Couni. xxxc 

lte]i<|. BritBDii. Kam. ii. iiii. 6. < Hacrobiua, Satura. L i 

= Wright, Thd Celt, BoiuttD, sod SiUt- * "Feitn Bigillomm n 

ou, 12mo. LoDdoD, p. 224. coluuL"— Idylt, zxv. 32. 



for only one day, on the fourteenth of the Kalends, bat 
were afterwards prolonged to three. The celebration of 
the Sigilluria, whicli was added, extended the public 
pafitime and the joy of the f^te till the seventh day. It 
waa called the Sigillaria because sigilla, or httle images,' 
and other trifling gifts were sent about." Martial ' alludes 
to many of these being of terra-cotta, which were cither 
bought for joke, or by parents for their children in honour 
of Saturn. They probably alluded to the stone or imago 
which Khea gave the god to derour instead of his 
childrea The Saturnalia commenced on the 14th or 
1 6th of the Kalends of January, and were continued for 
three days, On the 12th of the Kalends of January, 
the feast of the Sigillaria commenced.' All classes of 
society indulged in this festival. Hadrian, says his bio- 
grapher, sent the Saturnalian and SIgillarian gifts even 
to those who did not expect them, or had no right to do 
80.* Commodus, when a child, gave thera to his tutors as 
a mark of great condescension. The whole feast reminds 
us of Twelfth Night. 

Although it is not possible to trace a succession of 
these small figures in the Imperial times, yet the age of 
the greater part of them is of the middle peiiod of the 
Empire. Some representing the Dea; Matres just cited, 
are of the latest time of Paganism, when taste and 
knowledge had dechned. 

Some were actual portraits of deceased pci-sons.^ One 

■ Saturn, lib. i. c. 10. 

' Lib. liv. oliiv. cUri. 

' RoainuB, Antiq. Rom. p. 2Sfi. 

' SgiartioDUB, in vita, Lugd. But. 

1632, p. 23. 

' Soroux D'Agincoort, Reoueil, PI. 
xtI fig. 1. Odb of thera hewli wu ia 
Mr. Hertj'8 coUectioa. 

of the most interesting of this nature ia the small head 
discovered in the sepulchral chambers of the Coiiielian 
family near the urn of Scipio Barbatus. It is at present 
in the collection of Mr. Mayer, and is an excellent speci- 
men of the art of the time. 

A few notices of terra-cotta figures ' are found in the 
Latin authors. Martial Bpeaks of a deformed indecent 
figure of a man, perhaps Clesippua, which was so horrid 
that he thought Prometheus must have made it when 
intoxicated during the Saturnalia," and of a mask of a 
red-haired Batavian, the conceit of the potter.^ The 
makers of Sigillaria do not appear to have deemed them 
of such importance as to place their names upon them. 

The Roman artists followed the same process as the 
Greeks. The figures were made upon a stick (crux et 
stipes*), with moist clay, and afterwards baked. "You 
■will imitate," says Horace,* " in wet clay whatever you 
choose." From these figures moulds were taken in a 
more porous clay, which produced a succession of other 
figures.* The torso was often a separate piece. 

D'Agincourt finds some difficulty in accounting for the 
mode in which the terra-cotta figures were hollowed. " Si 
ces statues ont ete moules," he observes, "elles sont 4t6 

' For dgiUwia, D'Agincourt, PL i. 

iiiiLl, 2, 3 liv. 1, 3;iT. 14;iTi.3. 

' Epig., liT. 176, 

■ md., 182. 

* Tertulliui, Apologot. 12. "QuuiIeI' 

mulacruin oon prlui krgiUa defariukt 
CTuci at itipiti Dupvr Btnicta." 

' Horace, lib. ii. Ep. 1, 8, " ArgilU 
quill vii imitoberis uJn." 

' Featuu, in RutuujeDU, 6. 


dechargees adroitement et h mesiire de leur formation, 
de I'epasseur int4rieure de la terre. Quelquea ouver- 
tures plus ou raoins grandes pratiquees au doa et mfimo 
dans le bas dea figures donnent la preuve de cette op6ra- 
tion ; elles laisseiit aper^evoir la traces des doigts ou de 
de r^bauclioir de I'artiste qui a pris le soin de les evider." ' 
This is howeyer evidently not quite correct, as the figures 
were made by pressing the crust into the mould with the 

Although the names of makers are constantly found 
upon all kinds of tamps, vases, tiles, friezes, and mouldings, 
especially those of tcrra-cotta, the sigillaria are not found 
marked by them. Passeri^ indeed bas engraved a figure 
of Minerva, on which is stamped or impressed the name 
V1,PIANI, " of Ulpianua," probably the name of its maker — 
but as this figure has two wings or handles behind, it 
probably belonged to a lamp — and might even have been 
put on by its possessor. An account of the potters will 
be found attached to the respective classes of ware. 

Although among the Greeks, the potter as a manufac- 
turer and often an artist, held a respectable position, the 
social condition of the Roman potter was low. He was 
generally a slave, sometimes a barbarian, while the 
maaters of factories or shops were only liberti, or frecd- 
men. Sometimes the potter appears to have worked on 
the estate of a wealthy proprietor, who received through 
his name the profits accruing from the establishment. 
The fullest account of the potters will he found in the 

■ lyABiiicourt, PL xym. Eg. p. is. ' III. tab. 81. 


description of tile and lamp makers, who formed a 
numerous class. 


It IB impoBsible to enumerate all the purposes to which 
the Komans applied terra-cotta ; but some are so remark- 
able as to deserve a special notice. Such are the cages 
employed to fatten dormice,' called saginaria, gliraria,^ 
in order to prepare them for the palates of Roman epicures ; 
and the conea of heated terra-cotta placed before hives 
in order to burn the butterflies, and other insects which 
attacked the bees, called milliaria testacea. There are 
specimens of both these instruments in the Museum of 
Naples.^ Bees, too, seem to have been hived in teira- 
cotta amphorre,* a use of the material peculiar to antiquity. 
Toys, as among the Greeks, were also made of this 
material, and called crepundia and sigillaria, from their 
being stamped in moulds. 

Small altars, which have been found, are supposed to 
have been dedicated in the lararia to the lares, for the 
holding of lamps or the burning of incense.' 

Of terra-cotta were also made the httle money-boxes 
which the successful charioteers or athletes carried about, 
to receive the donations of the spectators of the circus. 
One of these, found on the Aventine hilt, of a conical shape, 
like an ancient furnace, is engraved by D'Agincourt.' On 

' Vardo, Oulde pour Ib Mtu^e Royal • Porphjry, Ant Njmph, p, 281. 

Bourbon, N«plea, 1833, p. IH, n.,Elfl- ' ITAgiiiooiirt, Rcoueil, ixi 1,3; 

Gig, xxiL », p. fi3. 

■ Varro. [ib. ill c. xiv. ' Itooueil, PI. zx. p. G0-S2. 

' Vordo, L c no. 4890, p. HO. 


one side is the victor, in the dress of the auiiga of the 
third century ; on the other, the ■words Ael(ia) Max(ima). 
A second had a head of Hercules ; and a third, engraved 
by Caylus,' is of an ova! form, like a snuff-box, and has 
upon it a head of Hercules. It was found upon Mount 
Cailius, with another, on which was Ceres. A fourth was 
discovered in the baths of Titus, in 1812, filled with coins 
of the time of Trajan.^ The three figures on the front of 
this were explained as the tutelary gods of the capitol. 
It had on the outside a branch and horse.' 

A few tickets, or tessera;, used for admission to the 
games of the amphitheatre and the circus, were also 
occasionally made of red ware, intermediate between 
terra-cotta and stone ware. On them were either im- 
pressed or incised the number of the cuneus and the 
steps, such as, V ilil. : — namely, the 4th division of the 
5th row, or cuneus, or else a representation of the animals 
exhibited. On the reverse of one with such a representa- 
tion is the letter A. 


Terra-cotta moulds for making false coins have been 
discovered, of a paste composed of fine clay, containing 
the fossil infusoria of the genus navicula. Other moulds 
are of a dark red clay, and as hard as brick.* The clay 
was first worked up to form a tablet, flat on both sides, 
and about one-eighth of an inch thick. A piece of coin 

' Tom. iv. PL liil 3, 4, p. 157. * On the Biibject of them ii]oaldJ,Eoe 

' Feo, DissertaCioD aur In Preteodus Ca;lu«, i. 2SS,cv.,- H, HiTer.Rer. Num. 

Statue dB PompiSe, p. ]2. 1837, p. 171; Poej d'Avnnt We Meile.) 

=■ A. da EomnuiB, Terme di Tito. fo. Rer. Num. 1837, p. IflB; BeT. J. B. 

Roiiuo, 1822, p. 36, SO-51. Reade, Num. CliioD. toI. i. p. Ifll. 

Moulds and tots. 

was pressed into this pillet on each side, so as to leave an 
impreasion on the clay. The claj" was cut round this, and 
a triangular notch was made at one side of the clay. The 
pilleta or moulds intended for the ends were impressed on 
one sido only. The moulds were then piled in rouleaux 
or stacks, one above another, with the obverse and reverse 
of the coins adjusted so as to give out proper casts, and 
the notches ineidc, to allow the metal to flow through. 
The greatest number of piles or rouleaux placed together 
was eight, but there were often not more than three. 
The whole was then luted externally, to prevent the liquid 
metal from escaping ; and a kind of small basin or funnel 
was made at the top of the mould to facilitate the pouring 
in and circulation of the liquid mass, which was pom-ed into 
a channel of a star-shape, formed by the union of the 
triangular notches, How the coins were extracted is not 
known : in all probability the external terra-cotta luting 
was removed, and the jet of the mould pared ; after 
which the coins were washed with tin or silver. Such 
is the apparatus for coining found in Eoman stations 
in France and England. In the former country such an 
apparatus was found in an ancient building, close to the 
public baths at Fourviiircs, near Lyons ; and in another 
in the park of the castle of Damery, near Epernay, built 
on the ruins of Bib6, tlie first station on the military road 
between Uheims and Beauvais. In the latter place were 
found two thousand pieces of base silver coin, three-fourths of 
the Enipei'or Posthumus, and the rest coins of the Emperor 
Pliilip and his successors ; also several of the Constantinea, 
and of all the principal imperial mints An apparatus and 
thirty-nine moulds were fomid here, comprising the types 



the French meche, which was applied to the wick, gave the 
name poli/niy3:os to lamps witli many nozzles. Lamps are 
sometimes circular, with a spout and handle, sometimes 
elliptical or shoe-shaped. The Greeks applied to terra- 
cotta lamps the term trochelatus,^ or made on the lathe, 
although, as already stated, they were obviously made in a 
mould. Those used in dining-rooms, tricliniares, gene- 
rally hung by chains from the ceiling," candelabra being 
only used to hold lamps in temples. Those found in 
sepulchres, sepulchrales, were placed in a shoe-shaped 
stand, fastened with a spike into the wall. The chamber 
himps, cubiculares, burnt all night.' The invention of 
lamps is attributed to the Egyptians, who thought 
that they were first fabricated by Vulcan, that Minerva 
BuppUed the oil, and that Prometheus lit them.* 
Lamps are first mentioned by Pherecrates, the Athenian 
poet, who flourished in the reign of Alexander the Great. 
We find no further mention of them till the age of 
Augustus, and none of the terra-cotta lamps are earlier 
than that period. The principal parts of these lamps 
are the cup or hollow portion, crater, the upper part, 
disais, and the handle, ansa, behind. The discus has 
a hole, infundibtdum. Round the crater is the limbus, 
which is a decorated border of floral or other orna- 

The infundibulum, or hole, by which the oil was poured 
into the lamp had a movable cover, or stopper, which is 

* AriBtophanes, Eccl. 1. &c. ; Becker, Charioleg, II. p. 215; 

' Virgil, jEq. I. 730. GalluB, II. p. 209. 

» Martial, ill. 39, i. SB. For the * PaMcri, LucenisB, folio, Pi>aim, 

modo of using lamps, see Bdttigcr, Die 173S, p. 4. 

Bilenui Umpm, AmalthaiB, IIL p. ISS, ^ Pollux. ODoraaaticaD, i. 27. 

rarely found. This, which was an inch or an inch and a 
quarter in diameter, was stamped in a separate mould, 
and is generally ornamented with the subject of a head in 
full face. A fictile lantern was found in tiic pyramid of 

The wick, mya^a, was made either of tow, sUippa, or 
rush, scirpus, of amaranth, amaranthus, or papynis. The 
pin or needle with which the wick was trimmed was some- 
times placed in a hole at the aide. 

The earliest lamps have an open circular body, with a 
cuiTed projecting rim to prevent the oil from spilling, 
and occur both in terra-cotta and also in the black glazed 
ware found in the sepulchres of Nola. Many have a pro- 
jecting hollow pipe in the centre, in order to fix them to 
a stick on the top of a candelabrum. These lamps have 
no handles. They may have been placed in the saceUa or 
lararia, and were turned on the potter's wheel. 

The shoe-shape is the most usual, with a round body, a 
projecting spout or nozzle having a hole for the ^vick, and 
a small annular handle, which is more or less raised. 
Some of the larger lamps, and especially the Gfreek ones, 
have a flat triangular handle, which is sometimes elabo- 
rately ornamented in baa-reliof with figures, the helix 
oiTiaments, dolphins, and other subjects. Another kind of 
handle was in the shape of the crescent moon, and was very 
common in bronze. In a few instances it was in tho form 
of the neck of a vessel. The bust of the god Scrapis was 



a much more imiisual form. A singular variety of lamp, 
well adapted for a table, was 
fitted into a kind of small altar, 
the sides of which were orna- 
mented with reliefs. Several how- 
eTer,from their unusual shape, may 
be considered as fancy ware, the 
upper part, or the whole lamp, 
being moulded into the resem- 
blance of some object. Such are 
the lamps in the British Museum 
in the shape of a female head 

, ^--(, »^ QJ^ y^ surmounted by a flower, or of the 

l^^pT "^AV head of a negro or Nubian with 

^^^ open jawB, through which the wick 
*^^*- ' was inserted. Some elegant little 

lamps were in the shape of a foot, or a pair of feet, shod in 


No. Ift7. — Liunp^ with bust of Hvrnpip. 

the cahga, and studded with nails. A hull's head was a 

favourite device. Some lamps in the shape of a pigeon 
are of very late fabric. A lamp for two wicks, in the col- 
lection just referred to, is in the shape of the wine skin of 
old Silenus, whose head is seen above, and through whose 
gaping jaws it was fed. Another is also of a comic 
natui'e, having a satjr's head in front. It was for many 

Some are in the shape of tall jugs, the upper part being 
the lamp. In this case the front and sides arc oniamented 
with figures in bas-relief, such as Apollo,' or the triform 
Hecate — one figure on each side.^ 

Most of these lamps appear to have been made between 
the age of Augustus and that of Constantino. The style, 
of course best at the earlier period of the empire, de- 
generates under the later emperors, such as Philip and 
Maximus, and becomes at last Byzantine and bad. 

' Seroux D'Agincoort, Beoueil, PL ' Puaori, I tar. lx[i. 


Most lamps had only one wick, but the light they 
afforded must have been feeble, and consequently some 
have two wicks, the nozzles for which project beyond the 
body of the lamp. In the same manner were fabricated 
lamps of three, five, and seven wicks. If more were 
required the nozzles did not project far beyond the body 
of the lamp, which was then moulded in a shape adapted 
for the purpose, and especially the favourite one of a 
galley. Sometimes a conglomeration of small lamps was 
manufactured in a row, or in a serrated shape, which 
enabled the purchaser to obtain what light he required ; 
still the amount of illumination must have been feeble. 
As many as twenty wicks are found in some lamps. 

The greater number average from three to four inches 
long, and one inch high ; the walls are about one-eighth 
of an inch thick, and the circular handles not more than 
one inch in diameter. Some of the larger lamps, how- 
ever, are about nine inches or a foot long, with handles 
eight or nine inches high. 

The paste of some is white, chalky, and easily scratched ; 
of others, hard and clayey ; of a few, of a bluish-black colour. 
Red, is however, the prevalent tone, either owing to the earth 
called rubrica, or ruddle, by Pliny, or to the use of bullock's 
blood, which washes out.^ The lamps found at Rome on the 
Via Nomentana, celebrated for its potteries, are of a white 
colour.^ The Neapolitan lamps are of a dingy brown, or 
yellow. Those made of earth from the Vatican hill are red.^ 
The lamps from Cumse are also made of red clay,* and those 

* Livy, lib. iiL dec 1. ^ Paaseri, xiv. ; Martial, xiv. Ep. 

2 Passeri, p. xiii. xiv. 112, speaks of the red clay of this 

3 The fragilea patella) of the Vatican locality, 
are mentioned by Juvenal, Sat vL 343. 


found at Arretiam and Perusia are of the same colour.' 
The lamps of Pisani are both red and white clay, from the 
fundus accianus. The Etruscan are of black clay, the 
Egyptian of red, brown, or black clay, fully baked. Many 
of the lamps from tlie vicinity of Naples are of an ashen 
or yellow clay. Those from Greece ai-e remarkably pale 
and pure. 

Lamps were manufactured by means of moulds, which 
were modelled from a pattern lamp, in a harder and finer 
clay than the squeeze or pattern. The latter was divided 
into two parts, adjusted 
by mortices and tenons, 
the lower part forming 
the body of the lamp, the 
upper the decorated su- 
perficies. The clay was 
pressed iu with the fin- 
gers by a potter called no. i8».-Mouid<ir»tiioippoi>wi»rt> 
thefffiilus sigillalor,^ or stamper. The two portions were 
joined while the clay was moist, and pared with a tool, and 
a small hole waa pierced for introducing the oil. They 
were then dried and sent to the kiln, and baked carefully 
at a not very high temperature. Some moulds were 
prepared with considerable taste and good workmanship, 
and as the same type was used by different potters, it 
appears that they were sold ready made, and that the 
potter merely added his name. 

■ Fuuri, KIT. tobolus, Lucii filiiii 

' Puaeri, p, I, " Db manibuB Aga- sigilUWr." 




The simplest kind of lamps, and which may be con- 
sidered of the earliest and best style, have their subjects 
in the centre, which is concave, like a votive clypens, which 
it appears intended to represent. The subject is only 
surrounded with a plain bead or moulding. Such lamps 
are probably of the best period of Empire, and may be 
traced down to the time of Philip.* They generally have 
simple semi-oval nozzles and moulded handles, and are 
distinguished by their simple circular bodies. In some 
ca^es the moulding is divided, leaving a channel to the 
neck.^ These lamps have never more than one hole for 
the oil. Such specimens as have not handles, generally 
have the part for the wick elongated, and ornamented 
either with mouldings resembUng the Amazonian pelta 
(which are sometimes seen combined with architectural 
flowers on those with handles), or else the nozzle seems 
intended for an ivy leaf, flower, or pelta. On some of the 
later lamps, the borders are much more elaborate ; egg 
and tongue mouldings, wreaths of laurel, bunches of grapes, 
and oak leaves, are distributed round the subject ; or the 
acanthus leaf, and antefixal ornament, and a trefoil 
flower or leaf, an egg and tongue border, wreaths appear.^ 
The number of figures is generally small, it being con- 
trary to the principle of ancient art to crowd a work with 
minute figures and accessories. Many lamps have no sub- 
ject, the majority only one figure ; and two, three, and more 
figures are rare in the ratio of the increasing number. 

^ Cfl the one in Passori, iii. xxix. ^ Ibid. iiL xzvii. 

Some of the largest lamps, indeed, liave several figures, 
but such are very rare. Nor are lamps impressed with 
distinct and well preserved subjects common ; only a few 
of this description can be selected out of the hundreds 
that are found. Many are of grotesque and humorous 
workmanship. Such lamps, when of small size, generally 
fetch from a few shillings to a pound ; but there is no 
hmit to the price that amateurs will pay for extraordinary 
specimens. Considering tiicir smallness, they are amongst 
the most interesting remains of Roman terra-cottas ; and 
it is only to be regretted that the Romans possessed so 
little historical taste, as they might by this means havo 
transmitted to us more interesting information than is 
conveyed by the representation of barren myths, the 
exploits of gladiatore, or the lives of courtesans. 

The subjects of these lampa are calculated to convey 
the same relative idea of Roman civilisation, as the plates 
now made to be sold among the working classes are of 
that of our own day. The lamp-maker sought to gratify 
the taste of his customers by ornamenting his ware with 
familiar subjects. The purchasers of terra-cotta lamps 
were generally persons of inferior condition : he would 
therefore copy from memory well-known statues of the 
principal gods, or represent incidents in the lives of 
heroes whose fame was popular. In Rome the stage 
exerted little influence, and the lamp-maker rarely took a 
subject from the drama ; but the games of the circus, tlie 
incidents of gladiatorial life, the contest, the pardon, or 


the death, as well as the tricks of the circukUores or 
mountebanks, recalled scenes familiar to every eye. 
Under the empire the Romans had become vain and 
frivolous, and their masters sought to obUterate from 
their minds the cruel scenes of imperial bloodshed and 
pubUc rapine by spectacles and diversions. There are 
also some subjects taken from fables, which always make 
so much impression on uneducated minds ; but a great 
number have nothing except ornaments. 


A few only of the great gods are found represented. 
A lamp published by Passeri, has Coelus, surrounded by 
Sol, Luna, and the stars.^ Jupiter often occurs, seated on 
a throne ; probably a potter's copy of the statue of the 
Capitoline Jove ; ^ at other times he is seen in the 
company of Juno and Minerva,' or allied with Cybele, Sol, 
and Luna.* A very common subject is the bust of this 
deity, sometimes with his sceptre placed on the eagle, 
which is flying upwards.^ His consort Juno seems to have 
had but few admirers.® 

Of the incidents in the life of Minerva, the lamp 
represent her birth, Jupiter being attended by Vulcan 
and Lucina.^ Her head® or bust is^ of common 
occurrence. She is also seen standing *° as Pacifera," 
having at her side a vase and cista ; ^^ advancing as 
Promachos,'' having at her side an owl ; ^* or sacrificing at 

» p. I. vii. In this and the foUowing » B. M. « P. L xii. ? P. L liL Ix, 

pages B. M. stands for the Collection of ^ F.L liiL » P. I. liv. ^ P. I. 

the British Museum; B. for Bartoli ; and ^^ P. I. lix. " P. I. IxiL Ixiu.; B. iL 1 8. 

L. for Licetus. »« P. I. Ixiv. " P. I. Ixv. 

2 B. M. 3 B. M. * Pass. I, xv. 


an altar.' Sometimes only her helmet," or her s^is is 
represented,^ having on it the head of the terrible beauty 
Medusa. The lame Vulcan is scarcely ever seen* and 
his servant, the grim Cyclops, only once.' 

Apollo often appears as the Pythian, or the Lycian,^ 
seated ^ and playing on the lyre ; or as the Hyperborean * 
with the gold-guarding gryplion at his side. Other lamps 
have Diana hunting,^ or without her dogs,"* or driving hi 
her character of the Moon, or Luna." Another form of 
Diana, as the three-fold Hecate, whose statue waa placed 
in most of the Roman triviaj is often found.'" Mercury 
occurs in various attitudes, with the caducous and purse, 
as the god of commerce,'^ with a goat, dog, and cock,'* or 
allied with Fortune and Hercules.'* The bust of this god, 
with a purse and caduceus as the god of merchandise, or 
with the ram '* is constantly repeated." On one lamp, the 
e.vchange of the lyro, which he invented, for the caduceus 
of Apollo is represented.'^ Mercui-y was always a popular 
Roman god. 

Mars, although pre-eminently the deity of Rome, the 
Gradivus Pater, is rarely distinguishable from ordinary 
heroes. He is represented disarmed hy Cupid,'^ medita- 
ting war,"" and bearing a trophy." One lamp, on which 
are the busts of Mars, V'^enus, and Sol, probably refers to 
the amours of the god.^" Venus, a favourite goddess of the 
Roman people, and consequently of the lamp-makers, is 

J. M. ' P, I. Isvi. 

" P. I. Id. IciL " P. I. ICTii. 

?. Llivl. 

1' p. I. ciii. cv. 

'. 11. IKV. » p. II. HIT. 


'. L Ini. ' P, L Ixiil-T. 

" B. M. " P. in. lovii. 

^ L Ixiv. 

ir B. M. ; P. L c. " P. I. mi. 

?. I. iotL ; a M. 

'•B.M. » B. M. ; P. IL HI. 

XIL; P. L luxtiL 

" P. IL uiv.-iivL = P. I. Uuii. 



seen as Cytherea, or rising from the sea,* with a star and 
crown,' at the bath,' as the Coia of Praxiteles,* as Victrix, 
or^the vanquisher, and 
arming, attended by 
Cupids,* like the Ve- 
nus of Capua. 

The representations 
I of marine deities are 
limited to those of Nep- 
tune,* Triton, Proteus 
wearing the mariner's 
cap,' and Scylla,* and 
the head of Thetis 
ornamented with a 
crab. Many lamps 
have Cupids, who ap- 
pear invested with the 
attributes and per- 
forming the functions 
of the gods. Sometimes the merry little deity holds the 
club and quiver of Hercules,^ reclines upon a couch,'" sails 
over the sea in a galley," fishes from a rock, plays on pipes,'* 
holds a crater and inverted torch,'^ gambols with com- 
panions,'* holds a bird,'* sounds the lyre like Apollo,'* 
sacrifices," seizes the arms of Mars,'® fills a crater orvi-ine- 
bowl out of an amphora, like a Satyr," holds grapes,*" 
shoots a serpent, a parody of Apollo and Python,"' or blows 

I p. II. liv. ' P. IL liU. <' B. M. "an 

> a M. ' p. II. i». ' B. M. "P. iri.icL 

•p. i-ilii. 'B. M.;B.6. >• P. I. luvil. 

• P. L ilTiL ' B. M. '" B. M. " P. I. ci. ■» P. I. li 


Pan's pipe." Sometimes his amour with Psyche is 
represented, from tlie tale of the Golden Asa by Lucian 
and Lucius Apuleius ; " sometimes only his bust is seeiij' 
or he appears as a terminal statue,* 

Bacchus was always a popular god at Rome, and the 
edicts against his worship show how deeply it had taken 
root in the minds of the people of Italy. On lamps he is 
seen holding his cantharus for a panther to lick,* or with 
the cantharus on his head,^ drinking,' as a boy with 
grapes,^ or in his ship.^ Several lamps have Ampelus,'" a 
Satyr, with torches" or with pipes,'^ Comus or Marsyas, 
Satyrs pouring wine from the ascos or wine-skin,'^ or pound- 
ing in a mortar,'"* the old Pappo-Silenus," Satyrs pursuing 
Nymphs,'^ Bacchantes tearing a kid over a lighted altar," 
or a Bacchante at an altar,'* and Pan. 

The host of minor deities and demi-gods also often 
exercised the ingenuity of the modeller of lamps. 
Among these is found Sol in a quadriga,'* standing 
with Luna," Sol or the Colossus of Rhodes, full face,^' 
and his bust surrounded by the stars and planets ; ^' Nox 
or Ariadne also occurs." Luna also appears in an infinite 
variety of shapes. So many of the lamps were made on the 
occasion of the secular games that they seem to allude 
to them. Among Roman gods are seen JanuH,^ Silvanus 
with the falx and basket,'" his bust," Vesta, and some 
others.'' Pluto,'" Salus, and .^sculapius rarely occur.'* 


P.nLtii.; B.L7. 

" a M. « B. M. 

■•B,M. ".-B 

B. M., P. II. 


" B.M.;B.u.22 ' 


P, III. vui. 


"• P. 1. luxviii. 

>' P. I. Inii 



Hercules is seen killing the serpent Ladon, which 
guarded the tree of the Hesperides,^ holding the gathered 
apples,^ seizing the stag of Mount Cerynitis,* sacrificing,* re- 
posing,* holding the cup as Hercules Bibax,® in the company 
of Minerva,^ or as Musagetes playing on the lyre.® The 
Dioscuri, so propitious to the Romans at the lake Regillus, 
sometimes appear as busts in full face, as the ^^ lucid stars, 
the brothers of Helen ;"^ Castor is seen accompanied by 
his horse,*^ or with his horse's head and spear." Of 
the inferior deities there is Rome seated alone,^^ or 
crowned by Victory ; " Fortune having before her a star 
and rudder," or standing with other gods ; the Dii lares," 
the Genius of the army/® Hymen,^^ the four Seasons,*® 
and Vesta.*» 

Victory is beheld holding a shield,*^ on which is often 
an inscription, invoking a happy new year,^^ having in area 
the head of Janus and other emblems ; ^ sacrificing at an 
altar ; accompanied by the Lares ; ^ holding a shield ; ^ 
sacrificing a bull, or elevating a trophy high in the air,^ 


The prevalence of exotic religions at Rome is shown by 
the representations of Diana of Ephesus,^ Cybele, with her 
lions, and the youth Atys,^^ Mithras ;^® Serapis supported by 

J B.M.;P. III. 93. 
8 p. IL iv. 

6 P. IIL xdv. 

7 P. II. viL 

< P. II. ul 

8 P. II. vi. 

» B. M. ; P. I. Ixxxvil 
10 B. M. ; P. II. xxvuL 
" P. IL xxvi. 
13 P. m. L « P. III. ii. 

" B.M. 

w P. n. xxvi 

»8 P. I. XL 

» B.M. 
« B.M. 
« P. 1. 1 vL 
* P. I. xcviiL 
» P. I. xa 

^ P.I.xxxviiL 
w P. I. xiii 
« B.M. 
2* RM. 
27 RM. 


two sphinxes' or alone,' or on a throne with Isis ;^ Isis,* with 
her son Haqjocrates," in the company of Anubia ;* Harpo- 
crates alone,^ and other Egyptian gods.^ Some lamps have 
an Egyptian hunt,^ a crocodile, and the god Canopus."* 

Many lamps have merely the emblems of deities, &a the 
sword, club, and lion's skin of Hercules ;" the lion's head, 
cantharus, and vine leaves of Bacchus ;'' or a cantharus 
with wreaths of vine leaves and panthers, of ■which Passeri 
possessed 500 repetitions, made by the lamp maker L. 
C;i;cilius Saitinus ; '^ the dolphin and lyre of Apollo, allied 
with the hippocamp and rudder for Neptune ; '* the gry- 
phon and patera of Apollo ;'* or the raven, laurel, and 
caducous,'' allied with the thunderbolt of Jupiter, the staft' 
of jEsculapius, the helmet and shield of Mars ;'^ tiie joined 
hands and caduceus of the goddess Peace ; '^ a goat, and 
armour on a column.'* 

Few subjects were taken from the old stories of the 
cyclic poets and the Iliad, which were familiar only to 
the learned public ; yet some appear which Virgil, Ovid, 
and the other poets of the Augustan age had rendered 
familiar. Among these are Ganymede playing with 
the bird of Jove f° the amour of Jupiter, under the form 
of a swan, with Leda ; *' the judgment of Paris ; " the 
combat of Achilles and Hector -^^ the death of Hector, of 
Penthesilea," and of otlier Amazons ; ^ Diomed and 
Ulysses with the Palladium ; the flight of jEneas ; ^ 

p. ni. la. 

" P. III. Biii 

1* P. I, I. 

p.iii.i.iiLix»iiL • P. ni. I1K.-L 

" P. I- In. 

1" B. M. 

p. m. Utf. * B. M. 

" P. I. iiL 

" B. M. 

a M. I. raiL ' P. I. L 

" P. I. llTiil 

" B. M. 

P. I. IxiviiL in. lixx. Uni. 

■" B, M. 


B. IL '" P. 111. liiiT, 

■= KM.; R 


lii. S. « II, SI 

P. 11. ix. '= P. HI. ci». 

s' B. M. 

» n. M. 


Ulysses passing the Sirens ; * Polyphemus devouring the 
companions of Ulysses ; ^ the same hero escaping under 
the Ram ; ^ receiving the wind-bags of iEolus ; the cranes 
and pigmies ; * CEdipus and the Sphinx ; Prometheus ; * 
Perseus and Andromeda ; * Meleager ; ^ ActsBon ; ® the 
fall of Bellerophon ; ' and Orestes haunted by the 


A few of the fables of popular writers are also repre- 
sented. One lamp, foimd near Naples, and now in the 
British Museum, has the well known tale of the fox and 
the crow, treated in a peculiar style* The fox has slipped 
on a chlamys, and stands erect on his hind legs, holding 
up a pair of pipes to the crow, which is perched on the 
top of the tree. Another in tfie same collection represents 
a fable taken from an unknown source, perhaps the verit- 
able iEsop, in which a stork holds in its beak a balance, 
and weighs in one scale an elephant, while a mouse is seen 
in the other. A third lamp has on it the cock that has 
found the grain of barley, which he preferred to all the 
precious stones on earth. There are also numerous cari- 
catured subjects," consisting of grotesque heads and 
figures, with diabolical countenances, the meaning of which 
is very obscure ; but they are supposed by many to be 

» R M. 2 AvoUo, 116. " R i. 31. ^ b. L 28. » R ii. 24. 

' Lamp in S. W. Parish's collection. *" P. IL xoiv.-ciii. 

♦RM. «B. LI, 2, 8. «B.i. 9. " P. III. xx. xxi 6. 


There are but few historical subjects, and those which 
occur are taken from sources more piquant than true. 
One lamp represents the celebrated interview of Alexander 
the Great and Diogenes, who addresses the hero out of Ms 
jar;' Romulus found by Faustulus' is seen, the twins 
Romulus and Remus suckled by the she-wolf,^ and Remus 
alone.* The immolation, perhaps, of Curtius,* and a few 
other events in Roman history are found. Neither are sub- 
jects derived from real life numerous, although some may be 
cited ; as an Emperor sacrificing, soldiers,' a battering ram,' 
and soldiers fighting ; * galleys sailing over the ocean ; " 
fishermen either at the Tiber or at Ostia ; '" Tityrus " tend- 
ing his herds ; a shepherd with a caged animal ; " the 
rustic chapel of the gods of the countrymen ; '^ persons 
pounding in mortars ; '' preparing the vintage,^^ or bringing 
the wine in casks.'* The scenes of love are far too nume- 
rous to describe ; neither are tliey treated in the chaste 
style of modern art, but repeat the orgies of the debauched 
Tiberius at Capreie. 


Many lamps have bas-reliefs representing the popular 
subjects of the games of the circus, and the gladiatorial 
exhibitions of the amphitheatre. The finest of these in 
the British Museum has a race of quadriga) ; " the spina, 

■ R M. ; P. III. 1 


• RM. 



' P. m. It. 

' F. Ill 


'1 BU. 

" Avolio 


* P. IIL I. 


" RM. 

" RM. 



UL Kiv.-xwriii. 


7 P. II. zxrilL 


" RH. 





the metze, the obelisks, the carceres, from which the 
chariots have started, and the seats with the spectators 
are represented. Others also occur with chariots,' some- 
times bigaj.* Gladiators' are very often seen — either 
Samnites or mirmillones, — with a palm,* crowned by Vic- 


A lamp from Naples, now in the British Museum, has 
the names of two gladiators, Fvrivs and Colvmbvs,* 
in bas-relief at their sides. A common subject is the 
victor holding up his sword, wliile the vanquished, fallen 
upon one knee, expects bis fate. Another lamp in the 
same collection has a retiarius, holding his trident and 

' B. M. ; P, IIL iivi, ixnl xxvUL 

mucro, with his name Calvisivs, and that of his fallen 
opponent Maximvs. Combats with beaats are seen,' also 
boxera,'' flute and cj-mbal players.' Busts of comediaus,* 
and comic and tragic masks* often occur, and several of 
"those deformed and obscene dwarfs called Moriones, hold- 
ing pipes/' boxing with others,' wearing the petaaus,*or' 
the hat of the slare.' 

Animals form a numerous class of representations, such 
are the gryphon,"* pegasus," lions, often devouring a stag" 
or a bull,'^ panther,'* boar'* bitten by a dog,'* bears," 
horses,** deer couchant,'* dogs, sometimes fighting,'"' a 
stag chased by dogs," sheep^'', goats,^ hares or I'abbita 
devouring gi-apes,** sphinxes,^ a crocodile attacking a 
lion," an eagle,*' a peacock,** the crow of Apollo,*" 
snails,^ parrots,*' dolphins, the same entwining an anchor, 
a pelamys or tunny,'* a hippocamp,^' scorpion,** serpents 
and lizards,** toads, scorpions,** shells,*' locusts devouring 
grapes,*® capricoms,** and marine monsters. 

p. HI. 

i.xa: El SB. 

1 B. M. 


p. Ill 

" B.M. 

« B.M. 

p. Ill 

ovi. • p. III. 


■•* EM. 



D. 100. ' P. HI 



"P.m. IT, I 


«EM, 'EM. 

» E M. ; P. 



lii " P.I.I1 


» P. III. Iriii. Ux. 



« P. III. Ixi. 



" B.M. 




r. I. uiiri. 

" B. M. 

« p. III. IL 


'" EM. 

» P. Iir. or. 



»B. M. 

>" P. L Jviu. 

• P. L V, 


There are many siilijecta which it is difficult to class, such 
as the «.e and its divisions,' which must have been numisma- 
tic curiosities at the time the lamp was made ; the arms 
of the sahi," of foreigners, Taaes,' or a cupboard filled -with 


vases,* a lectisternium to theiuferual gods,' a lighted altar 
and genii,^ serpents,' the dolphins of Neptune,* a sepulchral 
cippuH,* a Bucraniun,'" two palms," a wreath,'^ of laurel, 
myrtle,'^ of oak loaves, the civic crown,'* a curule seat with 


lictors,^ tombs with genii " crowning sepulchral urns,^ urns,* 
histral vases,' crowns and pahn branches.^ 

One of the most remarkable subjects of the later lamps 
is the golden candlestick,^ as it appears upon the arch of 
Titus at Rome ; either a copy of that object at the time, 
or else in allusion to the Church, as figured in the Reve- 
lations. Many lamps indeed occur with Christian sym- 
bols — such as crosses, the monogram of Christ.* the good 
shepherd,' the great dragon, Jonas swallowed by the 
wliale, and other emblems ; but these are generally of the 
bright red ware, of the class called the false Samian, 
under wliich they will bo found described. 


A considerable number of lamps have inscriptions, dis- 
posed in different manners. Those which have reference 
to the subject, being impressed in reUef along with it, 
while those which relate to the lamp itself, or its maker, 
are always on the bottom, and consequently out of sight. 
These are either in relief, or else incised with a tool in 
cursive letters ; on the lamps of Arretium and Cumse 
they are in relief in small tablets, on the upper surface. 
Thoy were impressed with bronze stamps. 

The inscriptions found upon lamps are — 1. marks ; 
2, names of makers ; 3. names of places where they were 
fabricated; 4. name of pottery ; 5. name of proprietors ; 

>. III. mil. 

' P. HI. iMx., I. 

Mn. xlU.. ilr.xlvU; I. 13, H. 

» iiviiL 

>. m. xiri. ' P. III. ihlii 

» B. iU. 33. ' 


6. date of manufacture ; V. dedication to deities ; 8. ac- 
clamations used at the public games ; 9. facts.^ 

Of the first class are the little marks used by the potter, 
either instead of bis name, or in conjunction with it. 
There is no very great variety of symbols, and those found 
are of the simplest kind, such as circles, half moons, the 
print of a human foot, wheels, palm branches, the coitus 
foot, or vine leaf. 

Although the inscriptions relating to the fabric of 
lamps are by no means so numerous or complete as 
those upon tiles, yet they are instructive with regard to 
the potteries. A considerable portion only indicate tha( 
they were made by slaves, since they bear single names, 
such as Agatho, Attius, Arion, Aquilinus, Cinnamus, 
Bassa, Bagradus, Draco, Diogenes, Heraclides, Fabrinus, 
Fortis, Faber, Faustus, Inulisuco, Memmius, Monos^ 
-Maximus, Muntripus, Nereus, Oppius, Primus, Priscus, 
Pastor, Publius, Probus, Rhodia, Stephanus, Succes- 
sivus, Tertullus, and Vibianus. These names generally 
occur in the genitive, the word " manufacture,'' or " fac- 
tory,'' being understood. One rare specimen has "Dio- 
genes fecit." Many makers appear to have been freed- 
men, and the most remarkable of these was Tindarus, 
the freedman of Plotina Augusta, the wife of Trajan.^ It 
has been already seen from the inscriptions upon tiles, 
that Tindarus was also a tile-maker, many of the tegulae 
doliares having been prepared in his potteries. Some 
examples of the use of the word officincB occur, as the 
oflBcinse of Caius Clodius Successivus, the oflBcinae of Pub- 
lius and Titus already mentioned, that of P. Asisus, that 

^ Serouz D'Agincourt, Recueil, p. 67. ^ P. i. xxzL 


of Patrici\is and Chiestio, and lonis, but the expression is 
uncommon. That of Manu, or liand, is still rarer ; only 
ene potter, L. Mui-aniis, is known to have employed it. 

Another remarkable inacription under a lamp, engraved 
by Passed, runs, "from the manufacimy of Publius 
and Titus, at the Porta Trigemina." • A considerable 
number of the names have a simple prtenomen, such 
as Aurelius Xanthus, .^lius Maximus, Caius Csesar, 
Clodius Heliodorus, Caius Memmius, Caius Faber, Catus 
Pabricius, Claudius Lupercalis, Egnatius Aprilis, Lucius 
Primus, Turcius Sabinus. None of these names ia of 
historical importance, although it is just possible that the 
last may be the Tyro-Sabinus mentioned by Pliny, who 
wrote de Hortensibus, Tliey were probably freedmen 
who manufactured lamps. Of still higher rank than these 
freedmen were the persons who possessed three names, 
and who occasionally record their descent. These must 
be regarded as Eoman citizens. Such were probably 
Publius Satrius Camiilus, Caius Oppiua Eestitutus, Caius 
Lucius Maurua, Caius Clodius Successivus, Caius Julius 
Nicephorus, Caius Pomponius Dicax, Caius JuUus Phihp- 
pua, Caius Iccius Vaticanus, Lucius Fabricius ^veius, 
Lucius Fabricius Maaculus, Lucius CaBciUus Saevus. Whe- 
ther they were proprietore of tlie establishment, or of the 
farm from which the clay waa procured, is by no means 
certain, but none of them are mentioned elsewhere ; which 
renders it probable that they were persons of inferior 
condition, auch as maatera of the potteries, who were pro- 
bably rich freedmen. A few words occur in a contracted 
form which refer to the fabric, such a£ the Acciaiiiau of 



PubUus Satrius Campestris, son of Caius," on lamps found 
at Pesaurmu ; " the Caniiiian," " the thirds (tertia) of 
Coiiuuodus," and those already mentioned, called " Pla- 
Tians" and " Domitians ;" also "the Heraclians," "the 
fourths of Oppius," and " the thirds of Publius Fabricius." 
It is of course unceitaiu what such expressions mean, as 
they may refer cither to the ofEcinre or estabhshments, or 
to the names of the lamps tliemselves. If some may be 
interpreted " the Vatican lamps of Caius Iccius," this 
would appear to mean the celebrated clay of that hill, and 
the word fglina, or " pottery," is to be supplied. In the 
appendix will be found a list of the marks borne by other 
lamps. Some have the names of certain shops, such as 
C. Oppiua Rest., Caius Rest., Clodii res., Publii Pahricii 
tertia, Oppedi quarta. 

A third class may contain the name of the place 
where the lamps were made, as, Caii Iccii Valican[{s), for 
" Vatican (lamps) of C. Iccius," on lamps found at Rome. 
The fourtl) class has the name of the lamps or fabric, as the 
Caninian, Flavian, Domitian, Hcraclian, Thirds, Fourths. 
This expression may refer to the names of the Jiglina:, or 
potteries, similar expressions occurring on the tiles. 

The fifth kind is supposed to contain tlie name of the 
Patroni in whose houses the lamp-makers lived. On 
these the names of Antoninus, Commodus, Phihppus, 
Diocletian, and Maximus occur, and one, more distinct 
than the rest, has Tindarus, Plotina Augusta lihertm, 
" Tindarus,' the freedman of Plotina Augusta." One only 
contains the date of the consulship of the Emperor Philip, 
during the celebration of the Secular games. These 

' PaBseri, iL 


inscriptions observe the usual laws of contraction. Tbe most 
contracted form in which the names of emperors appears, 
is AA. NN. [Augustorum nostrorum,oi omv two Aiigusti); 
a phrase which cannot date earlier than the joint reign of 
M. Aureliua and L, Verua. It is indeed possible that 
the name of Titus, which occurs on one lamp, may be aa 
old as that of the emperor of that name, for upon several 
lamps is found inscribed, "the Flavians ofour god and lord;" 
an expression particularly referable to Vespasian or Titua, 
both of whom bore that surname ; while other lamps are 
inscribed " the Domitians of our god and lord," showing 
that they allude to the Emperor Domitian. Much light 
is, however, thrown upon this point by the tiles, some of 
which, as we have seen, were called " the larger Neronians" 
after the Emperor Nero. The name of Trajan is found 
upon a lamp, showing either that it came from the imperial 
potteries or from others named after that emperor ; while 
a large number of lamps are inscribed " of Antoninus," or 
"of Antoninus Augustus," which probably refers to one 
of the two Antonines, or else to Caracalla, or Elagabalus. 
To this middle period of the Itoman empire most lamps 
may be referred, as some occur with the name of Severus, 
others with that of Maximus, and several * with that of 
M. Julius Phitippus, some of which have the addition of 
his third consulship — thus showing that they were made 
during the remarkable epoch of the celebration of the 
Secular games, a.d. 24 7. It is of course impossible to feel 
certain that such names as Probus refer to the emperor of 
that name, and no Roman lamps bear the name of a later 
sovereign, although one Greek one has that of Diocletian. 



The inscriptions upon some lamps are votive excla- 
mations resembling those of the Decennalia and Secularia, 
"a new and propitiously hjtppj year! "' ANNVM IN 
QVO FAVSTVM FELIX TIBI SIT, " a year in which 
may all be fortunate and propitious to you;" or ANNVM 
year be happy and propitious to me." These inscriptions 
seem to sltow that the lamps were given away or sold on 
new-year's -day, or on the celebration of the Secular games. 
On one is inscribed HAVE,^' haill'; SVTINE, 'oh Sutinus.' 
These inscriptions sometimes occur upou victors' shields, 
on which are often found inscriptions relative to victories, 
and other subjects. One remarkable lamp has DEO 
QVI EST MAXIMVS,^ " to the god 
who is greatest." Another, lovi 
SERENO SAOBUM, " sacred to Serene 
Jove." * Nor are certain expressions 
adapted for funeral purposes less in- 
teresting, such as SIT TIBl TERRA 
No. iiJi.-F^„t „f Ljruj,, will, LEVIS, " earth lie light on thee ;" or 
ANIMA DVLCis, "0 sweet aoul ! "' A 
great number are stamped "saecvl, or saecvlabia," in 
reference to tlie games of the period. 

An immense number of lamps must have been used 
during the illuminations which seem to have taken place 


on occasion of triumphs. During the celebration of the 
Secular games the city was illuminated for three nights, 
and it is probable that some of the subjects found in lamps 
have reference to this festive use of them.' They were 
used for illuminations as early as that for the sup- 
pression of the Catiline conspiracy.' Lamps were also 
used in the Isiac worship. " Moreover," says Apuleius, 
" in the festival of Isis there was a great number 
of eitlier sex, with lamps, torches, wax candles, and 
another kind of torches, imitating the light of the 
celestial stai-s. The first of them held forth a lamp, 
gleaming with a clear Ught, not much like those which 
illuminate our evening entertainments, but a golden boat 
or cup, sending forth a very long flame out of the midat of 
it." ^ They were also lighted in the lararia and sacilla and 
in the therms,* which Alexander Severus opened at nights. 

They appear, indeed, to have been in general use for 
illuminating public buildings. For domestic use they 
were employed in the dining room, the study, and the 

Several lamps have been found in sepulchres, hut these 
are chiefly of the Christian period, or connected with 
the worship of the Manes, and were not placed there, as 
some authors of the preceding century imagined, with the 
idea of their burning eternally.' In an inscription on a 
sepulchral cippus in the Museum, the heirs of a deceased 
person are enjoined on all the kalends, ides, and nones of 

' Fuseri, p. xi. ; Suston. Vit. Jul. ad Bo. ; Martial, i.ep. 0; Symmncliiu, 

Cbut c. 37 ; Dio. Nenm,; XipUUin, L 1. iL " Plutarch. Cio. o. 22. 

xjodii.; SuBtoQ. Dom. o. i ; Lamprid. ' Lamprid. vit. c. 2*. * As. Aur. xi. 

Vit. Alei Sev. o. i*. ; TertulL In * Fort Ucetua, de lucernis aoti. 

Apolaget. ; CapitolinoH, vita GordiuD. quorum recoDdiCii, 1022. 


each month ^ to place a lighted lamp in his sepulchre ; and 
the same is enjoined upon alternate months as a condition 
on which her slaves received their Uberty, in the testament 
of MdDvia.^ That this was common under the empire 
appears from the story of the Matron of Ephesus,' and from 
the following remarkable inscription : ^' May a golden 
shower cover the ashes of whoever places a lighted lamp 
in this tumulus." * 

Among other superstitions connected with lamps was 
that of choosing the name of a child. Several lamps 
were named, and then lighted, and the name of the child 
was taken from that of the lamp last extinguished.^ At 
the end of the eighteenth century a great number of 
lamps were discovered in a frimace, where they had been 
baked, together with the moulds and other utensils for 
making them.^ Great numbers are found at Rome, 
Naples, and on the sites of the principal cities of ancient 
Italy, Germany, France, and Britain. Some numbers 
also occur in the rubbish heaps of the diflferent cities of 
Greece and Africa. According to Avolio seventeen lamps, 
placed one upon another, were found close to the mouth 
of a reverberating furnace, near Anzi.^ These lamps were 
placed in stands, also of pale red coarse terra-cotta.® 

* Brit. Mus. Marbles, pt. v. viiL * Qniter, xnoxlviiL 

3 Digest i. Iz. 44. * Job. Chrysost. Homelia xil 

* Petroniufl, Sat. c. 3, "positamin • Avolio, p. 117. 7 p. 123. 
tumulo lumen renovabat" • Lysons, iii. PL xviL 6. 


ViiMi — ^Romwi pottery — Paata — Coloura — Drying — Wheal or Utlie — Modelling — 
Moulding— StampB — Inscriptions — Furnaces — Constniotion for glased 
ware — Heat — Smoke kilus — N'ortliunptan kilue — ^Colchoater kilns — For 
Qraj ware — Dimonaions — Prices — Uses of inses — Tnuisport of 
BitabloB^Feat of tables — SIiBiQ viands — Dolia or ouka — Hooped with 
leid — Repaired — Inscribail — ^Dolisrii^Amphonc ^ Inscriptions — Memo- 
nnds — Use of smphone — S\te — Sinkers — Sarcophagi — Obrendnria 
— Early use of terra ootta Tsaes — Nimiea of sacred Teasels — Cadua 
— Diota ~ Paropsis — Patina — Patera— Patella — Tnilla— Catini 
— Seutula ^Qftbata— Lagona^Cr»tor ^ (Enopborom — Urccolm — Pocu- 
luni ^ Calix—Cotyle ^ Scsphi 11 m — Cant barns — CarclieaioQ — Sojphna — 
Ehyton—^Aeotabuliim— Ampulla-— Quttua—Matella— Olio, Sinus, Obb^^ 
FlBOea where made — Architectural u»e. 

Thb decorations of lamps are analogous with bas reliefs 
used for architectural purposes, and heace they may bo 
considered as connected with the fine arts, since they 
required not merely the technical manipulation of a 
potter, but also the skill and taste of an artist to produce 
them. They are the last link in the chain of the glyptic 
art. Of the unglazod Roman pottery it now only remains 
to consider the vases, a class of objects which demanded 
for their manufacture no higlier skill than that of the 
potter. The technical part of Roman pottery is probably 
better known than that of the Greek ; kilns, furnaces, 
moulds, tools, clays, and other objects connected with it 
being distributed all over Europe, and consequently having 


attracted the attention of various scientific inquirers. 
In point of shape and elegance the Roman yases are far 
inferior to the Greek — nor does the paste seem to have 
been prepared with the same regard to fineness and conoi- 
pactness. Nevertheless, many shapes and pastes often 
possess very superior qualities for useful purposes. The 
art was evidently held in lower estimation among the 
Romans,' and committed to the hands of slaves and: 
freedraen. The Roman potteries produced useful but 
by no means fine or beautiful vases, and they were only 
adapted to the necessities of life. 


The paste of the Roman vases is by no means so fine 
as that of the Greek, except the glazed red ware, which is 
of so bright a colour as to resemble coral.^ Since red 
clay does not retain this colour in the furnace, either 
a peculiar clay must have been used, like some varieties 
found in this country, or it must have been heated to a, 
certain temperature and combined with peculiar earths tq 
produce the colour. The pipe-clay used was called the 
figlina or potter's chalk. Other kinds of paste are of a 
pale or deep yellow, with small pebbles intermingled, and 
fragments of red bricks worked in. It was generally 
fine. Some ancient terra cottas have little pebbles mixed 
in their composition, either from the use of ill-prepared 
clay, or in order to prevent the contraction of the clay. 
Other pastes are black, of a deep thick gray, cream-coloured, 
nearly white, light red, pale red, brown, and even of a 

1 >sA 

yri KtpofilKfi, Qeopon. ii. 49. 


yellow colour. The clay was probably ground, trodden out 
with the feet, and worked up with the hand.' The Eomans 
evidently availed themselves of the earth of the differont 
localities in which they found themselves ; " with tlie 
exception of the Samian ware, the paste and colour of 
which is uniform. The vases from different countries 
are easily distinguished from one another. There is 
also a variety of paste of a pale red colour intermixed 
with flakes of mica, of the nature of tliat of the vases 
commonly called chrysendeta.^ There is a great differ- 
ence of opniiou among the commentators about this paate. 
The ancients employed several processes, and paid the 
greatest attention in preparing theh- different clays for use. 
An analysis of tlie fragments found in the excavations at 
Rome, Pompeii, and Herculanaum, shows that the clays 
were mixed in certain proportions with volcanic earth and 
6and, especially pozzolano. Even tiie tirae of making 
was carefully observed. " Bricks are best made in the 
spring,* for those made at the solstice," nays Pliny, "are 
full of chinks ;" an observation repeated by Vitruvius, 
who says, " Bricks are to be made in spring and autumn, 
in order that they may dry equally;"' and they were 
often prepared two years before. 

In the manufacture of vases the Romans used the 

' VuTO, Re RiiBtio*, iii 
in Smith'* Diet. Antiq. p. 118. 

' CUrao, pirtTBcli. L 31. 

• CUrae, Mm, A. Sculpt P. TccU. p. 
30. Tbe ChrfMadeta Bxe msotioned 
uiued bj tho irealclij 
pnoe tLem to liuvo been of motal. 

Mart. >j. 29. 

* '" Finguutur optime i 

i Sunt, "— Pliny. N.H 
liv. 49. 

' '^DucQudi uulem ai 
MmpuB eb Kutumukle u 

-Vitruvius. iL B. 


had reached the top, iii which a small aperture was left, 
and the clay 3craped round the edge ; another coating 
would be laid on as before described. Gravel or loam 
was thrown up against tlie side wall, where the clay 
wrappers were commenced, to secure the bricts and the 
clay coating. The kiln was fired with wood.' In some 
kilns, indeed, has been discovered a layer of ashes foor or 
five inches deep. Other kilus at Sibson, near Wandsford," 
Northamptonshire, exhibited peculiar differences in the 
mode of arranging the furnace. Instead of the usual dome 
of clay and straw, bricks were modelled and kneaded with 
chaff and grain, and made of a wedge shape, interlapping 
at the edges, with a sufficient curve to traverse the circum- 
ference of tlie kiln ; the floor had perforated arc-shaped 
bricks. These kilns appear to have been used for making 
a great quantity of terra-cotta, Samian and stone ware. 
The blue ware is supposed to have been produced by 
smothering tlie fire (or rather smoke) of the ftimace upon 
it when in the kiln, and the colour is so volatile that 
it flies when forced a second time in an open kiln, 
Mr. Artis ha*, traced these potteries in England for twenty 
miles on the gravel banks of the Ncn, in Northampton- 
shire, and tells us that the kilns generally resemble one 
another, consisting of a cylindrical shaft three feet deep, 
four feet diameter, walled to the height of two feet. 
The length of the furnace, which communicated with the 
kiln, was one-third its diameter. In the centre of the 
circle formed by the furnace and the kiln was an oval 
pedestal, the same height as the side, with the end point- 

' Mr. R. Smith, in the JournBl of toL L p, 5. 
the Britiah Arehmalogiiail AsMtciaUoii, ' Same Jounml, IL 166. 


hn's mouth. Upon this pedestal, and upon 

■ the floors of the kihis, formed of perforated 

■ lirks, rested." The furnace itself was arched, 
.I'iijd bricks to form the arch, and the aide 

■tl' curved bricks set edgeways, 

'iiitli mentions a kiln at Colchester, and a por- 

•jf the sun-dried bricks, of wliich the furnace 

sed, was discovered at Colchester in 1819, with 

I'ty vases. The vases stood on circular vents 

' hollow chambers, through which the heat 

' yed to them. Some of the vases, all of which 

Lhe same coarse material, and nearly of the same 

1 size, were less baked than the rest, and broke 

Handled with great care. ' 

■ of the furnaces, which appears to have been used 

■ king the gray Roman ware, was discovered at Caster. 

fuiTtace was quite difierent from those for the black 

only calculated for a slight degree of baking. It 

oval, and measured 6 feet 4 inches in 

i>adth. The furnace holes were filled in the lower part 

'ith burnt earth of a red colour, and in the upper part 

with peat. The exterior was formed of strong blue clay 

> inches thick, and the interior was lined with peat. The 

iersected by lines of the same, and divisions 

Some of the vases were inverted and filled 

'F white sand.^ 

■ 1 //islUla, or pestles for mortars were also 
.■■<l flay,' they were really supports used ia 
i steady vases while baking.* 

L Collect, iL p. 33. 
p. 413, PI. uxW. 



At all periods specimens of immense vases were 
fabricated. The great Roraan araphorre were sometiraea 
as high as two metres, and required two oxen to draw 
them. The enormous dish prepared to cook the gigantic 
turbot presented to Doniitian nmat have been above 
Beven feet long ; ' and another dish, called the ^gis of 
Minerva,* composed of tongues, brains, and roes, must 
have been of the same sizo. Ciampini mentions an 
ancient Roman vase so large that a man required a 
ladder of twelve steps to reach the mouth. 


Martial describes the tiresome man as going about the 
town, and winding up the daj by purchasing two cups 
for an as, or penny, but it ia not certain whether these 
were earthenware or glass.' They were probably worth 
a sesterce or large brass Roman coin, for one of the 
amusements of the fast young Lucius Verus, the colleague 
of the staid Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, was to break 
calices, or cups, with these pieces of money — probably for 

' " Inciilit HBdriaci spstiiim admirtt- Argillatn, atqiie roUmcitins propaHite; 

bile rhombi, .... led oi hoc 

ImplBTitque wdus .... Tempore jam, CKsar, Bgoli tua Ofutr* 

Bed deent pisci patiosj meoanra. .... Bequantur." 

.... Montnuua ait, tcstn aita paretur, — Jurenn!, Sat. iv. S9-41, 73, 131-13S. 

Qiue tmui miiro Epatiosum coUig&t ' Pliny. ^- H- hit- c. xiL IS; 

orbBm. SuotoQ. vit. VitaU. 13. 

Debetur magaua patinoi aubltiisque ' " Asse duos calices omit, et !p*e 

Prometheus. tulit."'— MartiiO, ii. 00. 


two reasons, they were sufficiently heavy to effect their 
purpose, and at the same time paid for tlie damage they 
occasioned.' Juvenal speaks of Plebeian cups purchased 
for a few assea.* PHny states that some tena-cotta vasea 
sold for more than the celebrated mjrrhine vases ; ^ and 
for gigantic proportions of this ware may be cited the 
immense plate made by Vitellius, to bake which a furnace 
was prepared in the open country. It cost him a millioa 
sesterces, or about 8000^. 

One of the great uses of earthenware was for tha 
transport of wine, figs, honey, and other commodities — 
being used in the same manner as casks are at the present 
day. The lagena, or large bottle, was used to hold wine 
or figs, and articles were imported from the African coast 
in the testa. In this manner a preparation from the 
blood of the tunny was sent from the Phrygian Antipolis 
to Rome,* Another vessel for transporting and pre- 
serving viands was the cadus. Martial speaks of cadi 
valicani,^ which are supposed to refer to the wine ; how- 
ever, when he speaks of the yellow honey taken out of 
the red pot,^ he also mentions the red cadus pouring out 
foreign wine.' Vases were also used for religious rites, 
the operations of metallurgy, chemistry, and medicine ; 
but above all for domestic purposes — for the cellar, the 
kitchen, and the table. 

' Jaciebat et nummoB in popiniu * Martial, it, 88. 

maximoB,quibaBciLlioeBlTaDgereL — Jul. * Epigram L ill. S. 

CapiL riL Yeri, ISmo. LugiLBat. 167B, ■ E|iigniin i. Id. " FUvaque do vubn 

p. 103. premore mella codo," 

■ H. H. uzT. 0. 13, 48. 


The feet of tables were also made of this imglazed 
ware,' and one of the jeats of Elagabalua " was to place 
before his parasitical guesta, at a lower table, a course, the 
viands of which were made of earthenware, and make 
them eat an imaginary dinner. 

The gigantic eartlicnware casks, resembling the Greek 
pithoi, were used for holding enormous quantities of wine, 
com, and oil — in fact whole stacks of cellars have been 
found at Antium and Tunis, at Gergovia near Clermont, 
and at Apt in the department of Vaucluse.^ They bore 
marks of the withes by which they were held, or of being 
made from moulds. In various caves aud other places in 
Prance they are mixed up- with fossils,* the supposed re- 
mains of a primitive race. 

It appearsfrom the ancient jurists that it was unlawful 
to remove the gigantic dolia in which the Eomans kept 
their stores of wines in the cellar, for fear of endangering 
the safety of the house.' From the dolia, the vrine, as 
among the Greeks, was put into another vase, probably an 
amphora, and decanted off.* As the amphora had a 
pointed base to fix it more securely into the eai'th of 
the cellar, it was when brought up placed in a tripod 
stand,' which among the poor was of wood but 
among the rich was made of brass or silver. The doUa 
were sunk in the ground, and one of these prodigies 
which was supposed to predict the future fortune 

' Foldtar A^di CuU metiBa milii." 

— MutUl, ii. ztiil 
' Lamprid. vita HsliogiLb. 12iao 
Lugd. 1B32, p. 317. 
> Broagaiurt, Traits, i. 107, 408, 40Q. 
* Ibid. 409. 

' Paullm Monutiiu, Comm. in C^c 
Epist. famiL lib, vii, Epiat. uj 

' Cicoro, de Ckr. Orat, ; 
Epiat. XxzvL ; Pliny, liv. c. IS 

' DonJ, L c p. ]xxiTiii.-liiii 


of the Emperor Antoninus Pius was the discovery- 
above ground of the doiia in Etruria, which had 
been sunk in the earth.' Juvenal represents them as 
deep casks," and as being cemented with pitch, gypsum 
or niud.^ They held twenty amphora;, or forty-one urns. 

The makers of the casks called doIia, and of the larger 
amphoric, were called doliarii ; ■* a term, however, appli- 
cable to all kinds of coarse ware, since the roof tiles were 
also called optts doh'are, while the workmen were called 
Jabriles,^ Makers of smaller vases were styled vascularii,'' 
Jictiliarii^ or urnamentarU.^ 

Largo doIia, with leaden hoops have been found at 
falzano, seven miles from Modena, and at Spilamberto 
one was also discovered broken in fragments, with 
an inscription containing the uame of T, Gavelius and the 
numbers XXX and XX, probably its contents; while 
another of thirty-six amphora; capacity had an inscrip- 
tion and contained a coin of Augustus.^ 

" Bind your casks with lead," says Cato,'" in his treatise 
upon agriculture, and PUny speaks of scraping the hoops 
or making new ones." 

A few rare inscriptions, recording the names of the 
owners or makers of the doIia have been preserved as 
" L. Calpurnius Eros," on the mouth of a cask found in the 

■ " EtmrUi doiia, qun defona fuennt, 
Bupni terrain reperta aunt." — Cnpitoli- 
□lu, VitA AdUiii. PiL a. 1. 

' Sat. Yi. 430, " AlU doIia." 

' S.t. is. fiS. 

' Doai, Iiuoript. p. 289, tab. iL do. 
IT.; BMthc buirutigf with thoiloliauid 

' Jbid. p. Ixxsvj. 

• Qruter. Thes. p. doiliiL 4, 5, 6, 7. 
' Ibid. p. dciliii. 1. 
" Spabn. HimhU. ■. Vl. p. 23S. 
» Bull. 1846, p. BS. 
I" " Delia plumbo Vincite," R.R.30. 
II "Dolia qiuusa aorcire ipaonimquo 
lammu Kabendo purgare." — Pliti7> N, 
H. xviiL 04. 


villa Peretta.' "T. Cocceius Fortunatus," on that of another 
diBcovered in the ruins of BKbiana.' Another large 
vase had "Stabulum P. Actii,"* the Stable of P. Actius ; 
which is, however, certainly not a potter's mark, but pro- 
bably incised by the slave of the stable where it was 
used. Two of these dolia wiii also be seen in the 
gardens of the Villa Albani. They are 
about four feet diameter, and as many 
feet high and about three inches thick, of 
a coarse gritty earthenware, and of a pale 
red colour. 

The Roman amphora) were coarser than 
those made in Greece ; the body more 
globular and less elegant. The clay is 
reddish, and sometimes covered externally 
with a siliceous coating like the Egyptian 
vases. Amphora; were pitched internally 
to retain the wine,* and the mouth was 
closed with clay or else with a bung. 
When of moderate size, they were made 
on the wlieel, the larger like the Greek, 
were moulded. The name of the maker was in a square 
label stamped out of an incuse mould on the handle. 
This name is in the genitive, as Maturi "of Maturus," or 
" of Maturing ; " the word "officina" or "factory" being 

Several amphora? have been found at Rome, and 120 
were discovered in a subterranean cellar near the baths of 

Tattl, S02. 


■ STABVLVM P. ACTII. Doni, »8. 
' Horat. CuTQ. L 20. 3 ; Pliny, N. H. 
T. 20, 27 ; Palladitu, iii. 2*. 
' Seroui D'Agincourt, pi. lii. xkxvL 


Titua, Doni ' has engraved a remarkable one, five Roman 
palms high, holding eight congii, discovered in the gardens 
of tlie Villa Farnese, amidst the supposed ruins of the 
Golden Palace of Nero. On its neck was traced in large 
letters ex cel(la) L(ucii) PureUi GemeUi M(an]ertiuum). 
" Mamertino wine from the cellar of L. Purellu3 
Gemellus." Cicseimlje, " from the estate of Cajseunia." 
The neck of another found on the Aventine hill, now in 
the Kircherian Museum, has inscribed upon it, Fah-iles 
MarceUfE n^Qstree) ad felicitatem — " the workmen of our 
Marcella to wish lier joy." ' It ia supposed to have been 
a present during the Saturnalia. On others found in a 
house at Pompeii were painted, in red and black ochre, 
sucli words as mes. am, xviii., '"the amphora measures 
eighteen';" babcab, 'of Barce,' near Cyrene ; form, 
' Fonniau' ; kob. opt, * best Corinthian' ; rdbb. vet, ' old 
red,' wliicli seem to be the names of the wine deposited 
in the cellar. Other amphora) were marked liqvamen 
orriMVM, ' the best dripping,' or 'grease,' showing for what 
purpose the vessel had been used. On one of them was 
inscribed TvacoLANoN ofpicina scav[ri] " Tusculanum " or 
" Tusculan," opficjna scatjri, " from the manufactory of 
Scaurus." Other letters refer to the contents of the 
amphora, its age or number in the cellar. 

Several which were found in an excavation close to the 
Porta del Popolo, and consequently near the Flaminian 
Gate, in a subterranean chamber, supposed by some to be 
a cellar, contained various materials and objects, such 

' Iiuorip. p. Ixrrii. 

* Doni ; ibid. p. UiivL 

* Ur. FtUtenor, Htueuta 

Antiqnitiei, to). II. pp. TO, T9 ; Bull 
Arch. Nap. il 8S. 



as ivory and bone pins, portions of animals, lamps, 
and fragments. On some of tlieae ampborse were let- 
ters ; and on a piece of terra cotta, probably a tile, was 
stamped,' " from the establishment of Domitia Lucilla," 
a name already mentioned among the tile makers. 

The letters on these amphora; are described by . 
Plautus and Juvenal.' 

The use of amphora) was very various and extonsive 
among the Romans. They were employed at entertain- 
ments, sacrifices, dinners, in cellars and grajiaries, and 
for holding the sand of the bath and gymnasium with 
which the body was rubbed,^ as well as for many pur- 
poses to which the moderns have applied wood and 

AmphorK and other vases, inscribed with the names of 
the consuls under whom they were deposited, were called 
(literates) " lettered,"* or " fictile letters."* aud so were the 
urns which bore the names of the temples to which they 
belonged.^ Two fine glass scyphj, which Nero broke in his 
terror when he heard of the revolt of Galba, had on them 
some verses of Homer,' and on the glass amphora; of 
Trimalchio was inscribed " the finest Falemian wine one 

D'Aginoourt, pL six., flg. v. 

* " Itoque in totis ndibua, 

TancbRD, Utebrai : bibitur, eatur, qunai 

in popiiiB, baud bbcub. 
Ibi tu videaa literataa ficUleu epiBtoIas, 
Pioe aignatos : nomine iniunt cubitutii 

loDgia litaru, 
Ita viOBrionim liabomut nostnc 

delectum (iomi." — PcenuluH, ftot. 
IT. 1. 11, V. 14. 
" Cm bibst Albanis illiquid da moati. 

Setjuii, cujaB pntriaiD, titulumquo 

Delovit multn leteria fuligine toetx." 
-Juvensl, V. 33. 

' Doni. L 0. p. Imvii.-icL 

* Brodteae, Miscell. i. c 3 ; Turneh. 
Advera. L 1 ; BriaeoD. do For. viiL 
715; UluHtr. di uu Toao Italo-Or«c d. 
R. Mas. Borb. 4to, Nnpoli, 1832. 

' PlniituB, Para, a 

« Plau 

I, liudenH, act It 

B. 2, IB. 

' SuetoQ. Nero, 47. 

k S, IT. 


hundred years old." ' A cup of gold had the other names 
of Cicero, with a vetch, instead of Cicero.' 

They are of various sizes, from about two to four, or 
even six feet in height. Tbcir paste varies much in colour, 
from a pale red to a cream colour, like the bricks and 
tiles. It is compact and heavy, somewhat resembUng that 
of the mortaria. 

Like the mortars, they were made either by slaves or 
freedmen ; but the names of the makers of the amphorx 
are distinct from those of the makers of mortars. Tbey 
have been found throughout the ancient limits of the 
Koman empire. 

One of tlie most curious stamps upon these vases is a 
square one, having a caduceua and twelve compartments, 
with symbols and the following inscription : M (arci) 
" Leo the slave of M. Petroniua Veteranus made it." ' 

Sarcophagi, even at a late period were made of the 
same paste as the amphorae — sucli having been found in 
the Koman potteries at Saguntura.* The oh'eitdaria, or 
urns in which the ashes of the dead were deposited, were 
also of this coarse ware, and globular shaped, and were 
used as cases for more precious vases. It will be 
remembered that Cato and Cicero are both stated 
by Varro to have wished to be buried in terra cotta 

Roman amphora; have been found at London, Kings- 
holme, Gloucester, and Woburn,* One of the large 

> " Fkleruum Opimioaum umorum ' Brongmu't & Riooreux, Mu«do de 

centum."— PettOLiiiB, SaL B*. B4»v«s, i. 18. 

' Plutarch, ApopUthegm. p. 20C. • Aroh. ut, Fl. Uix. p. 6US. 
' D'Agiucoort RecuDJI, iiii. 7- 


aiDphorte, containing ashes of the dead and other 
objects was found at the Bartlow Hills.' Another 
remarkable Taso of this ware found at Littiugton near 
Koyston, was apparently a kind of colander, of a cup 
Bhape, and having inside a hollow domed portion, 
perforated with holes, which foimed the letters IN- 


Vessels of terra cotta were extensively used by the 
Roman people, in the earlier days of the republic, for all 
purposes of domestic life,' and the writers under the 
Empire often contrast their use with that of the costly 
vessels of the precious metals then employed. This ware 
appears to have been called " Samian," either because it 
was imported from that island, or because it was made in 
imitation of the ware procured thence. " For the neces- 
eary purposes," says Plautus, " in religious ceremonies 
Samian vases are used ; " * and Cicero repeats that the 
simpuvia and capedines of the piiests weie of the same 
ware.* It appears indeed to have been discontinued even 
for religious rites under the Empire. " Gold," says the 
Satirist, "has driven away the vases of Numa and the 
brass (vessels) of Saturn — the urns of the Vestals and 
Etruscan earthenware." ^ " Wlio formerly presumed to 
laugh at the bowl and black dish of Numa, and fragile 
plates from Vatican HilL" ' And again, " There- 

' Arcti. xxT. PL m "n. p. 30i. 
» Arcli. uvi PI. kIt. p. 8T6, 
» TibDll, I. i. 

< c»pt. II. a 4. 

• I>BN.t.doOr. III. 17. 

• PeniuB, Sat ii. 6 


Simpuviam ritlere Ifnmaj, ntgrumque 

Bt Tada^DO fregilu de raonte patsUaa, 
AuBUB BJTit."— Juvenal, i. tI 341-3. Cf. 
JqtciibI, L 4, XL 19 ; Seueca, Epiit. ST ; 
Tertullijui, ApuL c 25. 


fore then thej placed all their porridge in a Tuscan 

The vases used in sacrifices wore principally of earth- 
enware, and comprised the simpulum ^ or the simpuvium,^ 
a vessel for pouring out wine, or according to some 
the bowl in the shape of a ladle, in which the priests 
washed. The capis capcdo or capedunada* the discus 
and the catinus * or patera, the aquimenarium to wash the 
vessels, or avivla which held the lustral water. To these 
must be added the urna or ttmula, which appears the 
equivalent term of the Greek hydria, or water pitcher, 
and a smiill earthen vessel called lepesta in use in the 
temples of the Sabines.^ 

J'or eating and drinking, fictile vases were only used by 
poor people. Juvenal speaking of hia time says — " no 
aconite is quaffed out of fictile vases." ' But this must ha 
accepted with some reservation, as it is evident that 
fine red glazed ware was used hj the upper classes. 
Thus the celebrated consul Curius is said to have pre- 
ferred his earthenware service to the gold of the Sam- 
nites,* "It is a reproach to dine off earthenware,"' 
says the Satirist in the days of Domitian. This is 
proved by the example of Catus jEUus whom the 
j£tolian ambassador in his consulship found dining off 
vessels of earthenware,'" B.o. 1 69 ; and in the entertain- 

I " Ponebntit jgitur Tuboo fiunta * Pliny, N. H. luilL fiP. 

Oklino ' Vnrro, L. L. 

OmDiB tuDP."— Snt, xl IGP, 110. 7 " Sed nulU nconito bibunUir 

' Varro, iv. 28; SchoL Juvenal, vL riotilitmi.' — Juvoual, SnC i. 26,28; 

311-8. ot ». 30. 

' laidaruB, -a. I ; Ptiuj, K. H. xixt. ' Florus, i. IS. 

12. * " Fictilibua cicnniss pudot."— Juv. 

< Cnpodinn et Qotilea umnB Plinf, lii 108. 

N. H. HIT, 12 ; Ciooro. Tondox. 1. le Pliny, N. H. xiiiii, c 11, SI. 



ment given before the Cella of the temple of Jupiter, 
Q. Tubero placed fictile vases before the giiests.' At the 
entertainment, however, given by Massiuissa, the second 
course was in the Roman manner, served up on silver, 
B.C. 148, which the Greeks had not substituted for earthen- 
ware till after the age of Alexander.' 

In the early times of the Republic even persona of 
wealth used only pottery at their meals, as well as for 
other domestic purposes ; but the increase of wealth 
caused vessels of bronze to be made for many uses 
for which pottery had been formerly deemed suf&cient. 
Under the empire glass was used even by the poor 
for drinking-cups, while the rich disdained meaner 
materials than gems, precious metals, moulded or en- 
graved glass. Earthenware was left for the service of 
the gods, and the tables of the poor. Numerous small 
vessels, especially bottles and jars of various shapes, wliich 
arc found either in graves or houses, seem to show that 
earthenware was employed for the purposes of life. 

It is however difficult, if not impossible, to decide 
whether the various small flat plates, dishes, and bowls 
■which are found, were the paropsis, which is known to have 
been made of red ware, i\ie patina, the patera, the catinus, 
the (jabbata, or lanx, mentioned as made of red terra 
cotta. The trull<E or bowls, were probably made of red 
ware. The patella or plate was made of black ware. 
Martial speaks of "a green cabbage in a black platc."^ 
Some clue might perhaps be obtained to their size from 

' Soneoa, Epiet. 95. TS. republic when be Atr* tbis fact. 

' Athenieiifl, vi. 228, h. It (toes not ' " Nigra cauliculua virena pnlella." 

oppear quite certMnwhotbcrAtbenajua — T. 78,1, 7. 
refers to his own time ur that of tbo 


the descriptions of ancient authors. The catinus waa 
large enough to hold the tail of a tunny.' the lanj^ could 
hold a crab.' Another dish was called sciitula. Speaking 
of the course of a luxurious entertainment. Martial says, 
" Thus he fills the gabatie, and the paropsides, the light 
acutulse, and the hollow lances.' ^ The patina was flat, and 
lield soup,* and was the generic name for a dish, the most 
remarkable example of which waa that made by Vitellius, 
and which has been already mentioned. This was called 
the " marsh of dishes," by Mutianus ;® The wretched 
emperor, when dragged to death, was insulted by the 
epithet oi patinaHus, or dish maker,^ Small vases called 
acelabula, or vinegar cups, which were certainly made of 
terra cotta, probably appeared on the table.' 

The great vessels for holding the wine in the cellar, the 
dolia, and amphora?, have been already fully described. 
Besides the amphorse the cadtis held wine in the cellar. 
The cadus held more than two quadrantes or six cyathi,^ 
and it was hung up in the chimney in order to give the wine 
a mature flavour, especially that of Marseilles." The diota 
held wine,'" The wine was transferred from the cadus 
into a fictile vase called the Jtirnea, but its shape ia im- 
known." Another large vase for holding wine was the 
sirrns, which also held water. 

Many bottles are found iu the coarser kinda of ware, and 

' " Rabrumque nmpleia catinum 
Cauda nsUt thynm.'— Pen. ■. 182. 

' JuT.T. SOi UuiUl, ii. 13. 

' "8iccampIetgib«taa,puopiiduque, 
Et level Bcututu, ouTaaqiia Udcm." — 
MartUl, xL 81, le. 

' Pbadnu. L 2B. 

* Pdmleni p»tinarani, Pliny, N. H., 

" SuotooiuB, Vit» Vitellij, o. 17. 

' AceUboln Gctilin. TertuUiui, Ap> 
log. 0. ixv. 

' Quadi-uitemduplicadeKDioreodOb 
-Marti*], ix. M. 

> Uarltal. X. S6. 

'" Hor. Cor. L B, 

" Varro, L. L. 



were probably used even at table for pouring the wine 
into tbe cups of the guests. The lagena, narrow necked 
bottles, with one or two handles,' when destined for the 
next day's entertainment were sealed by the master of the 
feast with his ring that thoy should not be changed. No 
crater of the Roman times can be identiiied in terra cotta. 
The amophorum^ a large wine pitcher, and the urceus, a 
vaae with one handle,' sometimes made of red ware, and 
the urceoli, or little pitchers, are of frequent occurrence. 
Another vase for holding wine, probably the same as 
the cenophorum, was the acratophorum. The ampulla, 
a kind of jug, was used for bringing wine to table after 
having been duly labelled.* The wine was mixed into a 
crater, and thence transferred into cups.' These vasea 
are probably represented by various terra cotta bottles. 

There are a great number of little cups found in 
different localities, and in all kinds of ware, but chiefly 
in the glazed varieties. These were perhaps known under 
the generic name o( pocula^ "cups," calices "goblets," 
coti/ltE "gills,"' aud scapMa or " boats." * The shapes known 
under the names of cant/iarus,^ carchesion,^" scyphus, and 
rht/ton were rarely if ever made of earthenware ; indeed, 
the pride of the wealthy Romans at tliis period was to 
show magnificent cups of metal embossed by Mentor, Mys, 
and other celebrated masters of antiquity, and hence 
earthenware cups were only used by persons in moderate 

) Ssigiintine 

' SjmpoduB; Aeiiigm. 

1 MarUal,i:t. 10S,refen 

' Jut. Ssl. vi. <26; Po«, v, HO; 


Hor. SatLB, 10». 

' UttrtUl, viii. 71. 

> HartUl, liv. loe. 

' riaut. Stich. V. i, 11. 

' Virgil, Eol. vi. 17. 

Domit 21 : Mttrtdal, vi 3M, xiv. 110. 

i» Macrobina, vi *I. 



circumstances. There were, however, certain cups pecu- 
liarly Koman, their names not like those just mentioned, 
derived from the Greek. Such were the cihoria, in shape 
of the leaves of the colocasia, or Egyptian bean,' the 
cymbia, or milk cupa,'' the nasitei-na, which had three 
handles. Besides these, the guttus, a small bottle used for 
conveying oil to the bath, and which is probably the little 
long-necked bottle, called by antiquarians the lachryma- 
tory, was often made of terra-cotta. The matdla^ or mateUio 
was also made of earthenware, as well as a large vase 
that used to be placed in the highways.* The bascauda, 
imported to Rome from Britain, were probably baskets. 

Several obscure names of vases are mentioned by the 
etymologists and others, as the poll ubr urn, awash-hand 
bason, tho escaria, or vegetable dishes, the obba, which 
was probably a kind of ampulla, being in the shape of 
the helmets of the Dioscuri,^ the o'aiicula, a small goblet, 
the myobarbum,^ in shape of a mouse, the galeola and 
others. Tho pelvis, or pan, is probably the so-catlod 
mortarium ; the sinus, which was also used as a wash-hand 
bason, may be a vase of similar shape, but there is as 
much difficulty in recognising the true names of the 
Roman as of the Greek vases. The dla, or jar, was of 
sepulchral use, and the urna was also adapted to hold the 
ashes of the dead. 

> Porphjrioa in Horat Ep. II. 7. 
' Plby, N. H. 

' Ppraius, T. iia, 

' AoBonluB, Ep, iii, 

" PUoy, K. H. uviil 1. 



It Is not to be supposed tLat all vessels were made at 
one place, for different towns excelled in the productioa 
of their respective wares, which were imported in large 
quantities into Home. Anciently this city was supplied 
with earthenware by the Etruscans and probably by the 
Greeks, as Plautus mentions Samian ware almost as 
Bynouymous with earthenware. Still it cannot be doubted 
that extensive manufactories of vases existed at Rome, 
although they arc only occasionally mentioned. Martial 
speaks of the fragile plates of the Vatican Hill, and 
Horace of the potter's wheel,' as though he had seen it 
revolving. He also speaks of cnps made at Allifa? in 
Samnium. Yet Rome itself does not appear to have ex- 
celled in any of the finer vases, as Pliny, when he mentions 
pottery, does not praise its productions,^ although Numa 
had instituted a guild of potters.^ He mentions eigbt 
principal places of the manufacture ; Arretium or Arezzo, 
famous for its dinner services, which he compares to the 
wares of Samos ; Asia ; Pollcntia, upon the banks of the 
Tanarus ; and Surrentum, upon the eastern coast of the 
Bay of Naples, renowned for drinking cups ; Modena and 
Ehegium which produced the most durable ones, and 
Cuma, already mentioned by Martial. The foreign manu- 
factories were Saguntnm, in Spain, so often praised by the 
same poet ; Pergamus, in Asia ; the island of Samos, 
Erythrie, in Ionia, where two amphoraj of remarkable 
thinness existed ; Trades, Cos, and Hadria. 

' Ibid. luv. 12, 16. 


At a later period the glazed red ware U found dis- 
tributed all over the European limits of the old Roman 
world, and was evidently manufactured at one place 
and exported. 

The services used at a Roman entertainment presented 
the same spectacle as those of persons possessing wealth 
and taste at the present day, to which the potteries of 
Staffordshire, of Sfevres, Dresden, and China, contribute 
their respective portions. The most exquisite enjoyment 
was derived from the contemplation of a variety of the 
products of the human mind and hand, which please by 
their association and improve by their presence. 


The vaulted top of an oven at Pompeii is formed of 
jars, olla, fitted one into another. These ollse are 
about a foot high and six inches wide, of the usual 
ware. The span of the arch is five feet six inches. The 
object of it was to produce extreme lightness and 
dryness, A similar construction occurs at Syracuse ; part 
of St, Stefano alia Rotonda at Rome, and the dome of the 
church of St. Vitale, at Ravenna, built by Justinian, is 
constructed of amphora) and tubes on the same plan.' 

In the chapter Vitruvius has written on the ' Echea,' or 
sounding vases, which were distributed in the Greek 
theatre, he mentions that they were often for economy 
made of earthenware.' The Greeks seem indeed to have 

I N. H. iiY. e. 12, ". 46, 47. tnv. nU. torn. », p. 62-8, 

' Seroui D'Aginoonrt, StorJa dalT ' Vitruvius, v. c viL vol. i. p. 281, k 

Arte. Tav. uiii. torn. i., p. fid. 3m Marioio; Pliny, K. H, iL 112. 


employed both pithoi or casks and lagenaa to maike rooms,^ 
and they were sometimes nsed as in the case of vaults, 
domes, or other elevated erections, for the sake of 
diminishing the weight rather than for augmenting the 
sound.^ Such, at all events, is supposed to be the case of 
the vases found at the top of the wall of the circus of 
Maxentius, at Rome. There is a row of amphorse arranged 
with their necks downwards, and their long axis inclined 
obliquely to the top of the wall. All these are now broken, 
but they show an ingenious method for rendering lighter 
the upper part of the arches which held the wall of the 
seats. Vases are also found used in the construction of 
the Tor Pignatarra, the Mausoleum of the Empress 

> Seneoa, Qunst. Nat tL 19 ; Axis- Rom. Ant. PL iL L ; Winckehnaiixi, Stor. 

totle, ProbL xi. 8. d. Art. iii p. 29. 

' Blanoonius, Descr. del Cirohi, p. 98 ; ' Kibby, Analisi della carta di Roma, 

SoamoiiuB, Arch. Un. yiii 15; Yenutiua 8to. Roma, 1887, III. p. 843. 


riaioa of Roman pottery : Bluck — Gray — Red — Brown — TeHow w 
— Red ware — Paste — Sliapea — Falae Samian — Pasta and abapee — Lunpa of 
Cliristian period— Olln— Gray ware— Uoitaria — PaBte—PelToa— Trull ee — 
Namei of maken — Blaok wore — Plate — Colour — Mods of oi 
— Shapes — Brown wan — Paale — Sbapea — Omamcntnlion. 

Gbeat confusion prevails ia the classification of Roman 
pottery, and each author adopts a system of his own, 
owing to the subject not having been jet studied with the 
necessary minuteness. Many local circumstances, such as 
the claj', firing and manipulation, produced differences in 
the ware. As the scope of this work is not so much to 
follow the technical march of science as to give the Uterary 
and archseologicol results of an examination of ancient 
pottery, it will perhaps only be necessary to take colour 
for a guide, as it is a distinction easily followed. The 
glazed wares, irrespective of their colour, will be reserved 
for a subsequent chapter, 

Brongniart' groups the Roman pottery in the fol- 
lowing manner ; — 


1 Division. — Pale yellow paste, almost white. 

2 „ Dull reddish paste, passing to a reddish 

8 ,9 Oraj, or ash-ooloured paste. 

4 „ Black paste. 

The 1st diyision comprises the jars and amphorae ; the 
2nd division, the Roman pottery of the 1st century ; the 
3rd division, Roman ware later than the 1st century ; the 
4th division, Gallo-Roman ware^ and that of the local 

The system of Brongniart follows the age of the potteries 
more closely than that of Professor Buckman, although 
it must be remembered that the different descriptions of 
ware are found together, and were consequently employed 
simultaneously. Thus, the amphorsB and ollse which fiUed 
the cellar, the bottles in which the wine and other liquids 
were carried about, the lagensB and cadi were of the first 
and second divisions. The so-called mortaria, some bottles^ 
and other small vases were of the third division. The 
jars which covered the ashes of the dead were of the 
brown paste of the second division ; and the cups and other 
bottles out of which persons drank were of red or black 

Professor Buckman,^ who has more recently examined 
the technical qualities of the unglazed ware found in 
Britain, divides them as follows : — 

1 Division. — Black. 

2 „ Gray. 

3 „ Eed. 

4 „ Brown. 

5 „ Palse Samian. 


^ Buckman and Newmarch, Coriaium, p. 77. 


The oiJy objection to tliia division is that it does not 
present tlio vases according to their relative ages, as that 
of Brougniart professes to do. 


Distinguished b^ its coai-ae paste, of a grayish white or 
yellow colour, verging more or less to red. It is to tliia 
division that all the larger pieces of wares belong, such as 
the remains of amphoreo ^ and dolia, or tubs, casks which 
form tlie Monte Testaceo at Rome. These vases were 
made by different processes. Some were turned upon the 
■wheel ; othere, such as the casks, cadi, were modelled 
with the hand, and turned from witliin.' The globes, in 
which the urns and glass vessels holding the ashes of the 
dead, were deposited, were of this class. They appear to 
have been amphorie with their handles broken off. Mor- 
taria were also made of this ware, and it was extensively 
used for long narrow necked bottles with one or two 
handles, probably lageuiB : and trulla), or deep bowls. 

A finer paste of this colour, often of a rosy tint, or 
white and micaceous, was used for making the smaller 
Tases, which arc all turned upon tlie wheel, and are thin 
and light.' They are ornamented with zones, lines, 
hatchings, and leaves, slightly indicated by a dull ochre, 
laid on and baked at the same time as the paste.* These 
vases are often covered with a white coating of a fiat 

' MusdeCBnuni<iue, PI. iv. %2, 3,6. ■ BrungnWt, Traitd, i. 435; Uiu. 

' For »ariou3 fragniBnts of this ware Cor. »iii. G, 10, U. 

fuund witb other ■podmcnn of red ' Arch. xit. PL 14, p. 74. 
Hire, aeo ArcbBologia, riii. PI. fl, 


colour, harder and more equally laid on than in the 
Athenian yases. 

Some of this ware has its paste mixed with grains 
of quartz.^ A subdivision of it is a yery white kind, 
which has been occasionally found in England, con- 
sisting of little jars ; small bottles, paterse, or dishes, 
painted inside with a dull red ornament ; yessels of the 
same shape, painted ; a vessel, apparently a dish, orna- 
mented with red lines crossing and hooked ; and others 
with brown lines. The paste of these is very white, and 
by no means adapted for common uses. They must have 
formed a fine kind of ware for ornamental purposes, such 
as those of the table. 


The largest division of Roman pottery is the red 
ware, as it comprises nearly all the vessels used for 
domestic purposes. It varies in colour from a pale 
salmon to a deep coral — and in quality from a coarse 
gritty and cancellated structure to a fine compact homo- 
geneous paste. The greater part of this pottery is red, 
and without any glaze, and of it are made a great number 
of plates, dishes, bottles, amphorsB, dolia, and jars. It is 
often distinguished by an engobe or white coating of pipe- 
clay, with which the potter has covered the vase, in order 
to give it a neater appearance ; but in many specimens 
this is completely wanting. Sometimes the paste of this 
red ware is mixed with grains of quartz.^ 

The following are the principal shapes of this ware ; 

> Caumont, iiL p. 214. a Caumont, Coura. i. 214. 

BED WARE. sar 

the olla or jar for holding the ashes of the dead ; the 
amphora ; the urceolus or small jar ; vaaes in the shape of 
a. small barrel, one of which was found near Basingstoke, 
and presented to the British Museum hy Lord Everslej ; 
a little bowl, patella, patina, or lanx. Innumerable small 
bottles with a long neck, of a very fine red paste, formerly 
called lachrymatories, but now supposed to bo unguent 
vases, are found in tlie Roman graves all over Europe. 

Many illustrations of this ware may be taken from the 
vases in the collections of the British Museum,' consisting 
of amphorx, and large open mouthed jars, with two 
handles, probably diotts ; conical vases, with a small 
mouth, adapted for holding liquids, perhaps the cadus,^ 
which held fruit or honey ; and lagcn<B, or bottles, and 
bottles with a female head, probably the guttus, painted 
with white ornaments upon a red ground ; a colus, or 
colander, of red ware, from Cissbury, curiously moulded 
at the sides, pierced for straining. Some of these have 
a polish or very thin glaze, and belong to the division of 
glazed wares. A jar with sis holes at tlie bottom, waa 
found at Minchiuhampton, Gloucestershire. 

Of this pale red ware were also made the jars or oU(B 
which held the ashes of the dead, mostly of slaves which 
were deposited in the Columbaria. Some singular lamps 
of this ware are in the shape of the helmet of a gladiator.' 

Specimens of this pale unglazed ware were found at 
Etaples, near Boulogne, with liatched and wreathed pat- 
terns in a very bad style, and apparently of a late age.* 

' Journal, Brit. Arth. Akoc. i. 238. • Joum. Brit Arob. Absoc t. 139, 

' Marlial, V. 18, 3, "Etacubiionibua ' Rouh Smith, Colleotaoejs Vol.L 



In the S^rres Museum are the remains of a Tase or 
cup found at Souaire, near Bourges, made of a reddish 
brown paste mixed with a great number of little particles 
of mica. The exterior is covered with a perfectly black 
coating, with micaceous particles shining through it. The 
polish is owing to the friction the potter has given it 
while turning it. The interior is flat.- Some other speci- 
mens in the Sevres Museum, and fragments of cups and 
bottles, exhibit the same peculiarities.^ This is, however, 
rather a glazed or lustrous ware. 

Another division of ware with a red paste is that called 
false Samian, made of fine red clay, by no means so 
brilliant as the Samian, and covered with a thin coating 
of a red colour, produced by dipping the clay into a slip 
made of sulphate of iron. The subjects, as in the case 
t)f the Samian ware,^ have been impressed from a mould ; 
but they are generally of ruder execution, and more 
indistinct than upon the true Samian. The vases with 
reliefs are, however, often hollowed on the inner side. 
This ware is of a rarer occurrence than the true Samian. 
Specimens of it in the shape of dishes, lances, patinse or 
patella, cups, pocula, cyathi or calices, are found in 
England, France, Germany, the Peloponnese, and the 

Of the very fine brick-red paste the principal shapes 
are the class called mortaria, the inside having small 
black pebbles inserted into it, to grind or pound the 
food ; another is probably the urceolus, or cup of some 
kind ; a third, a guttus, or oil vase ; others are lagenae, 
or bottles. 

^ BroDgniart, TndU, L p. 43i. ' Buckman and Nowmarch, p. 93, 9i. 


Of this fine red unglazed ware, were made a great 
number of lamps in the latter days of the Roman Empire. 
They are long and shoe-shaped, having subjects stamped 
on a flat bas-rehef. These consist of tlie monogram of 
Christ — the great dragon — a fish — alluding to the mono- 
gram iXOTC,' in which was contained " Jesus Christ, son 
of God, the Saviour ; " necklaces of crosses, and other 
objects and symbols. Such lamps were particularly 
common in Egypt, with inscriptions as already cited, 
evidently made for ecclesiastics. 

The ollaj which held the ashes of slaves in the colum- 
baria, are also of unglazed terra-cotta. Tliey are tall 
jar-shaped vessels, with a moulded rim, and a flat saucer-- 
shaped cover. They are humble imitations of the glass 
or alabaster vessels, in which were deposited the mortal 
remains of their wealthier masters. In the Roman 
sepulchres of Britain and Gaul, the ashes of the Reguli 
or chieftains, were also deposited in ollse, or jars, which 
were placed inside a large dolium, or broken amphora, 
to protect them from the weight of superincumbent earth.' 
Near the urns were often deposited several small vessels 
and ditferent instruments. The urns were often placed 
in coffins or coverings of different kinds : one of the most 
remarkable, which was found near Lincoln,' was a sphere 
with an orifice sufficiently large to allow the urn 
to be introduced. Great numbers of these urns are 
found on the sites of the ancient Roman provincial ceme- 
teries, as in the Dover Road. Twenty thousand were 

' Aiolio, p. ]2fl,lB(Dpfrom PuEzuolL > Arcfaesologu, xU., p. 108, PL zit. 

' Wright, Cdt, RomMi, ud Btaoo, T ft 8. 

S80 ROMAN pottery: 

found near Bordeaux.^ An amphora of pale red ware, 
containing a jar, with a Ud of pale gray pottery,' was 
found near Colchester. After the introduction of Chris- 
tianity in the third century this practice was abandoned ; 
when the body ceased to burnt, similar vases, but of 
smaller size, containing charcoal were placed near the 


This ware was made of fine clay, and may be divided 
into two classes. The first of these was made of a kind 
of sandy loam, such as that of the softer bricks made firom 
clays on the border of the chalk formation. Its colour is 
rather light and its texture brittle.^ By many it is 
called stone-coloured ware. This ware was chiefly em- 
ployed for amphorsB, mortaria, and dishes used in cooking, 
which were exposed to the heat of the fire. The small 
pebbles, which some suppose to have been placed inside 
the vessels for the purpose of preventing unequal con- 
traction in baking, others regard as intended to grate the 
com, flour, or meat. The mortaria resemble in shape 
modern milk-pans, being flat and circular with overlap- 
ping edges, and a grooved spout in front, though these 
may be the pelvis or trvila. Most of them appear to 
have been used for boiling, as appears from holes burnt 
through them, or from their having become much thinner. 
This may also be the result of the grinding to which the 
materials placed in them were subjected. They are of a 
hard ware, rather coarse, but compact in texture, and 

» Brongniart, L p. 487. > Mob. Pract. Gteol. Cat p. 88, 89. 

^ Journal Brit Arch. Assoc. L 239. 


heavy. On tiie upper portion inside are the remains of 
the small stones, which some think were introduced into 
the paste in order to render it harder to grind upon.' 
Sometimes ground tile was used, apparently to prevent 
the vessels from shrinking when they were baked. They 
are often impressed with iron scoria. Their colour is 
a pale red, bright yellow, or creamy white, resembling 
stone ware. Some of thera have upon their lips a 
square stamp with a potter's name, hke those upon 
amphorie. These names are generally of persons of 
servile condition, such as Albinus, Aprilis, Catulus, 
Brixsa, Sollus, RIpanua, and Paulus ; but some are 
apparently the work of freedmen, such as those in- 
scribed Quintus Valerius, Sextns Valerius, Quintus 
Valerius Veranius, Quintus Valerius Esunertus. The 
most remarkable are those which read upon one edge 
Jtipanus Tiber J\ecit) Lugudu{)ii) factus, — " Ripanus 
Tiberinus, — made at Lyons." The names of the potters 
are accompanied with the words f or fecit, he made ; of. 
or Officina, the factory ; M. or Manua, the hand ; as in 
the red Samian ware. These mortaria are from 7 to 23 
inches across, and 4 inches high.' They are found in 
France,' England, Switzerland, and Germany. Several 
urns were found at Aosta, and amongst them a mortarium 
inscribed C. Atisius Sabinus.* 

A group, in the Collection of the British Museum, 
exhibits some of the principal shapes of this ware. 
One is a dish, patera, or patella ; others, small bottles, 

' Cf. Buckmu) aod Nawmorch, p. p. \6S, ]ST. 

<. 1 CumoDt, Cou™. PI. uviii. 

' ArliB, Journal Brit. Aroh. Assoc ii. t Uunttori, i. p, 13*, Gg. 3. 



gutti^ for oil or yinegar; an urceuSy found in Moor- 
gate Street, in the City; an amphora, the sides of 
•which are fluted, perhaps to case it with wicker-work 
in order that it might be carried about without breaking ; 
an oUa or jar, of the same ware. A kind of pipkin was 
also found of this ware in France 15 inches diameter 
7 inches high.^ 

The second class of gray pottery is a stone ware much 
resembling the modern Staffordshire, and is supposed to 
have been made out of clays of the same kind. It is 
almost of a stone colour, much heavier than the preceding 
class, and sonorous when struck. It is principally used 
for amphorsD * and mortars ; one remarkable vase of this 
ware found at Castor is in shape of a human head. 

Some varieties of this ware are filled with quartzose 
sand, and covered on the outside with mica.' 


Brongniart describes a variety of tliis unglazed pot- 
tery, which is not only black on its surface, but the 
paste of which is entirely of a grayish black colour, and 
often of a fine black, or grayish-red, internally. It has 
a coating about a quarter of a millifneter thick upon 
the surface, but is without any glaze, however shining it 
may be. It is distinguished from the Celtic or Gaulish 
pottery, which it much resembles, by the fineness of its 
paste, the thinness of its pieces, and the perfect manner 
in which it is made, having been well turned on the 

> Caumont, Cours. xxviii. 5, p. 217. fig. 1, 2. 
* Buckman and Kewmarchi p. 80 ; ' Caumont, Coun. i. p. 214. 

Caumont^ Ck>ur8. i. p. 215, 216, xrviiL 


lathe.' Thia ware varies much in colour, sometimes being 
almost of a jet black, at others of a bluish black, or even 
running into an ashy-gray colour. It is generally glazed, 
but many vessels exhibit no more ornament than a polish 
upon the surface, given by the potter when the piece was 
upon the lathe. 

This ware is distinguished by its colour, which is some- 
times of a jet black, at others of a metallic gray, or eveil 
ashy. As it is generally glazed, a fuller description of it 
will be found under the glazed ware. Sometimes the 
paste is intermingled with micaceous particles, pebbles, or 
shells, which gives it a gleamy colour when broken, and it 
is often covered externally, or frosted with powdered mica. 
■The greater number of vases are evidently native ware, 
manufactured on the spot by Eomans or by Gaulish, 
British, and German potters in the Roman settlements. 
The shapes much resemble those of the red ware, and it 
was chiefly employed for the smaller vases of the table, 
although a few of larger size are found made of it. 

It was principally used for vases for the table, as shown 
in the following shapes : a shallow cylindrical vase, the 
patella, perhaps the nigra patella, or " black plate " of 
Martial ; the cali.t; or a cup ; the small cup, or a jar ; 
similar object ; the ciboria and the olla. The mode of 
ornamenting these vases is peculiar, and resembles 
Gaulish rather than Roman work, consisting of zones, 
hatched bands, and rows of dots, made by moulding little 
pellets and fixing them in squares and circles, or stamping 
hemispherical bosses on the body of the vase. Some 
vases of this ware have a pecuUar ornament, made by 


hollowing small spaces in the sides, and pinching up the 
clay — gi^ng it the appearance of a series of thorns. 
Others have engine-turned patterns. The pattern of an 
urn, from York, is like a series of scales, formed bj 

The ornaments indeed are of the rudest character ; 
consisting of hatched lines, zones, or indented bands, 
raised dots arranged in squares or parallelograms, series of 
spurs imitating the pine cones, or rows of thorns, zigzag, 
and hatched lines, the herring-bone pattern, diagonal 
and crossing bands. 

Four Uttle vessels, found at Binsted, in Essex, illustrate 
some shapes of this ware. One is a candelabrum, or candle- 
stick ; another, a small vase for oil or vinegar, acetabulum ; 
a third, a jar, olla ; two others, small cups, calices. Thej 
were all found in a sarcophagus. Cups of a thin and 
finely moulded black ware have been found at the 
Upchurch marshes. This ware was adapted for useful 
purposes only ; and by the absence of all floral or animal 
ornamentations shows a late character and local fabric. 
It is of the latest period of the Gallo-Roroan epoch. 


Specimens of brown ware of a very coarse style are 
often found among other Roman remains of cream-coloured 
ware, consisting of amphorae, and other vessels for 
domestic use. It is, however, much more common in the 
Celtic and early Etruscan potteries. 

Some ^ amphorae and jugs have their necks decorated 

3 Wright, Celt, Roman, and Saxon, p. 228. 


with the heads of females moulded upon them^ like the 
bottles of the middle ages. Examples have been found at 
Richborough.^ Each is of brown ware, and four and a 
half inches in diameter. 

Many small vases in shape of oilvQ or wide-mouthed 
jars, some with narrow necks and reeded bodies, small 
amphorcB^ double-handled bottles, lagensa, mortars, or pans, 
and cups or ciboria ornamented with tool marks, and 
lamps of this ware have been found in different parts of 

> B. Smith, Ant. Richborough, p. 7i. ' Ma& Praot GeoL Cat p. 84-91. 



Qlased Roman pottery — Samian — Proto-Samian — CruatiB— Bmblemata — Aretiii« 
ware — Qlaze — Polish — Slip — Lead — Salt — Moulds — Composed — Separate 
figures — Ifaster moulds — Dies — Moulds of cups — Stamps of potters — F«ir> 
naces and apparatus — Ornamentations — Use — Repairs — Makers— Nameft— 
Flidse Samian — ^Black ware — Qlaze — Varieties — ^Inscriptions— SiteSi 


The Romans manu&ctured a glazed ware very distinct 
in its character from that of the Greeks, and more 
resembling that of the Etruscans. It must not, however, 
be supposed that all the lustrous wares of Italy were 
ornamented with highly finished subjects, as a very large 
number were entirely covered with a black glaze, which 
was the great characteristic of the pottery of the best 
Greek period, and which became more entirely used as 
the art of vase-painting decayed. On many of the later 
vases too of Southern Italy and other places, modelled 
figures in bas-relief were introduced by degrees, an imita- 
tion of the metal ware, which was rapidly rising into 
fashion ; and these, which are entirely glazed with a black 
lustre, are the nearest approach to the Roman ware. 

There are also certain vases found in Etruria and 
Greece which were apparently made just before the 
Samian of the time of the Roman Empire. They are 
of a fine earth of a pale red colour, and have a slight 

glaze or polish, but their paste is not of the fine lustrous 
red colour of the so-called Samian. They are, however, 
made from a mould, and have in bas-relief friezes and 
other subjects, which imitnted the crmta or detachabla 



The Roman ware is of one peculiar kind, being of a 
bright red, like sealing-wax, and covered, like the Greek 
lustrous vases, with a sihcated alkahne glaze. As most of 
this ware in Italy has been found at Arezzo, the ancient 
Aretium, it will bo necessary first to consider its manufac- 
ture at that place, where it succeeded the black Etruscan 
ware found in the sepulchres of the oldest inhabitants.' 

The potteries of Aretium were in activity during the 
age of the early Ciesars, probably closing about B. c. 300. 
The ware is fine, red, and often unglazed, in which case 
it was formed into hemispherical cups, stamped out of 
moulds, with the names of makers placed on raised tessera) 
on the exterior.' Other fragments found at this place 
resemble the so-called Samian ware. The pottery of 
Aretium is often mentioned in classical authors. " Oh, 
Aretine cup, which decorated my father's table, how 
sound thou wast before the doctor's hand," says Virgil,' 
referring to taking medicine out of it. And Peraius 
subsequently says of the ware of this town, " Behold, 
he believes himself somebody, because supine with Italian 
honour, as an jedile, ho has broken the unjust measures 
of Aretium," * According to Macrobius, Augustus said 
to Maecenas, who was of the Gens Cilnia, and a native 

' DauniB, ii. 425. 

lioDoro BupinuB 

* Arcbawlogia, xxvLp.2S4; Tiii. p. 8; 

Frcgenit heminu AretilediliH ioiquiiB." 

Deniii«,ii. p. 422-428. 

— Pcnius, Sati. m.l45. 

> "ArDtine ealix, menus ditconte 

Sohol. Ann. Comuti: "Quodmoniit 

patera is, 

digniutem tcdilitiam in diriuo oppido 

Auto mnnuB raeilici quam bane siuius 

eiUB."— Virgil. 

• ■' Sof Illiquid credens, Ilnlo quod 

ubi aunt Arotinn vosa." 


of Arezzo,' " Pare tbee well, oh, honey of families — oh, 
little honey pot, Etruscan ivory, Aretine gum, diamond 
of above, pearl of the Tiber, emerald of tlie Cilnians, 
jasper of potters, beryll of Porseua, &c.," in which 
some see an allusion to the i-ed ware of Arretium, 
his native city. We find the vases of Arretium men- 
tioned by ilartial,' who flourished from the reign of 
Domitian to that of Nerva. " Thus," he says in a meta- 
phor, " the vile Champaigne cloak, with its greasy ex- 
terior, contaminates the gay scarlet dresses of the city — 
thus the ware of Aretium violates the splendour of the 
crystal cup, and thus, as when perchance, on the banks 
of the Cayster, a black crow is laughed at when wan- 
dering amidst the swans, one of which charmed Leda." 
Pliny, speaking of this ware, says,^ " In sacrifices amidst 
all this wealth libations are not made from myrrhine or 
crystalline, but from earthenware simpuvia." " The 
greater part of mankind," says the same autlior, " uses 
earthenware. Samian ware is even now used for food. 
Aretium, in Italy, has also the pre-eminence." Isidorua 
says,* "Earthenware vases are said to have been first 
invented by Samos, made of clay, and hardened in the 
fire. Afterwards it was found out how to add a red 

' "Vale, mel gentiuin, melcuU, ebur 

ex Etrurla, lawr 
Arottuum, kdaouu aupeniuB, Tiberinum 

Cilaiorum smftragdo, jupii Sgulonim, 

PoreenD) ; larbuacullun h«beM." — 

I ioMrpDS 


H villoCO 

Sic Aretina) Tiolsnt crjitaUinm teste, 
Sio nigeriaripiBorratciim forte Cay dlri 
Inter Lcdvoa ri<letur cnrrui oloras." 

artial, i. G4. 

Bpemas tii 
l^utuB erat TbuicU Fcneua fietUibtu. 
— lir, 08. 
Pliny, N. H. kmy. o. 12; 

I. i. 

* Isidonu, 11.20; 

X 610. 


colour." Aretine vases are so called from a town 
in Italy, where they are made. Sedulius says of them, 
" the herbs which are brought iip served on the red 
pottery." These vases are mentioned in a MS. written 
by S. Ristori, of Aretium, in a. d. 1282, and also by C. 
ViUani, in his History of the World.' Alessi, who lived in 
the time of Leo. X., describes the discovery of red vases 
of Arezzo about one mile from the city. Vasari " states 
that in A.D. 1484, his grandfather found in the neigh- 
bourhood three vaults of an ancient furnace,' In a. d. 
1 734, Gori,* who had not seen any of the vases, repub- 
lished the lists of Alessi. Rossi, who died a. d. 1796, 
had collected more information.* Fabroni ^ found in A. D. 
1770, potteries at Cincelh, or Centum Celiac, with the 
different implements used in the art. The clay of tlie 
colour of umber was also found there, and the furnaces 
formed of bricks. The clay is supposed to have been 
decanted from vat to vat, and the vats were lined with 
pottery, and provided with canals for the introduction of 
water. According to Rossi the vase was first made upon 
the wheel, and before the clay was quite dry the orna- 
ments aud figures were impressed with metalhc stamps. 
The vases were made in moulds, which were oiied, and 
then had the clay pressed into them. They were com- 


' Iiibro delk eompi 
moado; Qori, Difew iluU' Alfabeti 
BtruMO, p. 2 OS, pref. 

~ r. 9, cnp. 47. 

' Fkbroui, Stom degli Aiitichi Vui sopra J di largboz: 

e gli utensili dell' arte. Tiddo ohe le 
fonmci erana coniitruite in quadro tit 
duo broccia tOacaDa di lato cod pic- 
coliaslmi mnttoni lungi { di bracoio 

Gttili Arotiui, 6va. Arczno, 1841. p. 1. 
Vite doi Pitt. Komft, 1769, t. i. p. 33fi. 

' Pref, alia Dif. dell' Alt. Etr. 

' Fabroni, p. 21. 

* " TrOT<> Id furaacL i trogoli o vasclii 


gli parvi cacavala paca piu i 
delle Cibrlobe ed i ' 
colore dolltt tflcre d'oinbro." — Fibroni, 
p. 22. 


pleted upon the wheel, and when the inner part had heen 
thus perfected, are supposed to have been first baked and 
then coated with the slip or glaze, and returned a second 
time to tlie furnace. From one of the moulds in tlie Rossi 
Museum having the name of the potter, Antiochus, the 
freedmau or slave of P. Cornelius, vases have been made 
exactly hke the ancient ones. The moulds in which the 
vases were fabricated were made of the same clay as the 
vases themselves, but less baked, without any glaze, and 
about one inch thick. They were composed of separate 
parts, so as to take to pieces, and had traces of some fat 
or unctuous substance employed to prevent the adhesion 
of the paste.' A terra-cottn mould, terminating in a 
tragic mask was also found, and some instruments. Part 
of a potter's wheel was also discovered, and most resem- 
bled that in use at present. It is composed of two discs 
or tables, both placed horizontally, of unequal diameter, 
haviug a certain distance between them, and their centre 
traversed by a vertical pin, which revolved. The wheel 
found was apparently part of one of the discs. It was 
made of terra-cotta, about three inches thick and eleven 
feet in diameter, circular, with a grove all round the 
border. Round this vase a kind of leaden tire, held firm 
by six cylindrical spokes of the same metal, placed inside 
the discs. These cylinders, about half a foot long, one 
foot three inches in diameter, came beyond the circum- 
ference of the disc, and gave it the appearance of a plate.' 
There waa no mark of any pin in the centre, so that it 

' Fabronl, p. 92, 63. Prof. Bucknan p. 82-8G. 
A Mr. Neviuarcb, ItemBiiis of Romaa ' Fobrooi, (av. tii. 9, 10; v. 7, 8, I*, 

Art Id Circoooater, Ito, CiraocMtar, p. 64. 



must have formed part of the upper disc, called by 
potters the table, which Ues upon a support of under 
clay, and enables the potter to fix the paste and to 
form it with the hands during the revolutions of the 
wheel.' Tlie glaze of these vases, both black and red, 
have been found difficult to analyse. It is not, however, 
produced by lead, hut apparently by a vitreous flux.* The 
vases were baked in furnaces, like those used at present 

Considerable difference of opinion exi-sta with respect to 
the varnish of these vases. By some it is stated to be an 
alkaline glaze,^ by others a glaze of a metallic nature, while 
■water alone is said to be sufficient to produce the polish. 
The glaze is not so strong or compact as that of porcelain 
or majolica, so as to be incapable of infiltration, yet is 
sufficiently strong to resist the action of wine, vinegar, 
or oil, although hot, and is not altered by these liquids. 
It is said to leave traces of having been produced by a 
brush, which looks as if a slip had been laid on. These 
vases seem to have been used for the table to hold fruits 
and liquids, and for medicine, and sacrificial purposes.* 

The two collections of Aretine vases at Arezzo are that 
of the Museo Eossi Bacci, and the puhhc one of the 

' Fabroni, L o. 04. 
' Fabroni, L c 6fi. 
• TraiW, 1. p. 41*. 

' Fftbroni, 1. e. p, 65 ; CE Prof. Buck- 
nan k Menmarcb, Rcmiuiia of Romui 
rt in Cirencnter, Ho. CirDUceater,p, S5. 


city. The diacritical marks of this ware are a paste of 
a red coralline colour, pale when broken, and of a red- 
dish yellow under the fracture, which does not become 
redder when subject to a red heat, but falls upon friction 
into an orange red calx. The vases are coated with a 
very shght glaze, which is levigated and always of a red 
coral colour, occasionally black, and verging towards 
azure, sometimes iron grey, or with a bright metallic 
lustre,' They are principally of small size and orna- 
mented with bas-reliefs, of a decorative nature, not 
mythological, and in accordance with the later subjects of 

Ho. lK^P«liii» Qf A 

igWWB. DriUikU 

Roman art. They are generally Hght. The prevalent 
form of the vases is that of a tea cup without hamlles, 
apparently the calix of Virgil, and these when ornamented 

' FabroDi, L c. ii. p. 32, et H04. 


with bas-reliefe, have rarely the name of any potter ini- 
pressed upon them. When a name does occur it is on 
a tessera, and in bas reUef. 

Flat circular dishes, patellae or lances also appear to 
have emanated from this pottery, together with larger 
urns, some for cinerary piu"poses, square tiles, bas- 
reUefe, and lamps. ^ None of these pieces were, however, 
of any size, while the smallness of the furnaces prove 
that large vases could not have been baked in them. 
The subjects are disposed as fiiezes, but more often 
mixed up with architectural ornaments, such as scrollsi 
egg and tongue borders, and columns with spiral shafts 
and festoons. The subjects appear to be Hercules and 
Hylas, Bacchic orgies, Cupids, combats, chaces, dances^ 
candelabra, masks, gladiators, females, horses, dolphins^ 
dogs, goats, serpents, sphinx, lions, and panthers, in a 
style resembling the Roman art at the best period of the 


Many vases have the potter's name impressed in bas- 
relief with a metallic stamp in Roman letters, often inter- 
laced in ligatures, a3 on the consular coins. In the plain 
ware these are usually inside at the bottom of the vase, 
but in vases with bas-reliefs they are more often intro- 
duced amidst the foliage and ornaments. The letters are 
often surrounded with a mere square or tessera. Some- 
times they are impressed in a human foot, probably in 
allusion to the treading out of the clay. The inscriptions 

^ Fabroni, L c. 38. 


show that the vases were principally made by slaves, who 
placed their names upou their work, sometimes followed by 
that of their master, the proprietor of the estate. One 
person named Publius seems to have employed several 
slaves. Another, Aulua Titius, calls himself an Aretine 
potter ; and L. Tettius, stamped L. Teitii Sattiia, proving 
that this ware had been imitated from the Samian.' 

Three lists are given by Fabroni, the first of which, 
consisting of names with pra;nomena, contains the free 
citizens, or freedmen, who were proprietors of estates, 
or who worked the potteries ; the second is that of the 
slaves whose pi-oducts were sufficiently good to be im- 
pressed upon the ware, or who may have sold it foe 
masters who were too proud to exercise the craft in their 
own name. The last list contains the inscriptions exactly 
as they appear on the vases. 

Vases of red ware, similar to those found at Arezzo, 
have been discovered in the vicinity of Modena, having 
the names of the potters Camurus, Eutychius, L. Gellius, 
Herennius, Occa, Philadelphus, Sanus, and Villas, and 
othei-s. This circumstance has given rise to the hypothesis 
that the so-called Aretine vases were made at Modena." 
Similar vases are said to have been found at Vulci, bearing 
the inscription Atrano,^ and at Cervetri, with the names 
of the Aretine potters, C. Vibianus Faustus, L. Gellius, 
Aulus Titius Figulus,* and another. 

In the Gregorian Museum are three cups and one jug, 
called in the description of that collection Aretine ware, 

> Fabnmi, p. 41. lU; 1S3B, p. 12B-13I. 

- Cavedoni, Dichiaruzione du mamii ' Bull 1836, p, 171. 

Hoileneu, 1828; Kograpliia de Cav. • Bull. ISSO, p. 233; 1S34. p. 103, 

Zaumo, 1835, p. *{H1 ; Bull 1837, p. HB ; 1837, p. 108 ; 183S, p. 20. 



apparently of the red unglazed terra-cotta ware there 
found. On the cups are large acanthus leaves, egg and 
tongue ornaments, goats, and a race of dolphins. On the 
jug are four bands of fleurettes and festoons, artificial 
ornaments, and dolphins and anchors repeated. On one 
cup, with Cupid and other ornaments, is the name of the 
Koman maker, C. Popilius.' 

In the Museo Borhonico, at Naples, are several specimens 
of this red ware, which is found in abundance at Capua, 
and amidst the ruins of the houses at Pompeii. Some 
specimens in Sir Woodbine Parish's collection, procured 
at Naples, were of finer make and ware than those found 
out of Italy, One had the name of L. Favor, 


A ware exactly hke that of Arezzo, called by some the 
red Roman ware, and by others Samian, distinguished by 
its close grain composed of a fine clay, and presenting 
when broken, edges of an opaque hght red colour, whilst 
the inner and outer surface are quite smooth, and of a 
brighter and darker red, is found in all places of the 
ancient world to which the Roman arms or civilisation 
reached." It is distinguished from tlie Aretine by its 
darker tone, stronger glaze, and coarser ornamenta- 

Possibly, the whole passage of Pliny,^ in which he 
speaks of the earthenware of his day, refers to this 

■ Mua. Etr. Vat iL oil it. p. 1-20, 

' Buebmaa & Nenmarcli, p. 84 ; ■ N. H. ixit. 45, 

Roich Smith, Joum. Brit, Arcli. Aabdc 


red ware. Thus for dishes he praises the Samian, and the 
Aretine ware, for cups, that of Surreutum, Asta and 
PoIIentia, Saguutum and Pergamus. Tralles and Mutina 
had their manufactories. Cos was most esteemed, 
Hadria produced the hardest ware. That one of these, 
that of Saguntum, was a red ware, is clear ; that of 
Cumae was also of the same colour. "The chaste 
Sibjl has sent thee her own burgess, a red dish of 
Cuman earth," saya Martial." Cups also were made at 


That the red ware is found amidst the dense forests of 
Germany and on the distant shores of Britain, ia a 
remarkable fact in the civilisation of the old world. It 
was apparently an importation, being exactly identical 
wherever discovered, and is readily distinguishable from 
the local pottery.' No question has excited more contro- 
versy among antiquaries than the place where it was 
made. Samos, Aretium, Rome, Modena, Ancient Gaul, 
and Britain ^ (into which, however, it seems to have been 
imported) have been supposed to be the sites of its manu- 
facture. It belongs to the class of tender lustrous pot- 
tery of Brongniart, consisting of a bright red paste like 
sealing-wax, breaking with a close texture, and covered 
with a siliceous, or, according to some, a metallic glaze. 
This glaze is exceedingly thin, transparent, and equally 
laid upon the whole surface, only slightly augmenting the 
colour of the clay. The vases made of this ware are 
generally of small dimensions, and consist of dishes, 
lances or patina;, of an oval or flat circular shape, hke 


modern salvers, of small bowls, apparently for holding 
small quantities of viauds, perhaps patorEe/and generally 
hemispherical or cylindrical, and of little cups either of 
globular or of conical shape, probably pocula, and of jugs 
or larger vessels. The ware is generally plain, and im- 
pressed with the name of the potter from whose factoi-y 
it emanated, and it will be seen from the list of pottei-s' 
names, that these were slaves, or at best Uborti, and 
that many were of Gaulish or British origin. 

Ifo. IK.— aboiinm of Rad BamUui 

The Samian ware from its pecuhar paste was more than 
usually brittle. In the Meniechmus ' of Plautua, the fol- 
lowing dialogue occurs ; ' 

" M. Knoch gCDtlj. 

" P. Are you afraid the doore are Samian." 

' Menmcbmua, I. i. 65. 

In another play, the Bacchides,' of the same author, the 
following passage is found : 

" Take care, pr'ythee, lest any heedleas one touch that ; 
Tbou knowest bow aoun a Samian vaae wilt break." 

The moat remarkable fact connected with tliia ware is 
the great similarity of its paste in whatever place it may 
be found, which renders it probable that the ware was 
made upon one spot, and imported throughout the empire. 
Brongniart inclines to the idea tliat the potters did not 
import their paste prepared, but levigated a colourless 
clay of the locality, and produced the usual red colour by 
the introduction of ochre.' 

The colour of this ware, which was made of a clay 
like the red ware, was owing to the more perfect oxidation 
of the iron contained in it, and it was probably baked in 
open kilns or fire-pans. The glaze or lustre is 8Up[>oaed 
to be owing to a polish given to it when upon the wheel.' 
The analysis of Brongniart * shows that the paste of these 
vases consists of 56 — 64 silica, 2o — 17 alumina, 7 — 10 ox. 
iron, .0 — 2 carb. lime, 2 — magnesia, 18 — 2 water, while 
the glaze consists of 64 silica, 11 '0 ox. iron. Dr. Percy's 
analysis is 54-45— 6067 silica, 2208 — 20-9(; alumina, 
7-31- 595 peroxide of iron, 9-76- 6-77 lime, 1-67- 1-22 
magnesia, 322 potash, and 176 soda.* 

> Act n. il. 22, 23. 

' BrongtiLut, Tniti!, i. p. 133. 

' Buckman uid Hswrnnrub, [i. 78, 79. 


The glaze of these vases is stated by the French anti- 
quaries not to be metallic, but produced by some sub- 
stance laid upon them after they wore ready for baking. 
The portions not covered with reliefs are stated to have 
been pohshed ' upon the lathe, and the bas-reliefi them- 
selves were in certain instances retouched with a tool, 
which left a furrowed line round them.' The colour of 
the vases, however, may have been owing to the introduc- 
tion of an oxide of ii-on, and the difference of the ex- 
ternal colour appears to depend mainly upon the paste. 
When heated in the fire, they become a deep claret 

As there are no traces of any pencil being used to 
apply the glaze, Brongniart thinks it most probable that 
the vases were dipped into a slip which held it in suspen- 
sion.* A similar glaze, however, could probably be ob- 
tained by the apphcation of salt thrown into the furnaces 
during the baking, in the same way as now practised at 
Lambeth for stone ware. 

The pieces of this ware were made upon the wheel by 
which the slopes, fillets, mouldings, incised rings, or bands 
were produced. Moulds were employed, sometimes of an 
entire piece, in which case they were made by punching 
the requisite ornaments upon the mould itself from 

■ Cf, also on tbis ' 
de 111 Vincelle, AntiquiM 
dans lea jordiiu du poll 

' Csumoat, Coura. p. 208. 

> Ibid. p. 209. 

< Brcmsmart, Traits, L p. 433. 


matrices, or master moulds. Sometimes many separato 
moulds, representing the same or different subjects, were 
adjusted togetlier to complete the decoration of the cir- 
cumference of a cup. The engrailed lines and smaller 
ornaments were made by means of a circular or revolving 
mould of terra-cotta or metal,' but the larger ones, such 
as the egg and tongue moulding, were effected by a punch 
or seal, with a long handle,* the part on -which the orna- 
ment is incised being concave, to correspond with the 
convex surface of the vase. The same process was 
adopted for the figures in the centra! groups,^ and the 
more salient parts were separately stamped and placed 
on the vase while the clay was wet, as is very evident in 
some reliefs of vases of Aretine ware. Names of 
potters were also impressed from stamps of terra-cotta or 
metal.* The last mode of fabric consisted in laying 
upon the general body of the vase some clay in a very 
viscous state, technically called barhotine, either with 
a pipe or a little spatula in form of a spoon, and with 
it following out t!ie contours of the branches of olive or 
laurel, animals with thin Umbs,* &c. On some specimens 
an omameut had been modelled with a white paste. 
Separate figures, crustce, were also made in moulds, 
and then placed on the body of the vase, one of 
the finest specimens of which is an Atye, in the York 

' Brongniart, Traitc', i. <3i, PL iii. ' Brongukrt, p. «26; Oolbart t 

3. A. Schweigbauier, Hem. do la Boo. dcs 

' Brongniart, 1. c. F, i. A. B. Antlq. tie Franco, t. viL PL liiii. ; 

' BroQgnisrt, Lp. 424, PL ui. F. 3, Caumont, Coura d" Anliq. t. ii. p. 

A. lec, 

• WrftnloTod, AoUiitiitie* of York- 
ihirc, PhiL Soc 1862, p. CO. 


Another mode of ornamentation visible on some pieces 
found in the north of England, consisted in scooping out 
wreaths, and cutting out fau'shapcd patterns in intaglio, 
"with a tool on the clay, while moist, tlie parta dug out 
being removed frora the plain surface, as shown by the 
horizontal stripea.' 

A master mould, formerly in Mr. Hertz's possession, 
and presented by him to the British 
Museum, pyramidal in shape, and convex 
at the base, has aslight bas-relief of a yonth 
standing full face with some drapery thrown 
over his left arm. At one side is OFFI 
LIBERI, " the pottery of Liber," stamped 
incuse, probably as a preservation against 
theft or removal from the premises. This 
die was apparently arranged with otiiers so 
as to form a pattern, and it was then 
"Mmlu o7 ""^r stamped into the sides of a convex vessel 
fashiuned like one of the cups or dishes, 
but without tlie foot, which in some instances appears to 
have been subsequeutly added. This original die is of 
rather a fine terra-cotta, and was found near Mayence. 
A similar mould, presenting a tragic mask, was found at 
Arezzo or Arctium.' Other moulds iu the shape of a 
hare and of a lion, inscribed with the name of CEEEALIS, 
a well-known maker of red ware, are in the Museum of 
Sfevres, one, in the shape of a wolf standing, baked almost 
as hard as stone ware, has on it the name COBENERDVS.* 

' WelSbelaved. Dowriptivo Mcoii 
of AntiquiUea of Torkabire, PhiL S 
Svo. Tork, p, 52, 1. 2. 

' Fabroni, T»v. t. -i. 
' Brongniart, Tnitd. 1. e 
Senet, p. 10. 


Some moulds for this purpose of tlio Roman porioil 
have been found, and the process is of common use at 
present. It was particularly desirable in cases where orr 
namcnts in high relief were required for the eniichraent 
of red or black wares. A fragment with a draped figure 
from tlio mould of Liber, already cited, was found at Ciren- 
cester,' Another mould of a vessel was found near 
Mayence. It is 

trices like those already described ; the pattern is coarse, 
and represents a series of animals, consisting of a dog or 
wolf, boar, and lion pursuing each other. The paste of the 
clay when kneaded to a due consistence, was pressed into 
and formed a bowl ; the foot was probably afterwards 
formed of a separate piece, and added. This matrix vase 
was made of a very fine bright red clay, rather light, and 
not glazed. In this respect it differs from the mould of 
the lamps already mentioned, whose paste was of a bright 
yellow colour. It was very porous, rapidly absorbing the 
moisture, and so, easily dehveriiig the clay to the potter like 
the plaster of Paris moulds now in use. At Arezzo similar 
moulds, for other vessels of the Roman red ware, have also 
been found. Those of the lamps are mentioned with tha 

■ Bucfcoiaii Jt Newmanib, p. 02. 



lamps. Besides these moulds, metal dies or punches were 
used for stamping intaglio ornamentB, such as fieurcttes and 
other mouldings, on some rare examples of Samiati ware.' 

Dies for stamping the potters' names upon these vaaes 
were discovered at Lozonx,' in Auvergne, and in Luxem- 
bourg,' together with parts of other moulds for festoons 
and the tassel pattern,* and for making vases.* They 
had the names of the potters, Auster and Cohnertus,* and 
another, with a potter's name, was made of metal.' 

Modelling tools, styles, punches, and other httle instru- 
ments of bone or ivory, have been found amidst the 
remains of the ancient potteries.* 

The mode in which these vases were baked is shown 
by fiirnaces found at Chitelet, in Auvergne, on the banks 
of the Rhine, ui the vicinity of Strasburg ; at Heilegen- 
berg, near Milz, and also at Ittenweiler. The furnaces near 
Heilegenberg were evidently for the baking of red Roman 
waj-e. " The flue," says Brongniart, " is a long canal, 
with vaulted arch, the mouth of which is 8 feet 2^ inches, 
from the space where the flame and heat were concentrated 
beneath the laboratory. Numerous terra-cotta pipes, 
of two different diameters, branched off from the upper 
part or floor of that chamber, to distribute the heat ; 
the smaller ware in the outer wall of the laboratory ; the 
larger, twelve or fifteen in number, opened under the 6oor 

■ R. Smith, Ant. Richborongli, PI. 
It. p. 73. 
' BrongnUrt, Treitfi, i, p. 424. 
' OrivBud de 1& Vincelle, 1801. 
' Brongnurt, Tnit^, PI. xxz. 2, 3, i. 

' Ho«:hStiiiCh,CullflctaD<».Tol.i,iai. 
" I)rtniguiart,MuBfeCerBiaique,ia.l9. 
' Broiigniart, TmLW, i. p. iH. 
' BroQgukrt, Mui. dc Sivrea, p. 16. 


of tlie laboratory, to conduct the heat and flame round 
the pieces which were placed there. The mouths of the 
pipes were sometimes stopped with terra-cotta stoppers 
so as to moderate the heat. The upper part, or dome, is 
uever found entire, and is supposed to have been destroyed 
and replaced by the superincumbent earth. Walla of 
strong masonry separated and protected the space between 
the mouth of the flue aud the walls of the observatory. 
The floor of the latter was made of tiles, or large squares 
of terra-cotta. Fifteen such furnaces were found at 
Ehetnzabern, some round and others square, but all con- 
structed on the same general plan. These fiirnaces were 
found at the deptli of 2 feet 4 inches, under the ancient 
soil, and more than 3 feet 3 inches above the modem 
transported soil. The floor of the laboratory was nearly 
3 feet 3 inches below the upper edge of the walls ; a kind 
of tile roof covered it. The brick work was made of masses 
of clay, 2 feet 4 inches long and 1 foot 4 inches broad and 
thicL The pieces which supported the floor of the 
laboratory were in some of these furnaces made of bricks, 
covered with a coating of clay,' The fuel was fir or deal. 
The pieces placed in the furnace were carried on sup- 
ports or rests of terra-cotta, in shape of a flattened 
cylinder, and kept up by pads of a peculiar shape, made 
by the person who placed the vases in the furnace, by 
roIUng up a piece of clay in shape of a rolhng-pin, and 
squeezing it together. These are the pieces erroneously 
called hand-hncks. The pieces have no cases, as tliey 
were not necessary to prevent adhesion.' 

I Brodgaiart, Tnili, I. c. p. *31> ; PL iii. T, A. B, C. 
' BroDgnkrt, i. UV i Sluw, Pottai'y, 1831), p. SOO, nobi. 



The scrolls wliich ornamented the upper part of tbe 
bowls made of this ware are of exceedingly elegant 
device, though clearly architectural in their treatment, 
and are generally varieties of the tendrils, flowers, leaves, 
and fruit of the grape or ivy.' Sometimes the upper 
parts of the bowls are ornamented with an egg and 
tongue moulding, and the scrolls have often flgures of 
little birds introduced into the composition, in arabesque 
style. Tbe ani- 
mals and other 
figures consist of 
isolated groups 
iutroduced at 
intervals into 
the outer sur- 
face of the vase. 
They are sepa- 
rated by bead-- 
inga, and are often in niches, formed of pillars with 
twisted shafts, surmounted by arches, or in medallions. 
These are clearly intended for representations of statues, 
and other embellishments of pubhc edifices, as they 
appeared at the time. Repetition was the object chiefly 
sought, and as, in the decadence of art, the ornaments 
occupy much surface in proportion to their importance. 
They consist of scenic masks, garlands, rosettes, foliage, 
astragal mouldings above and below, the egg and tongue 

cnt«d witb IrabHquci 


mouldings above, scrolls of flowers, in which birds are 
pecking the foliage and fruit ; friezes of animals, consisting 
of lions, goats, hares, rabbits, and deer ; or insects ; among 
birds, pigeons, eagles, and crows, medallions and other 
architectural ornaments.' The subjects are not arranged 
on a continuous frieze, but generally consist of one or 
two friezes, rarely more, repeated several times round the 
body, and intermingled with the foliage.^ The subjects 
consist of the Gods, Cupids, Genii, Venus, Hercules and 
his exploits, Gladiators, the Circensian games, and erotic 

Some of these fragments are clearly as late as the 4th 
century, as the costume and style of art of the subjects 
resemble that prevalent at the close of the Roman empire.* 
The subjects are taken from the Roman school of art, 
from the statues which adorned the Circus, the Forum, the 
Triumphal Arches, the Thermae, the Basilicas, and the 
houses of the wealthy. They resemble in their treat- 
ment the reverses of the Roman medallions,* except that 
they bear indications of being entirely influenced by 
architectural considerations. 

It is evident that the ware was for use and not deco- 
ration, its solid character and glaze adapting it for that 
purpose. Many of the flat dishes were undoubtedly the 

■ BrongDiart, Tniit^, PL ui. ; llaa6e CaUeoUue*, i. p. 165. 

Caramique, PL viiL is. > Cf. for (uunple, the fmgmeut 

' Cwimont, Court. PI. xiiiL xur. ut. fgunJ nt Hartlip, K.Smith, CoUectauM, 

iiri. xrnL i B. SmvUi, CoUwilaoea, L vol. il. p. i. p. 12 ; SABINI. M. 

P-ISG. ' Juuran, luKr. 4Ui, Lugd. 1S12. 

' CBumaBt,Cauni.u.p.200iR.8iaitb, Tab. luL 330, 


lances or paropsidea used at eDtertainments,* others are 
supposed to have been the mortars used in the kitchen or 
at the apothecaries.^ It is not known to have been em- 
ployed for cinerary purposes, although often placed in 
tombs to contain the objects deposited with tlie dead.^ 
The observations made upon the Aretmo ware apply also 
to this. Yet, however common in Rome, it was a cora- 
parativo luxury in Gaul and Britain, though it is found 
in those countries wherever lloman settlements occiir.* 
That it was common at Rome appears from Martial : " If," 
says he, " ye have enougli to eat, a few white beans dressed 
in oil, upon a red plate, refuse the entertainments of the 
wealthy." * The most striking point in the decorations of 
these vases is their resemblance in the adoption of arabesque 
forms to the mural paintings. When fractured this ware 
was repaired ivith leaden rivets,* which shows the estimation 
in which it was held. It was equivalent to our domestic 
porcelain, with a tender paste. 

The shapes are few ; all the vases are wide and open- 
mouthed, and of small proportions. Those of the largest 
dimensions are the dishes, paropsides, lances, or paterte, 
ornamented with a tendrilled leaf, intended for that of the 
ivy or the vme. These are probably the lances pampi- 
nataj, or hederatse, dishes with grapes, or ivy leaves, such 
as Claudius received from Gallienus. Some rare dishes, 
with spouts like the mortaria, and bowls with lion-headed 
spouts, are knovra ; occasionally some of the paterje have 

' Gkumont, Coim, ii. p. 1 89. 

' "SUpumetnibtftcoDchiBlibipallidB 

utorum i- fnnJB Bcepe Dognre potes. — 
ii,7. 1. 
" Birch, ArclitEologia, m j). 25*. 


handles. The small cups are supposed by Bome to be 
either acetabula, vinegar cups, or salina, salt-cellars. The 
larger cups are the pocula, cyathiy or calices} 


Many of the vases have the makers' names stamped 
across their centre, or placed upon their eides,^ The Icttera 
are often united in nexus or ligatures. They are always in 
relief, but the place stamped is depressed, and of a square, 
circular, or long oval shape ; in a few inetances, in that 
of a human foot, in allusion to the potter's mode of 
working. They occur inside the plain vases ; those or- 
namented outside with bas-relief being less frequently 
stamped with potters' names, which, when tliey do occur 
on such vases, are on labels or tessera), There are certain 
philological peculiarities evident upon inspection of these 
stamps. The double II is used for B, as Riignus and 
Siixtus for Eegnus and Sextus. The 4^ in the name of 
Caretus resembles the Celtiberian form, and on one with 
the name Methillus the ® is used for Til. The words 
are often in contraction, retrograde, and confused ; and 
some have supposed that the potters used moveable 
letters, which is improbable. The names of many 
potters are Gaulish, apparently of slaves or freeduien. 
Amongst the names more particularly Graulish are Ad- 
vocisus, Beleniccus, Cobnertus, Dagodubims, Dagomarus, 
Dagoininus, Suobnedo, Tasconus, Tascillus. The formula 
used by the potters was or OF, OFFIC, for qfficina, 
or cstablishmeut, either before or after the name. M for 


manu, " the work,'* is always placed after the name irf 
the genitive, and F, or FE, for fecit, " he made,*' probably 
after names in the nominative. In one instance fecit^ " hei 
made,'' occurs without any potter's name, and in another 
case the potter, through ignorance or caprice, has impressed 
the stamp of a Roman oculist^ destined for some quack 
ointment, on the bottom of a cup. Besides these names, 
ft few other inscriptions are founcT. On a deep poculum of 
red glazed ware is inscribed, in raised letters, round the 
outside, BIBB AMICE DE MEO, " Drink, oh friend, from 
my cup." * The idea was probably taken by the potter 
from the glass cups, which often have similar letters, in 
complete relief, round their sides. 

A list of the potters' names which occur on the Roman 
earthenware found in Britain has been given by Mr. 
Roach Smith, in the Archaeologia,^ and in his Collectanea 
Antiqua.' The numerous names found at York are inserted 
in Mr. Wellbeloved's Eburacum,* and others, found at 
Caerleon, in Mr. Lee's Antiquities of that place.* 

In some rare instances the potter has scrawled a few 
illegible words on the mould before the clay was pressed 
in, and these have been preserved on the vase when baked.^ 
Such caprices of the potter are not uncommon, and have 
been already mentioned in the case of Greek vases. Many 
Roman tiles and bricks have also had inscriptions and 
other objects cut upon them before they were baked by 
idlers in the brick-field. One discovered at Nimeguen,' 

^ Mus. Borb. vii. xxix. ' Journ. Brit Arch. Aaaoc, ii 20 ; 

' Archaeologia, xxtu. p. 143. Soo. Lux. 4to. 1853 ; PL vl 4, p. 124. 
3 Smith, Collectanea, i. 150. '' Janssen, Romisch. ZiegeL, 4to. 

* p. 128. Leyden, 1841. 

* p. 10, PI. ill 


had the Roman alphabet ; others at Enns, on the Danube, 
had illegible -words and sentences, amongst which can only 
be read such expressions as the "Emperor Antoninus" and 
the "Nones of September."' A brick in the British Museum, 
found at Colchester, has Primus or Primulus, and another 
what may be intended to delineate an edifice. Inscrip- 
tions scratched upon Samlanware after it has been baked, 
ciiiefly names of its possessors, also occur. 

The potters were called doliarii, or pot-makers, if they 
made vessels of unglazed ware and large size," vascularii, 
or vase makers,^ fctilarii* makers of fictile vases, a.uA figidi' 
narii, Jiguli, or potters in general. They were generally 
of servile condition, and are represented wearing only the 
tunic of the slave." One Gaulish potter, named Casatua 
Caratius,* is, however, represented on a bas-relief, wearing 
a cloak besides the tunic. lie holds in one hand a fluted 
vase, like those of the black ware- 
It would appear almost certain that the ware was an 
article of export, as stated by Pliny, and that the name of 
Samian was applied to it in reference to its origin, long 
after it had ceased to be made in that island. 

Traces of manufactories of red pottery and broken 
moulds and wheels hare been found scattered all over 
Gaul, as near Nancy, at Paris, Nimes, Lyons, and at 
Clermont, near Bourdeaux ; but principally at Ilhein- 
zaborn, and at HeiUgenberg, near Strasburg.' In Italy 

i Atneth, Hypooautniti, 4to. Wian, 
1S56, Uf. IT. 

' L. AursUiu Sabiitiu, doliariiu, fooil 
aibi et suis. Grifaud de !■ Vincdtle, 
xxxiii. 2. In tho Hepiilohral bas-reliaf 
.-ire u\ ampliork. olU, ami lagans. 

' Orivaud de U Vineelle, xlvii. 
< Qrivand de la Vincelle, xl*i. 

* OriTaud de la Tincallo, xlii 1. 

* Orivaud de la Vincelle, xlri. i- 
' Caumont, U, p. 211, 


the ware has been found from Modena to Pompeii, and 
probably extended over many sites in the Peninsula. In 
England it has been discovered in great abundance, prin- 
cipally in the south and west of the island. 


Another kind of the red glazed ware is that used for 
lamps, which dijSers considerably from the Samian. Its 
colour is much paler and texture very different from that 
of the bowls ; the glaze is of a thin alkaline kind, and 
thinly spread over the surface of the ware. The lamps 
of this ware are generally found in Italy, and have been 
already described in the general account of lamps. 

There is a kind of this ware, which is probably the 
earhest in point of time, and to which the term Samian 
might not be inappropriately appUed. The clay is not 
imiform in its colour, being gray, black, or yellow, and 
the lustre appears as much due to a polish on the lathe a^ 
to a vitrification. The prevalent shape is the cup, either 
hemispherical or cylindrical, decorated with figures or 
architectural scrolls and ornaments. These so much re- 
semble certain cups of terra-cotta already described, that 
they can hardly be separated from them. Such vases have 
been found at Melos, and a jug of this style, representing 
a sacrifice, was dug up in 1725 at Hadria.^ Another 
variety of this ware, called by some the false Samian, re- 
sembles the Samiau, but is of an orange, not yellow colour. 
The colour too has sometimes a kind of red paint, or 

' Muratori, czlix. 


powdered Samian ware, laid on it externally, in order to 
deepen it.' This ware is often coarse, and ornamented 
externallj with coarse white scrolls, painted with pipeclay 
on tlie body. One kind of ware found at Castor is dis- 
tinguished by its red glaze, which often has a metalloid 
lustre. The paste is yellowish brown, white, or reddish 
yellow.'' In some instances the glaze is lustrous, and 
shows the colour of the paste. The shapes and ornamenta- 
tion resemble the black glazed ware. One remarkable 
jar has a chariot race. The difference of colour assumed 
by the vases appears partly due to the dogi-ee of firing the 
vases experienced, the paste of some which is black, red, 
or gray, becoming of a copper hue.^ A remarkable 
vai-iety has been found at Boultbam, near Lincoln, the 
site of a local pottery, composed of a light yellow paste, 
brushed over from the hp downwai-ds with a light yellow 
■wash of a sparkling mica, or dipped in the fluid and in- 
verted to drain off the superfluous fluid. Here the 
colours consisted of many shades of yellow, brown, purple, 
and even black, with a metalloid lustre. The shapes and 
ornaments are the same as those of the Castor black ware, 
and are sometimes laid on with a slip of pipeclay.* These 
vases are Gallo-Roman, made subsequent to the Samian. 
Sometimes they have incised inscriptions — dedications to 
deity, as to the " Genius of Tournay,"* on a vase found in 
France — rarely the names of potters, as " Camaro," on a 
vase at Lincoln.^ A remarkable variety has a gray paste 

' As at Comberton, Arab. Journ. vi ■ Arch. Jouni. i. S29. 

2ia * Arch. Journ. liL ITS. 

" C«t. Mui Pr«cL Gaol. p. 7277 ; • R. Smilh, CoUectitnoa, ia 1B3. 

Ardii, Durobrivn. PL ill. 1, sxi. 1, ' Arch. Jaam. sii 174. 

ilvlL 3, iJix. *. 


baked hard like stone ware, and painted of a yellow 
mottled colour to imitate marble. 


The lilack waro was made of any tenacious clay in tlie 

neiglibourliood, and it varies from a dark black to a sl;ite 

or olive colour. The kilns in 

^^B^ nhich it was baked have 

^^^H^^^^^B^^ been already described, but the 
' ^^^^I^B^^Vv phenomenon is differently ex- 

^^^^■n^^^^^k plained by Professor Buckman,* 

^H ^■j^^^B^^ ^^'h<> supposes that the carboD 
^B^^IMb^^^^^ and hydrogen of the smother 

^^^^^ kiln reduced or rather pre- 

Uo. 301— Cups of JJlMk Wani. . j ,i ■ ■ ,i ■ 

vented the iron m the clay 
changing into a peroxide or the red oxide of iron. Funei 
urns were often made of this pottery. 

Some varieties of this ware exist hke that of the 
unglazed red. In the first the clay is soft, easily 
scratched, and covered with a polish or lustre produced by 
friction on the lathe. From the peculiarities and difiei 
ences in its paste and embellishments it appears to havi 
been the product of local potteries.' The glaze, or coatin^j 
may have been produced by water or friction.' The past^' 
is fine, and the walls thin and well turned. Tlie 
varies from a kiml of gray, or colour like that of thfti 
London clay, to a dull black. The vases are mostly small,' 
the ware generally consisting of cups, bottles, and small' 

'ay I 



amphora) and jugs, but occasionally of the supposed 
mortarla. Some of the cups, like tliose of the red dull 
ware, have their sides corrugated. 

The ornaments which are by far more common tlian 
the subjects, are of the most simple nature, consisting of 
pressed lines and herring-bone patterns ; but the favourite 
devices are regular clusters of con-ugated studs, disposed 
in squares or bands round the vases, and produced by 
sticking small pieces on the vase before the clay was baked. 
Some of these resemble the spines on the blackthorn. In 
some rare instances the potter has stamped in a series of 
small square indentations, resembling fleurettes. A great 
peculiarity of tliis ware is that it is unaccompanied with 
the names of potters, nor is it found with coins and 
other Roman remains.' A few vases of this ware are 
ornamented round the body with rows of little pebbles 
let into the clay, humble imitation of the cups of the 
wealtliy inlaid with gems." Great quantities of this ware 
liave been found in England, in the Upchurch marshes 
near Sheerness.' 

There is a pottery ditfering from the preceding, by the 
quahty and colour of its paste, which is red with a black 
glaze. Sometimes, however, it is gray, or even black, 
but generally not so fine as the first kind. Its grand 
distinction is its glaze or lustre, which consists of an 
alkaline earthy silicate, sometimes very black aifd pure, 

' For eiimple, a Tiiae waa foand >t Bcribed b; J. Ecurick, EicirationB tit 

BilUngliBj. Dear Sleaford, LiDcnli], in a the Uote Hill, WarriugtoQ, Sto. Wtr- 

cemotet? eonUiniog ttrclra alcelotona. riugton. I8A3, 

TbebenJauf elevonwere turnwi to t)iQ ' Tlie C>lix gemmatus. Hutial, lir. 

south, and ODe to tlieuorUi ; tba; were IDS, 
buriml two foEt deep, with part of a 
ootigluiueriitud querti. Otheiii oro d«- 



but at other times of a green or bluish or slate-colonred 
tint. BrOQgniart divides this glaze into two kinds ; one, 
although thin, being lustrous, but without any metallic 
reflection, — the other, which seems to be a metallic coat- 
iug deposited by steam, having a lustre like black lead. 
This ware was made on the wheel by the same process aa 
the red, and the ornaments were either made by the 
revolving swivel moulds or else by the usual process.' It 
must be borne in mind that there was a black as well as 
red Aretine ware, and that plain black lustrous vases con- 
tinued in Italy till the middle of the Roman empire. A 
Roman vase of this ware, found at Cums, baa the subject 
of Perseus and the Gorgons stamped in intagho from 
separate dies, after the vase left the lathe.' A Lemi- 
spbcrlcal cup, recently found in the Greek islands,' of the 
proto-Samian class, and of the period of the empire, was 
made from a mould, has its subject in relief, and is 
covered with a lustrous black glaze. 

Some few of these vases are ornamented with subjects 
in relief, representing hunting scenes in a low and dege- 
nerate style of art, which, from the costume of the figures, 
may be referred to the last days of the waning empire 
of Rome, and are clearly later than the red polished glazed 
ware. The art is apparently Gaulish, and the figures bear 
striking resemblance to those on the ancient British and 
Gaulish' coins. They are never made from moulds as in 
the Samian ware, but by the process called barbotine, by 
depositing on the surface of the vase after it had left the 
lathe, from a small vessel or tube, masses of semifluid 

' BrongDiart, TmLtd, i. p. 133, 
' Mon. 1855. Tiv. n. p. IB. 


clay, which were slightly modelled with a tool into the 
required shape. The glaze and colour are supposed to 
hare been produced by smothering the vases when in 
the furnace with the smoke of the kiln, and depositing at 
the same time the carbon on the surface of the heated 
vases, and thus giving them a black glaze. It has 
two different glazes, one dark but without any metallic 
reflections, the other metalloid, like a pohsh of black 

The principal subjects represented on this pottery are 
hunting scenes,' such as dogs chasing stags — deer — hares, 
— also dolphins, ivy wreaths, and engiailed lines, and 
engine-turned patterns." In a few instances men with spears 
are represented, but in a rude and debased style of art The 
principal form is the cup of ajar shape, sometimes with 
deep oval flutings, as on one found at Castor ; but dishes, 
cups, plates, and mortars, are not found in this ware. 

Some of the vases of 
this ware have orna- 
ments, and sometimes 
letters painted on them 
in white sHp upon their 
black ground. They are 
gcnerallyof a small size, 
and of the nature of 
bottles or cups, with in- 
scriptions, such as AVE, "'"*' ""°' 
haU ! VIVAS, may you live ; IMPLE, fill ; BIBE, drink ; 

' Journal, Brit. Arcli. Assoc, i. p. 5, ' Qrivuud d« U Ttucelle. Astiq. PI. 

8, xixili. IS. Juusen, Imor. Tab. u*iu. 

: BroDguUrt, Trutd, PI. nil. 26-29; OcrbanI, BorLant. Bild 182. 


VINVM/wine;' VITA, ^ life;' VIVE BIBE MVLTIS; 
showing that they were used for purposes purely con- 
vivial. Such are the vases found at Etaples near Boulogne,' 
the ancient Gessoriacum, and at Mesnil.^ 

Some rarer and finer specimens from Bredene, in the 
department of Lis, have a moulding round the foot* Great 
quantities are found in England, Holland, Belgium, and 
France. It is found on the right bank of the Rhine. A 
variety of this ware has been lately found at a spot called 
Crockhill in the New Forest, together with the kilns in 
which it was made, and a heap of potter's sherds, or pieces 
spoilt in the baking. The paste was made of the blue 
clay of the neighbourhood, covered with an alkaline glazQ 
of a maroon colour, perhaps the result of imperfect baking ; 
for the pieces when submitted again to the action of the 
fire, decrepitated and split. They were so much vitrified 
as to resemble modern stone ware, yet as all of them havQ 
proofs of having been rejected by the potters, it is pro- 
bable that this was not the proper colour of the ware. 
Almost all were of the pinched up fluted shape, and had 
no bas-reliefs, having been ornamented with patterns laid 
on in white colour. The kilns are supposed to be of the 
third century of our era,^ and the ware was in local use, 
for some of it was found at Bittern, 

The bottoms of two pots of this Roman ware found at 
Lyons showed that it was sometimes made of a very 
coarse and gritty paste with many micaceous and calca- 
reous particles distributed through it, breaking with a 

^ Roach Smith, Colleotanea, I., PI. iii. ^ Mr. Akerman, in Archseologia, 

p. 3. XXXV. 91-96 ; Arch. Jouni. March, 

' Cochety Normandio soutorraine, 1853, p. 8. 
8vo, PariB, 1855, p. 131. 


coarse fracture of a dark red colour. The ware is covered 
with rather a thick coat of black glaze also exhibiting the 
same paste. The bottoms 
were impressed with a pot- 
tor's name stamped in cir- 
cular mouldings and dis- 
posed in circles, in characters 
of the later period of the 
Empire, and the ornameutal I 
grooves were subsequently 
made. One of these had 
L CASSIO, perhaps Lucii 
Cassii officina — " from the 
factory of L. Casaius ; " 

the othjer had FIRMINVS F{ecit). " Firminus made 
it." This ware is very different from the Castor ware, 
and forms a totally distinct class, intermediate between 
the glazed and pLoin ware, sprinkled with mica. 

The distribution of this pottery of Roman manufacture 
and style, whether of the Saniian or other ware, is ahuost 
universal over Germany, France, and Eastern Europe, 
and in the West, extending through Spain and England. 
In Germany ' it has been found throughout the country, 
as at Alsheim, Cassell, Xanten, and Zahlbach. Of 
the German localities, however, Mayence seems to have 
been particularly active in its ancient potteries. Details 

1 WngcDBr, Hindbuoh, 8yo. Wcimu-, 18*2, PI, 22, 23. 



of a still more precise nature are afforded of the dif- 
ferent kinds of ware found in France. Thus at the Canal 
de Bourges in the department of the Cher ^ red Soman 
ware and that with a black micaceous paste were found ; 
red ware at Esclas ^ near Damej in Vosges, at Limoges 
in the Haute Vienne,' at Aix and Nismes,* in Pro- 
vence, and Languedoc, and at Vienne in Dauphinj ; 
at Paris in the gardens of the Luxembourg, and at 
St. Genevifeve. At Bourdeaux were found the red ware, 
the black Roman ware and that with white, yellow 
and red pastes.* Large specimens of red ware of an 
elliptical shape were exhumed east of Thiers near Lezoux, 
together with moulds, stamps, and the remains ofa j>ottery;* 
as also near Clermont.'^ AmphorsB joined with lead were 
found at Mont-labathie-Sal^on, near Aspres, in the High 
Alps,® Chatelet, between St. Dizier and Joinyille in 
Champagne, the Samian ware with potters' names, dull 
red ware, that of a yellowish white tint, with a leaden 
glaze, and others of a black earth with a brown ^ or black 

Roman red ware has also been discovered on the banks 
of the Seine near Anieres at Mount Ganelon, in Oise at 
Compiegne,'^ near Beauvais," and at Limeray near Dieppe, 
in Normandy ; ^^ at Maulevrier near Caudebec in Normandy, 

1 Traits, i. 444. 

' M. Jollois, Cimitidre d'Orl^ans. PI. 
xvi ; BroDgniart, 1. c. 

' Brongiiiart, 1. c. 

^ Mdnard, Antiq. de Niames ; Brong- 
niarty i. 445. 

» Brongniart, i. 441 ; Grivaud de la 

8 Jouannet de Bourdeaux; Antiqui- 
t^8 S^pulchralcs de la Gironde; Rec. 

AcadiSmie de Bourdeaux, 1831. 

7 Brongniart, i 445; Hucl Cer. iz. 
1, 8, 18. 
" Brongnmrt, i. 445. 

» Brongniart, I 408, 445. 

10 Grignon, Bulletin des feuiUes 
faites par I'ordre du roi, 8vo. Paris, 

" Brongniart, 1. c 442. 

" Brongniart, i. 442, PI. xxxv. 19. 


together with coins of Gallienua and Constantine ; at 
Sarthe near Mans, 2000 pieces, as well as the vitrified 
bricks of a furnace, and a cruse, with the name of Tertiolus, 
either maker or proprietor, were dug up in tlirowing 
a bridge over the river. They were all broken, some 
stamped with the names of Severus, Baasus, Craasus, &c- 
At Loiret in the Orlcannois, in Brequoruque in the Pays 
de Calais, at Noyellea sur Mer' in the department of the 
Somme, red, black, and yellow Roman ware have also 
been fonnd. 

Some of the pottery found at Agen resembled the 
Samian, but was of a softer pa^te and cxiiibited some 
local peculiarities. The names of the potters also differed 
from those of the usual lists. It has been supposed that 
these vases might have been made by potters settled upon 
the spot, and it is certain that the Romans, whose villages 
must have been decorated by Roman workera in mosaic, 
had local potters. 

In Italy this ware has been found chiefly at Arezzo, and 
also at Hadria, Modena, and other northern sites. 
Fine specimens, far surpassing in size and art those of 
northern and western Europe, have been discovered at 

Of Western Europe it now only remains to mention 
Spain, in which country numerous specimens of this ware 
have been discovered. Saguntum, praised by Pliny ^ for 
its calices, or drinking cups, may have been one of the 
sites where this pottery waa manufactured ; Pliny places it 

> BroDgDUrt, i. 412, 443. IB&S, p. 13, Th. it. t. m. 

' lUceio, Nutizifl degL (csTtmenti del ■ H, B. xur. a. IS; Brong 

molo dell' ootica CapuA, 4to. Napoti, 4ES. 



in about the third rank. Martial^ mentions' '^a nest of 
seven little vases, septenaria synthesis^ the clayey turning 
of the Spanish wheel, polished with the thick glaze of the 
Saguntine potter " as part of a dinner set of a person of 
moderate circumstances. In another place he says, 
'^ Nothing is more odious to me than the old cups of Euctus. 
I prefer the cymbia made of Saguntine clay/^ * 

Saguntum appears to have manufactured boxes, cups,' 
cymbia, calices,^ and lagense,^ or bottles. The actual ware 
found at Murviedo^ is classed under four different kinds^ 
viz. : 1. The Roman red ware. 2. A cinericious kind. 
3. Yellow with certain red spots. 4. Whitish terra-cotta, 
unglazed, of the colour of the clay used for bricks and 
tiles. The pieces of the first class were of the usual shape, 
and many had the names of the potters. The same re- 
mark applies to those of the second class. Those of the 
third class had only two branches of wild palm stamped 
inside ; and those of the last kind had inscriptions incised 
upon the tiles and on necks of the amphora), some in 
Greek, as the name Hermogenes, — in Latin, as '' Lucii 
Herennii officina," — others apparently in the Celtiberiau 

In England the various kinds of Roman red ware are 
scattered all over the island, and specimens are every- 

^ " Et crasso figuli polita codo, 
Septenaria syn thesis Sagunti, 
Hispanso luteum rotse toreuma." 

— Martial, iv. 46. 
3 *' Archetypis vetuli nihil est odio- 
sius Eucti ; 
Ficta Saguntino cymbia malo luto." 

— Martial, viii. 6. 
*' Qiuc non sollicitus teneat serret* 
que minister 

Sume Saguntino pooula ficta luto." 

— Martial, xiv. 108. 

* ** Calicum tantum Surrentum, Aata, 
PoUentia, in Hispania Saguntum." — 
Pliny, xzxv. 12. 

* " Pugna Sagimtina fervet commissa 

lagena." — Juv. ▼. 29. 
^ Valcarcel, Barros Saguntinos, Svo. 
Valencia, 1779. 


where turned up with the spade or the plough on all the 
old Roman sites. The pages of the Archaeologia are filled 
with descriptions of these remains, which have been dis- 
covered in abundance on the site of the old city of London, 
principally near the Bridge,' and its vicinity ; ^ at Glouces- 
ter ; ^ at Southfleet ; * great quantities have also been dug 
up on the banks of the Medway in the Upchurch Marshea, 
leading to Sheerness,' together with a local fabric of a 
bluish-black ware. 

Roman vases of different wares have also been dis- 
coi'ered at Chesterford,^ at Ickleton near Saffron Walden,' 
at Stanway,® at Mount Bures,^ at Colchester,'" and at 
BiUericay." A kiln has been found at Ashdon ; '* false 
Samian ware at Appleford" and Comberton.'* At Mere- 
worth,'* Canterbury,'^EastFairleigh,'^and Harthp,'*Samian 
and other vases have been exhumed ; but the most re- 
markable, as well as the earliest discovery of Samian 
ware, was on the Pan sand, oflf Margate.'* Castor ware has 
been found in the Hoo Marsh, near Rochester.*' At Rich- 
borough ^' aU sorts of ware have been discovered. Sussex 

1 Arclueologk, uit. PL slUL iliv. 
mii. p. leo. 

* BermoodBej, Joum. Brit. Areh. 
AraocL 313. 

■ Archnologia, i. PL ix. S, p. 131 ; 
Journkl. Brit. Arch. Aiaoa. iL Sit. 

' ArabMologk, p. 37. 

t Journal, BriL Arcb. Anoc u. p. 
ISl ! Roach Spalth, ColIectuieB. PL 

* R C. Neville, AnL Ejplor. Sto. 
18*7; Journnl Brit Arch, Amoc. 173; 
Arch. Joum. liL 8fi, 

J Arcb. Joum. »L 17. 

» Joum Brit Arch. AmOc iL iS. 

* Brougaiart Trut6, i. H9. 

"' Joora. Brit. Arcb. Auoo. ii. t, vii 


" Joum. Brit Arcb. Amoo. liL !G0. 

'- Arch. Jaiira. x. 21. 

m. Brit Arch. Assoc iii. 32S, 

• Arch.Jou 

L 210, 

Arch. Joum. 

'• Ibid. 

" Joum. Brit Arcb. Amoc, ii. 4. 

" B. Soiitb, Coll iLp. 12. 

'■ PbiL TruiB. xn. p. 619; S 
Hictory of SMfford«liire Pottery, [i 
Archsraloeia, t. 2S2, 290, 

" Joum. Brit Arch. Am 

" R. Smith, Aot Richborough, 



abounds in Roman wares. Samian, and also the glazed 
maroon ware, having been found at Chichester,^ New- 
haven,^ and Maresfield.' Black unglazed ware has been 
found at Binstead,^ and a local black glazed ware wiih the 
kilns and potteries in the New Forest^ Samian and 
other wares have been dug up at Dorchester, the Isle of 
Purbeck,^ Portland/ and Exeter.® Similar wares have 
been found at the Fleam Djke,^ and throughout Cam- 
bridgeshire. A local fabric of a yellow Castor ware has 
been discovered at Boultham, near Lincoln ;^^ also at 
Towcester," Cirencester, and other sites in Gloucestershire. 
The red and black glazed ware, and the kilns for baking 
them, and other potteries, have been discovered at Castor," 
along the banks of the Nen," at Sibson, and the Bedford 
Purlieus. At Headington ** numerous mortaria of yellow 
Castor and other wares, and at Deddington ^^ Samian ware 
has been exhumed. A kiln and a pottery, resembling the 
German, has been found at Marlborough. Samian and 
black glazed ware has been excavated at Bath, Samian 
and other Roman wares at York,^^ and in the north of 
England, at Caerleon and Carnarvon in Wales ;*^ in fact 
throughout the whole of the island, and even in the 
Channel Islands. 

In Holland Samian ware has been discovered at 

* Arch. Joum. xi. 26; Joum. Brit. ^^ Arch. Joum. xii. 173. 

Arch. Assoc, iv. 158. " Joum. Brit Arch. Assoc, vii. 

3 Arch. Joum. ix. 263. 109. 

3 Joum. Brit. Arch. Assoc, v. 390. ^ Joum. Brit. Arch. Assoc. L 1. 

* Arch. Joum. ix. 12. ^^ i^jj^ 

* Arch. Joum. ix. 23, x. 8. ^* Joum. Brit Arch. Assoc yi. ^. 

* Arch. Joum. vii. 384. ** Arch. Joum. viii. 423. 
7 Arch. Joum. x. 61. ** Arch. Joum. vi. 86. 

B Arch. Joum. ix. 9. ^^ Arch. Joum. tu. 219. 

9 Arch. Joum. ix. 229, x. 224, 225. 


EoBsem, Arentsburg,' Wijk-bij, Duurstede," and elsewhere. 
In eastern Europe it is found in quantities along the 
Danube, Greece, Asia Minor, and the Isles, aud at Bala- 
clava, and Kertch, having been carried by commerce 
beyond the limits of Roman conquests. 


There is another kind of pottery found sparingly among 
Iloman remains which has been supposed to be Roman. 
The paste is generally of a yellow colour, and over this 
has been laid a thick coat of enamel, of a pale blue, 
green, yellow, brown, or olive. Tho shape in wliich it 
principally occurs is that of lamps ; but fragments of 
small vases and jars are also found. It is a later kind 
of the enamelled ware of the Etruscan sepulchres already 
described. Very few instances of its discovery in England 
are known, although some fragments were found in the 
pits at Ewell, in Surrey, having a glaze produced by lead.' 

Many vases of this ware have been discovered in Italy, 
especially at Pompeii and Cervetri. Some amphorre, mea- 
suring 11 inches high; others in shape of jars, oUtc; 
wine bottles, urcei ; of the wine-skin, uler ; small jars, 
uma?, and lamps. Tlie larger are ornamented with 
reliefs, anagli/pha, or embkmata, dispersed at distant inter- 
vals on the surface of the vase, and stamped as crustcB 
from separate moulds, and then affused, The smaller 

' Leemsiu, Roiniichs oudlieiden, ««li>DgeD,Bvo, Leyd. 1812. 
vo. L*yd. 18*2. » Arohwilopa, xisiL p, iSl. 

* JuiaMD, oudheiilkuDdigo Meded- 


vases, such aa lamps, are made entirely in moulds. Their 
subjects are Hercules, Bacchus, a goddess sacrificing, 
Abundantia, on a lamp is a Gorgon, treated in the usual 
coarse style of Roman art. They have been supposed to 
be Alexandrian. 

There are in the Louvre some remarkable specimens 
of Greek glazed .ware of the Roman period, found at 
Tarsus. The glaze appears to have been produced by 
lead ; the colours are green, red, yellow, and blue.* The 
objects, which are small, were made in moulds like the 
Roman red ware. The subjects are various patterns of 
leaves and flowers in relief. Amongst the fragments are 
portions of a vase with two handles, half of an oscillum 
or mask, and some fragments of red ware, like the so-called 
Samian, and of finer paste. One of these pieces, in- 
scribed in characters, shows that it was later than the 
Antonines. A bottle also in the Museum, ornamented 
with masks and other subjects in relief, and of a style 
almost media3val, was found with Roman remains. 

1 It reads, [EJMNHC0HCAN membered Phaetaerua" ... but the 
4>IA€TAIPtOI "they told, or re- sense it is difficult to make out. 

Celtio potter; — Puts — Fabric — Oni>tn(ititatioii — Sise — Shapes — Sepulchral ui 

firitiih — Baooauda— OrDD,m e 1 1 tation — TriaDgulikr pittenu— Boiui— Diatri- 
butian — Scottiah — IrUb — Type of unu — OrnamBntaWoD — Distribution — 
Teutonic — I'wte— Sbapea— Uut vasw — OmoueDtatioD uid dutribution — 
ScandiuftviKn potter; — Tjpe — Aiuklog; witb Celtic. 


It is difiBcult to draw a line of distinction between the 
Celtic pottery and the black Gallo-Roman ware, as this 
was evidently a local ware made upon a Roman tyjie and 
according to the principles of Roman art. The colour is 
owing to carbon. Bronguiart ' assigns this ware to the 
ancient Gauls, while he considers the first to bo Gallo- 
Roman. There are some varieties of tliis wai'e which 
in shape and fabric rosemble the German pottery, and 
aro ornamented with zig-zags, salient lines, and reliefs 


in imitation of letters, arranged in zones or bands. Such 
pottery has been found at Gisors, in the tumuli of the 
ancient Gaulish races. It is coarse, of bad texture, very 
fragile, easily scratched with a knife, the paste either 
black or gray. 

The pieces were often made upon the wheel, the maiira 
of the potter's hands still remaining on the body of the 
vase ; and where the foot has not been hollowed, indica- 
tions appear of sawing from the chuck or piece by which 
it was affixed to the table.^ They are rarely found of any 
considerable size, although some nearly as large as casks 
have been exhumed in Auvergne,^ and in the Channel 
Islands.^ Some of these vases were an improved &bric 
consequent upon the contact of the Celt with a more 
poUshed people like the Bomans, who by degrees in- 
troduced a certain elegance and refinement into the arts 
of that comparatively barbarous people. 

The pottery which had preceded this, and which is 
found in the barrows or tumuli of the early Celtic race 
among the remains of stone or bronze weapons, and rude 
amber and glass beads, is of quite a distinct character, 
more resembling in its general appearance the urns of the 
Scandinavians and the vases of other primitive people, 
above all of the Teutonic tribes, who had but little know- 
ledge of the ceramic art. The paste consists of the clay 
found upon the spot, prepared without any irrigation, 
consequently coarse, and sometimes mixed with small 
pebbles, which appear to have been added for the sake 
of holding it compactly together. It has undergone a 

1 Brongniart, Traitd, i. p. 485. ' Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc. 1847, p- 

3 Ibid. 8, 11. 309. 


baking of a Tery imperfect kind, the paste being black 
internally, while at tho sides it assumes the natural brown 
colour of the clay. 

The vases are generally of an urn shape, with wide 
open mouths, and tapering at the feet ; the lip is 
beyelled, and overlaps, thus giving them a peculiar form. 
As it is impossible, owing to their very great friability, 
that they could have been of much use for domestic pur- 
poses, it is probable that they were expressly made for 
sepulchrai rites. Their style of ornament is of the 
simplest kind, cords and bands are laid round or do^vn tho 
vase, or the pattern is punctured or incised with a tool, 
tooth, or pointed piece of stick or bone, for the lower 
compartment ; while the upper appears to have been 
made by binding a long strip of twisted skin spirally 
round the urn. The principal ornament is tlie herring- 
bone, the same which appears on the tores, celts, bracelets, 
and glass beads, and is, perhaps, a representation of the 
tattooing or the painted marks on the body in use amongst 
the ancient Gauls and Britons. A few seem to be imita- 
tions of wreaths and such other simple ornaments as were 
placed on Roman ware. These ornaments differ, — each 
tribe and age probably adopting a difierent style ; and 
while on most vases they are sparingly introduced, some 
examples are covered with them in moat elaborate style, 
from the lip to the foot. The size of these vases is by no 
means inconsiderable, being on an average from ] 8 to 25 
inches in height, and from 13 to 22 inches in diameter; 
while some measure 32 inches in height and 4 inches in 
diameter.* They arc found in the barrows, generally 

■ Akormui, Arclupological Index, Sto. London, 1B4T, pp. it, 47. 


placed with their mouths downwards, like a dish-cover, 
protecting the ashes of the dead ; beads and mde personal 
adornments of the Celtic races are found with them, 
together with bronze, and sometimes iron weapons. 


The Tases found throughout England and Wales belong 
to the class above described, and only differ from others 
by their simpler forms and less elaborate ornamentation. 
Many small urns and vases have been found in British 
barrows, sometimes placed inside others, and holding the 
ashes of children or of the smaller domestic animals. The 
urns of each tribe, and even period, differ in ornamentation, 
paste, and shape. Those found in cairns on the Welsh coast 
have oflen a striking resemblance to the urns of the Irish 
Celts. All these vases have large wide mouths ; for the 
potter, not using a wlieel, was obliged to fashion them by 
the hand, and could not make small necks or mouths by 
the fingers. They seldom have handles; one or two 
vases with such appendages only having been found, but 
in their place projecting studs with holes bored to admit a 
cord for suspension. Such vases have been called censers, 
but more probably were used as pots or lamps in the huts of 
the Aborigines. Their colour varies from a light yellowish 
brown to an ashen gray hue ; and their ornaments are 
principally zig-zag or triangular, hatched, zones, and 
herring-bone, chiefly placed on the bevelled rim or lip. A 
few have bosses or knobs in bands around their body, 
and they are perhaps transitions to the Romano-British 
^d Saxon ware, distinguished by their darker colour. 

bottle shape, and stamped ornaments. The Romans 
appear to liave tenned these vases bascaiidte. or baskets. 
A few other objects, besides vases, were made of this 
material, such as cjlindrical cases to hold vases, and 
beads, some reeded, apparently in imitation of glass or 
enamelled beads. 


others at Heytesbury* and Stourton,' Barrow Hills,' 
Lake,* Upton Level,* Everley,^ Stonehenge,^ Amesbury,' 
Winterbounie,® Fovant,*° Dunington," and Beckhampton, 
near Abury.*^ The west of England and Wales have 
probably produced the most interesting specimens of 
these urns, which, however, have been found in the South 
of England ; those of the northern and western parts 
of the island are most highly ornamented. They have 
also been found in various places in Sussex, especiaUy 
in the vicinity of Brighton, in tumuli, on the race- 
course ; at Lewes," Storrington Downs," Sullington 
Warren,^* Alfriston,^« and Clayton Hill.^^ In the adjoin- 
ing county of Hampshire similar urns have been exhumed 
at Arbor Lowe,^® at BakewelV® and at Broughton, in 
the Isle of Wight.^ In Kent they have been found at 
Iffin near Canterbury,^^ and at Beedon in Berkshire.** 
Many vases of this class have been discovered at Bland- 
ford,*^ Dorsetshire, in the Isle of Purbeck,** and at 
Badbury Camp.** They have been found at Broughton *® 
and Woldcn Newton*^ in Lincolnshire, at Culford,*^ at 
Felixstowe in Suffolk on the Matlow Hills, in the Fleam 

> Sir R. Colt Hoare, Anc. Wilt. PL 

• • •• 

IX. Vlll. 

2 Ibid. PI. L 

• ArchsBologia, xv. p. 343, xviil 

< Sir T. Colt Hoare, Anc. Wilt. pL 


• Ibid., xi. • Ibid., xxii. 

7 Ibid., xvi. " Ibid., xxiil 4. 

• Ibid., xiiL 16. *° Ibid., xxxiiL 4. 
" Ibid., xvii 

*2 Horsfield, Hist. Lewes, p. 48, pi. v. 
13 SiiBBOx Archaeological Colloctions, 
L p. 55. 
** Cartwright, Rape of Bramber, p. 1 28. 
» Susa Arch. ColL ii 270. 

" Susa. Arch. CoU. viii. 285. 
*7 Joum. Brit Assoc Winch., 203. 
18 Ibid., 194. 
*• Arch. Joum., ix. 11. 
^ Joum. Brit. Arch. Assoc, 1856, 
p. 186. 

21 Arch., XXX. p. 827. 

22 Arch. Joum., vii. 67. 

2» The Barrow diggers, 4to, Lond. 
1839, p. 91. 
•* Joum. Brit Arch. Assoc, vii. 385. 
^ Arch., xvii. 338. 
28 Arch. Joum., viiL 343. 
•7 Arch. Joum., vi. 184. 
28 Joum. Brit. Arch. Assoc, ii. 63. 


Dyke,' Newmarket Heath,' and Boyaton ' in Cambridge- 
shire, at Drayton * and at Stow Heath " between TuUington 
and Aylaliam in Norfolk. In the midland counties similar 
vases have been discovered at Castor,^ and Brixworth,' at 
Brassington Moor,^ and Kingston in Derbyshire,^ at King- 
ston upon Soar,'" and at Great Malvern" in Worcestershire. 
In Shropshire these vases have occurred at Bulford,'* and at 
Newark, while remarkable examples allied to the Irish urna 
were found at Fort Dafarch," Holyhead, in Angleaea, at 
Mynnyd Cam Goch in Glamorganshire," and on the 
Breselu Hills " in Pembrokeshire. One of the most 
remarkable is the vase which is supposed to have covered 
the ashes of Bronwen the fair, the daughter of Liyr 
Llediaith, the aunt of Camctacus, a. d. 50, found in 
A. D. 1818, on a carnedd or grave on the banks of the 
Alaw.'* In the north of England they have been dis- 
covered at Scarborough,'^ York,'^ Bernaldy Moor, near 
Cleveland '®; Fylingdale near Whitby ; *■ the Way Hagg, 
near Hackness ; *' Fumcss, in Lancashire ; " Jcsmond, 
near Newcaatlc-on-Tyne ;^ Black Heddon, in Northumber- 
land, and elsewhere ; ^* and lastly at L'Ancresse, in 
Guernsey,'" and Alderney," amidst the barrows or tumuli 

' Arch. Jouni., U. 22S. 

' Arch. Jouni., iU. 325. 

' Arch., ziziL p. S5B. 

* Joum. Brit. Arcb. Auoo. v. 154. 

' Joum. Brit Aroh. Auoa. 


pi. 0. 

' Joum. Brit Arcb. Auoc., 18G3, IM. 

' Joum. Brit. Aroh. Auoc, ir, U2. 

" Arch. Jouro. L 243. 

' Joora. Brit. Aroh. Ataoc., ii. 62. 
" Arch. Jouro., uL 151. 
" Arch, Journ., »ii. 67- 
'^ Arch. Joum., vi. 310. 
" Arch. Journ., i. 177. 

" Aroh. Cambr., 1856, 65. 

" ArEh.Jouni.,i.l7T. " 

' Joum. Brit, Arch. Asaoc, iii. 194, 

13, 106, 107 ; Arch., xix. 458. 

" Wellb^IoYed, Deaer,, p. 8. 

" Arch. Journ., i 412. 

■■ Arch. Joum., lili, 95. 

" Joum. Brit. Arch. AanM., tL 1. 

" Arch. Joum., iii. 68. 

* Aroli. Joum., I. B. 

" ABatl(oiDba1iLiMDar,Arch„xixiii. 

)6. » Arch. Joum., i, 142, 149. 

" CUj botds, Jouru. Brit. Arch. 


which formed the grayes of the early Celtic population, 
although in smaller numbers than vases of the different 
Roman wares. 


The early pottery of Scotland found in the graves of the 
ancient inhabitants, principally of those of the so-caUed 
bronze period, anterior to, and contemporary with, the 
Roman conquest of Britain, is exactly like that of the rest 
of the island. The vases are of two classes — ^those feebly 
baked and made by the hand, and those which appear to 
have been turned upon the wheel.* The first comprising 
the urns, or bascaud(Sy used for covering the ashes of the 
dead, often measure as much as sixteen inches high, and 
have the usual bevelled lip ; a few cups, and lamps with 
small side handles for a cord to sling them, and domestic 
vases resembling in shape the Roman olla, have been also 
found. They are all wide-mouthed, and may have been 
used for quaffing the Pictish heather ale. Their oma* 
mentation also is of the simplest kind, consisting of the 
fern leaf pattern, the zig-zag, and herring-bone. A few 
vases are ornamented all over the body as well as lip, and 
resemble those found in Ireland and upon the Welsh coast. 
Others have indented patterns. These vases have been 
found all over Scotland, at Ronaldshay in Orkney,^ Craik- 
raig in Sutherlandshire,^ Banffshire,* Montrose,* Kinghorn 

» Wilson, The Archwology and Pre- » IbicL, 285. 

historic History of Scotland, 8vo, Edin- * Arch. Scot., [▼. 298, pL xii 

burgh, 1851, p. 281. » Wilson, p. 284. 

« Wilson, p. 286. 


in Pifeshire,' at Shealloch near Borthwick, and at Edin- 
burgh ;' at Coilsfield,' at Banctiorj * and Merasie ^ in 
Aberdeenshire, and at Whitaorae ^ in Berwickshire. 


The urns discovered in Ireland resemble the British in 
their form and material, but are often finer in colour, 
more complex in shape, and more elaborate in ornament ; 
the whole bodj of the urn being decorated with punctured 
marks, lines, zones, zig-zags, and bands. Some urns have 
a peculiar shape, the upper part, surmounting the jar- 
shaped body, being in the form of a truncated conej The 
prevalence of triangular and hatched ornament is pecu- 
liarly Celtic, and appears on the gold objects as well as 
the urns. In the Irish urns the resemblance to baskot- 
work, in which coloured patterns were worked in, is still 
more distinct than in the British. The urns generally 
held or covered the ashes of the dead, but they were 
sometimes placed around the unburnt body. The most 
remarkable and beautiful are those found at Cairn 
Thiema,' county Cork, and at Killucken, county Tyrone.' 
Others have been discovered in a cromlech at Phtenix 
Park, Dublin ;'" at Knowth, county Meath ;" at Powers- 
court, county Wicklow ;"" at Mount Stewart, county 

' Ibii ' Ibid., pinto. 

■ WilBon.p. 390. " Journ. Arvli. Aaeoc,, i. p. 221 ; 

» Wilion, p. 8S3. Akprmftn, Aroh. Indei, pi. u. 61, 

' WilxoD, p. 3B8. "" Wnkenian, Haudbook of Iriali An- 

' WiIkd, p. 2ST. tiqnltiea, p. 6. IfiS. 

' N«w Stat. Arob. Borwiokjii.p. 171. " MolynoDi, Esaay ou D«ui»li 

' Cr. the ono from Curn TtaieruB. Houata. 

Areh, Joam., tL p. IBI. " Arcfa. Joum., vi. p, 192, 


Down ;' Mayhora, Castle Comar, Kilkenny ;* and at Mul- 
lingar.' They are anterior, and quite free from all traces 
of Roman civilisation. 


The Roman dominion in Gaul has so completely swept 
away the distinct traces of the Celtic potteries, that it is 
diflScult to point out any which can be referred to the 
Gauls before the Roman conquest.^ Such as are found, 
mixed up with later remains, do not show that peculiarly 
Celtic type and ornamentation which are seen on the 
vases of the British isles. A few, however, supposed to 
be early Celtic, have been found at Fontenay-le-Mannion, 
in Calvados, near Dieppe, and in Bretagne, made of a 
black earth, badly prepared, filled with pebbles, breaking 
with a porous fracture. Their paste is externally of a 
rusty colour, and black inside. It breaks readily when 
dry, and can be ground to powder by the finger. Wetted 
it assumes the hue of decayed bark ; submitted again to 
the furnace it turns to a brick red colour, but becomes 
more brittle. These vases are of the rudest shape, and 
have neither been made in a mould nor turned upon the 
wheel, but fashioned by the hand, or scooped by rude 
instruments.* It has been supposed that a certain class 
of pottery, formed of black clay mixed with white pebbles, 
or ground-up shells, varying in colour from a deep black 
to a blackish gray or rusty colour, and sometimes glazed 

• Dublin Penny Journal, i. p. 108. * Caumont, Coure, i. p. 255. 

' Arch. Joum., viii. 200. ^ Caumout, Bull, Mon., t. 464 ; xlii. 

3 Arcbseologia, ii. p. 32. 111. 


or coated with a carbonaceous black coating, is also of 
the early Celtic period. The walls of the vases are 
thicker and the paste more adhesive than the earliest 
Celtic, while the forms prove an acquaintance with 
Roman art, and cannot be assigned with certainty 
to the earlier epoch.' They have been found at Abbe- 
ville and Portelette. 


Throughout the whole of Germany various kinds of 
pottery have been discovered. They are, however, 
reducible to three great classes. That of the early native 
population prior to the invasion of the Eomans ; that 
made during the Roman conquest, which although ex- 
hibiting local peculiarities of paste and ornamentation, 
belongs to the Roman wares ; that imported, consisting of 
red ware made at Arretium, Capua, Modena, and other 
places in Italy. The two last classes having been 
already described, there only remains the first which 
has, unfortunately, not been hitlierto carefully discrimi- 
nated from the others. It must be borne in mind that the 
Celtic and Anglo-Saxon wares, one class of Teutonic pot- 
tery discovered in England, are easily discriminated, 
the latter being more bottle-shaped, made of a dark 
paste, with tliinner walls, with oblate globular bodies, nar- 
rower necks, and having starajjcd around them a regular 
band of ornaments, from a die of bone, wood, or metal. 

Urns very similar to those of the Celtic potteries have 

' U. Ravin b H.Boii«her de Parthati, Ant. Celt, p. COD. 


been found all over Germany, along with the remains of 
the Teutonic races. They are assignable to an age ante- 
cedent to and co-ordinate with the Roman empire, and bear 
considerable resemblance to those of the Pagan Saxons. 
They are friable in texture, with punctured patterns, and 
are grouped round the corpses in the jgraves of the Teu- 
tonic tribes, or are employed to hold their ashes or offerings 
to the dead.^ They are intermediate between the Mexican 
and early Greek. 

The paste of some of these urns is very friable, that of 
others rings Hke stone ware when struck by the hand. It 
is composed of clay and sand, intermixed with particles of 
wliite, yellow, red, or brown mica, which seems to have 
been introduced either to strengthen the clay or produce 
a glittering appearance.^ 

The colour of the paste varies according to the localities. 
The vases at Rossleben and Bottendorf consisted, partly of 
yellow earth, partly of black, mixed with white quartz 
pebbles. Those at Bergen, in Hanover, were of unctuous 
earth, with a shining blue coating. Urns of gray or 
brown paste have been discovered between Cacherin, 
Gisborn, and Langendorf, in the county of the Wends. 
In Lauenstein the pottery is gray and well baked. In 
Lausitz and Silesia it is of all varieties of brown, 
gray, and black colour. Many of the smaller vases 
have, as in the Celtic pottery, been modelled by the 
hand, but the larger urns bear decided marks of 
having been turned upon the wheel. Among them 
are found saucers, plates, cups, goblets with one 

^ Kefersteio, KeltUch. Althertbum. ^ Klemm, Handbuch, s. 169. 

8vo. Halle, 1846, s. 311—313. 

handle, jars, small amphoroB, and bottles. The 
handles are generally small, but in some of the jugs 
they are as large ns 
those found under the Ko- 
mans. They are rarely 
moulded at their edges. 
Some few vases are di- 
videtl with inner vases, as 
if used like little boxes ; 
others hare feet to stand 
upon. Their ornaments 
are either painted with 
colours, or moulded, or 
engraved. Generally the 

artist has been content to raise bosses in circles, a series 
of lunettes upon the clay of the vase, or bosses pressed 
out from vritliin, or studs laid on in separate pieces ; 
but in some instances, as in the Etruscan canopi and 
Egyptian vases, he has moulded a human head with more 
or less skill, but always rudely. Another mode of decora- 
tion was that of puncturing or incising the paste.' The 
ornaments were the hatched lines, bands of points concen- 
tric to the axis of the vases, zigzags, screw lines perpen- 
dicular to the axis, raaeauders, chequers, network lines, 
semicircles and dots, diagonals, triangles, lunes, and pen- 
tagonal ornaments, all peculiar to the Teutonic pottery. 
Some of the ornaments, such as the meander, arc probably 
as late as the Roman Empire. The ornaments of other 
vases are painted in red and jollow by means of ochreous 
earth, and in black by black lead, These are arranged in 


parallel zones or lines. The vases found in Central 
Germany, between the Weser and the Oder, are more 
ornamented than those of the North.* 

The principal shapes are, cups with or without small 
handles ; pots resembling the British urns, with bevelled 
mouths, found near the Black Elsler, small one-handled 
cups like the modem tea-cup ; goblets, of which the most 
remarkable are the long-necked double-handled of the 
Wends, others in the shape of modern tumblers, flasks,' 
and bottles ; diotsB or amphorae with small handles. 
Some urns resemble, by their tall necks and bosses, the 
Anglo-Saxon, and a remarkable kind of urn has a broad 
hemispherical shoulder, and long pointed foot, resembling 
those in which olives are still transported. Some few are 
apparently toys, such as the rattles foimd at Bautzen and 
Oschatz, and a bird found at Luben ; others have been 
found * with human feet, in shape of horns, pierced for 
censers, or grouped in threes. But a scientific classifica- 
tion of the German potteries, according to race and age, 
is a research still to be undertaken. 

Vast quantities of them have been discovered in the 
tumuli of Schkopau, near Merseburg,* at the ancient 
Suevenhock or Schwenden Hiigel (Swedes Hill), the 
greater part however broken by rabbits, and in Saxony 
between Dresden and Meissen, and near Leipzig, in the 
village of Connevitz ; at the mouth of the Black Elsler, 
near the Elbe, 800 tumuli have been opened, and various 
vases have been found near Gusmandorf, on the right 

* Klemm, Handbuch, s. 171. Deutsch alterthum, Hall, 1824, i p. 78, 

' Klcmm, Handbuch, xii. xiii. xiv. PI. 1. 

3 Brongniart, i. p. 476 ; Kruse, 


bank of the Elbe.' At Mecklenburg the rases assume 
more of the Scandinavian tjpe.^ They have been found 
at Kummer, Stolpe, Dobbcrston, Spornitz, Marnitz, Lud- 
wigsliist, Tinikenberg, and Stargard, The vases found in 
Western Germany, on the banks of the Rhine, have 
moulded Up3 like the Roman ware, and are apparently 
made after Roman types. They have been found at Schier- 
stein and Kernel, and in fact throughout all Germany. 
Some remarkable scpiilcliral iirna resembling those of 

the early inhabitants of Alba Longa, already mentioned, 
have been found in Germany, and are distinctly Teutonic. 
They occur in the sepulchres of the period when bronze 
weapons were used, and before tlio predominance of Roman 
art. One found at Mount Chemnitz, in Thuringon, had a 

' DroD)^i>rl, i. p. 476 ; Wjgoer 
in Kruae, Arch., iii pt. ii. p, 10. «t 
Beq. PL i. it 

' Solirotlcr ft LUcb, MuMum Friilii' 
■it.'o-Fnuiciacuiii, Leipiig, 1827. 


cylindrical body and conical top, imitating a roofl In 
this was a square orifice, representing the door or 
window, by which the ashes of the dead were intro- 
duced, and the whole then secured by a small door 
fastened with a metal pin. A second vase was found 
at Roenne ; a third in the island of Bomholm. A 
similar urn exhumed at Parchim had a shorter body, 
taller roof, and door at the side. Still more remarkable 
was another found at Aschersleben, which has its cover 
modelled in shape of a tall conical thatched roof, and the 
door with its ring still remaining. Another with a taller 
body and flatter roof, with a door at the side, was found 
at Klus, near Halberstadt* The larger vases were used 
to hold the ashes of the dead, and are sometimes pro- 
tected by a cover, or stone, or placed in another vase of 
coarser fabric. The others are the household vessels, 
which were offered to the dead filled with different viands. 
Some of the smaller vases appear to have been toys. 

Extraordinary popular superstitions have prevailed 
amongst the German peasantry as to the origin and nature 
of these vases, which in some districts are considered to 
be the work of the elves — in others to grow spontaneously 
from the ground like mushrooms — or to be endued with 
remarkable properties for the preservation of milk and 
other articles of food.^ Weights to sink nets, balls, disks, 
and little rods of terra-cotta are also found in the graves, 

* Liscby ueber die Haiisumen, 8vo, ^ Eefentein, Kelt. Alt, p. 811. 

Schwerin, 1856. 



Connected with this class, and finishing as it were the 
series of these remains, is the Scandinavi;in pottery, which 
resembles in many particulars that of the Teutonic popu- 
lations, and is intermediate between tlie Celtic and the 
earlier or Pagan Saxon. Its paste is coarse, and much 
interspersed with calcareous substances and particles of 
mica.' It was made of the local clay and not turned on the 
lathe, but fashioned with the hand in the lap, a method 
still retained in Scandinavia.^ It is probable that it was 
baked in a way still practised in Scandinavia, namely, by 
placing the pieces in a hole in the ground, and surrounding 
them witli hay. which is then burnt ; a feeble process, 
indeed, but yet sufficient for vases only intended to cover 
the ashes of the dead..' The paste is either of a very dark 
gray, or of a light brown colour. Such at least are those 
in the Museum at Sfevres. The form is more regular than 
the Celtic, but not so good as the Uoman ; the omameuts 
are also more distinct, but the baking is feeble. 

The prevalent shape is the oHa or jar, some of which 
have perforations or little handles at the sides, apparently 
for cords by which they might be carried. Some rare 
examples have conical lids. Smaller vases of other shapes 
are also found. The prevalent ornamentation is the fret 
or herring-bone, and triangular banUs,arranged horizontally 
or vertically to the axis of the vase. They are found in 
the oldest tombs of the so-called stone period,* and held 

' BrongDi(irt.Trut«,i.p.lBO,n.iivL ' WurBuiG, PriiuEGTitl Autiquities of 

Hvii. = Ibid. Dennirk, bj W. J. Tlioms, 8to, Lond. 

' BroBgnlart, Mu», Cer. i. fig. 10, II. 1349, p. 21, 


or covered the ashes of the oldest inhabitants of the 
Cimbric Chersonese. 

In the specimens of this ware hitherto published, the 
shapes bear a resemblance to those found in Greece and 
Grermany rather than in England. Thus, an elegantly 
formed hemispherical cup, another with two large handles 
resembling the Greek scyphos, a diote and amphora with 
tall and narrow cylindrical necks, apparently well turned, 
have been attributed to the stone period.^ Such vases 
were apparently turned on the wheel, and could hardly 
have been moulded by the hand. The vases of the 
Bronze period also bear more resemblance to the 
German than British pottery. The most remarkable 
shapes are the hut-urn, a kind of amphora, and a 
tall jar surmounted by a cover.^ The remains of the 
Iron Age are contemporary with the Saxon or Christian 
period, and belong to another branch of the study of the 
fictile art. 

Future researches, more accurate observations, and 
scientific examination of the remains of the Northern 
races, will help to class more strictly the pottery of the 
rude tribes, to assign its ethnological character, and geo- 
graphical distribution. Amongst those remote from 
Roman conquest, or those antecedent to the rise of the 
Empire of the West, may be traced ornaments and types 
which show the influence of a higher civilisation. The 
slave's ashes in the olh of the Eternal City, those of 
the unconquered chieftain of the North in his rude urn ; 
the Etruscan larth's in the model of his house, the 

' Woreane, Afbildninger, 4to, Kjo- 2 Ibid., pi. 54. 

beuhavD, 1854, pi. 16. 


Teutonic loader's in his hut-shaped um, the Briton's 
ashes covered by the inverted jar, the Roman legionary 
laid in his last home roofed with tiles, show one 
common idea of sepulture, one universfil application of 
the potter's art. 

Yet time and patience unclose many mysteries. There 
are in art, as in literature, certain diacritical signs, which 
enahlc those initiated to fix what appears at first sight to 
elude apprehension. Not only each tribe and fanilly use 
a separate type of shape and ornamentation, but even 
these are in their turn insensibly influenced by time and 
external circumstances. Hence the advance and progress 
of certain races, as relates to tliemselves or as compared 
with others, are to be seen in their monumental remains. 
For the history of those races which have left no written 
records, no inscribed memorials, the pottery is an invalu- 
able guide. It may be compared with those fossil remains 
by which man attempts to measure the chronology of the 
earth, for the pottery of each race bears with it internal 
evidence of the stratum of human existence to which it 
belongs. Its use is anterior to that of metals ; it is as 
enduring as brass. All the pottery of the northern races 
is of the lowest order with respect to those qualities which 
characterise excellence in the potter's art. Their kilns, it 
is evident, were of the rudest and feeblest kind ; little 
care was paid to the preparation of the clay, and the 
fashioning was a mere rude modelling with the hand. 
The simplest kind of ornamentation delighted the inha- 
bitants of the rude huts of the north. In no instance has 
the potter left either his name or other inscription on the 
vessels he ma<le ; and their age and fabric liave to be 


searched for in the objects which surround them, or in the 
character of the locaUty where they are found. Great 
doubts will for some time prevail as to their actual age, 
and even the divisions of time supposed to be marked by 
the so-called ages of Stone, Bronze, and Iron are not 
definitely settled. When the potter s art arrives at per- 
fection, it charms by the impress of the art which embel- 
lishes it, but the examples in its infiincy instruct by the 
clue it affords to the primitive art of mankind. A due 
knowledge of the great distinction of the various products 
of the art of pottery amongst the ancients is essential to 
a perfect knowledge of the relative antiquity of races and 
sites. The use of letters is comparatively recent, the 
glyptic and graphic arts only exist in their later forms 
as exercised on unperishable materials ; but in every 
quarter of the world fictile fragments of the earliest efforts 
lie beneath the soil, fragile but enduring remains of the 
time when the world was in its youth. 


No. I. (Vol. I., p. 165.) 




EPI azkahpioahpoy 







No. II. (Vol. I., p. 186.) 

























No. III. (Vol. I. p. 193.) 








































































































TimarchuB Timotheua Tisamenes Xenophon 

Tiiiiodicus TimoxeDus Xeno Zeno 

Timorrhoilus Tinagorae Xenophontus 

For n fuller list, see Bocltb. Corpus Inscr. Grwc. (Vol. IH.. 
Prfpf. p. v.— liv.) 

The mouths ore, — Tbeamopliorios, Dioathyus, Agrianus, Pedageit- 
uius, BadroiniuB, Artsmitius, Tbeudiesius, Dalins, HfaciutbiuB, 
SmiothiuB, CarneiuB, Fanamus, a second FanainuB. A Neomeoia 
is also meutioned. 

See Trans. Eoy. Soo. Lit. iii., p. 38. 

No. IV. (Page 105.) 


KAEAPXOY (hc«d of Apollo) 




ANAPIKOY (cajoceus) 











MIAA (bunch of grapes and 

EUKPATEVZ (torch and 


MENOeEMIAOZ (l»o cor. 

nucopiro and bipcnnts) 

and anchor) 
AMVNTA (wreath) 
APirTAPXOY (stars) 

nveorENEVE (rat) 

AAMATPIOV (cap. of Dios- 









AeANOTOY (comucopiae) 

AIOAOTOY (fish) 
IZIAXIPOY (acrostolium) 


APIZTEIAA (head of 


And others. See Bochk. Corp. Inscr. Grs&c. 1. c. 

No. V. (Vol. I., p. 196.) 




















































The formula on the handles of the amphorae is KNT, KNIAI, 


See Trans. E. Soc. Lit. iii. p. 61 ; Bockh. Corp. Inscr., No. 1851- 

1863 ; and Vol. III., Praef. p. xiv. — xvii. 



No. VI. (Vol I., p. 199.) 




Aurxpu»v[o] Afrrefuitapov 

AiroXkodtapof^jo] Atowo'tov 



ArroXoff Bopvof 

Bopvf ^lowtriov 

hopv£ Etrruuav 



LiowiTiot Aya$»vos 

Aiowctor AmffiovTov 

Atoyvatog o AnrjfiavTov 

Lto¥V(no£ o Aiomfaiov 


I^KOTCUOS ApTffitdapov 

EoTiaior Bopvos 

ESoTioior KXcoiycrov 

EoTioior MiBpadcerov 

BoMcXi/ff o Airo\K»»iov 

Zifns o AiroXXodoipov 


HpoicXcidi^ff o Eiearoiov 


6cayffyi7f o NcMcavopor 


Iinra»v ^owauw 

IpnwfJLOf o Ipnwfiov 

larpiov o AfToXXttVido 

l<l>iKpcenis Ncv^vcov 



yiavTiBeos o TLpiarayopiv 

MtnfO-iKkris Apurrnvoe 

Mmjauckqs IIvBov 



noais o Aartiov 
Uponrayopas o Kvvktkov 
nroXf/AGiof ^unftayrov 
TIvSoKkrjs KaXXttrOtvovs 

TLvOoxp^fTTos o AnoKkfoviliov 
liv$oxpritrro£ Uptarayopov 


^fuo£ o Bv<riXca> 


Xmpriymv o Afcofifdovroff. 

▼OL. II. 

O O 



No. VII. (Vol. I., p. 201.) 









ScfUiXt«»y o KXf i< 










EoTiaior llo- 


































No. VIII. (Vol. I., p. 248.) 


A fragment in the Museum of Sevres of the black glaze gave the 
result of 63*0 silica, 20*5 alumina, 40 oxide of iron, 9*0 carb. lime, 
2'0 magnesia, 2*0 water ; that of a Vulcian vase, 55*49 sil., 19'21 
alum., 16-55 ox. ir., 7*48 carb. lime, 1*27 magn. The glazes of vases 
of the Decadence, or so called Campanian, ware, of a phiale, 52*95 
sil., 27*15 alum., 1289 ox. ir., 5*25 carb. lime, 1*76 water; of a large 
cylix, 5510 sil., 18*36 alum., 16*54 ox. ir., 9.0 water, 1*0 magn. ; of 
a smaller cylix, 60*0 sil., 13*63 alum., 19*0 ox. ir., 5*91 carb. lime, 
2'56 magn. ; of another small cylix, 57*50 sil., 180 alum., 14*21 ox. 
ir., 7*73 carb. lime, 256 magn. ; of a crater, 54*25 sil., 1891 alum., 
15*51 ox. ir., 9*5 carb. lime, 1*83 magn. The analysis of Salvetat 
gave nearly the same results, — 55*88 sil., 18*88 alum., 15*80 ox. ir., 
7*48 carb. lime, 1*63 water; and 46*3 sil., 11*9 alum., 16*7 ox. ir., 
6*7 carb. lime, 2*30 magn., 17*1 soda. It is supposed to have been a 
soda glass with an oxide of iron and lime. (Brongniart, Traits, i., 
p. 550 ; Cat. Mus. Pract. Geol. p. 35.) 



No, IX. (Vol. II., p. 36, Appendix I.) 



































































Eupar . . . tos 












































D D 2 

c cca wnuM i^ ^^ 

C ICOi-«*TIO«« BfTimc 







^H^^^^^ 'm I 






■//"LERIVS ■ 

^ *»:^ 

r^tC SATVRN ■ 







. s TIBER F ■ 

■-■■; FACTVS ■ 


r 1 

'!ii]ied on Samian ^^^^B 


not comprise the T 

Ti ; many without 1 

.: .>i'u probably double ^^^^ 



Augustus. They are ^^^^H 

-<TB used, as tbe aame ^^^^H 

at Murviedo in 8pain, ^^^H 

i it is evident that they 1 

li^^y were eiported. The 1 


<f Mr. BoBch Smith, the 1 
lOut, the Normaodie Sou- 1 

of M. Janasen, and the 1 




LABI ^^^H 
L-AE' ^^^H 

LICINI - ^^^^1 

LVCCEI ^^^^1 
MANA ^^^^H 

MARO ' ^^^H 

V ^1 



No. XIII. (Vol. II., p. 812.) 
















DOM - ' $ 





L : : : : EN 








8 FE 



THI • 8W 








C • IV • R • 



L CAN ' SEC ' 

L ' C SOLL ' 






M C C 

M ' AEM ' RUS 


8 * C * L 
F, or FECIT, before Um 


c • cvf:a 

F Aft«r the name. 






OF i^ft^ the nama. 

' ' - EMINC 

' ' QEBI 

• 'L C • F 'P 'C 






NYMP • M • F S • 







CAS • • 


























With F, or FECIT, after the 












♦ R. Smith, Collectanea, L 149—150; Arohajol. ▼iii., Jansaen, Insor. p. 12, and 


















with OF- 







Q ■ VA SE ■ 




Q ■ VAL ■ F " VERAN F 









XIV. (Tol. 11., p. 862.) 




The accompatiymg list containa the nameB stamped on Samian 
vare in England and on the continent. It does not compriae the 
Aretine pottere. They are given as they have been ; many without 
doubt erroneously ; and othere aa single, which are probably double 
namea. Few are older than the time of AugUBtiia. They are 
claeaed according to the formula tbe potters used, aa the aame 
names are found at Augst in Switzerland, at Murviedo in Spain, 
in London, and in Kormandy, and Holland, it is evident that they 
belong to some renowned pottery, whence they were exported. The 
principal authoritiea are the Collectanea of Mr. Boach Smith, the 
list of Mr. Neville, the Cours of M. Caumont, the Normandie 8ou- 
terraino of M, Cochet, the Inscriptions of M. Janasen, and the 
Handbuch of Wagener. 

With 0, OFF. OFFIC before the potter's name. 

















































NARI8 • 








8ABIN * 









PA88I • 


PA88ieNI - 


















R08 • RVFI 



EX - OF before the name 



With o. OFF, or OFFIC after the potter's name. 


L • C • CELSI • 






































AVIT08 • 












C • AN • PATR 




With F, FE, FEC, FECIT after the potter's name. 















411 1 




















Fwlthigonitivtiforflgull. ^^^^H 



















OVKI ■ lA 







































HELL ■ ■ ■ 1 















































CyPITVf • 
















































































































f YMPHO • 

























With M ; or MA, <br moKU 
after the name. 




4tt J 
















■ ECVN ■ 









CiVftRI ■ 















CO»MI ■ 



CRACI ■ a • 






















DEM ' - • R ■ 

PA»tW ■ 






Wilh M S, MayiM . 

s^ ■ 






Wlih MANV 








Q\\ ■ AISA ■ 






























lABlNI ■ 












































ERiCI • 






























































































C • GRATI • 




cost • RVFIN 


C * VAL • AB 



FL • COS • V • 



L • FABR • 


L • CELI - 


L • RASIN • P • 

L • P • RIC 



M * PER • CR • 







APPENDIX. ill ^^^^B 





A list of incised iascriptians is giveii, Jaiissen, loc. cit. p. 159, and H 

following. ^^M 


tPragmeat in BriUsb Mua^qm. ] ^^^H 

C IVLI CENII CR OCOO ' AD ' AtPE - ^^^^^| 


CAMAR ' O ' FIRMINVB ^^^^^^^^^| 
L ' CASH ' O AVCUSTI - F ' ^^^^H 




No. XT. ^^^ 


Qbeat BBtTilB. 

HajBr, H., Esq., Liretpool. 

A.ldington. H. Esq., 8L Martin's Une. 

Mu«uiD of Piirtical Geologj, Jennjn 

Auldjo, T, S»q., Nu«1 Bouse, Kensington . 

Street, LandoD. 

Korthwick, Lord, 4i, St. James Flaw. 

race, London. 

NorlliamploD, Marquis of, Cartle Ashbj. 

Boileati, Sir J., Birt.. 20, Upper B™,k 

Northnmbeiland, Date of, Alnwick. 

Street, London. 

Nerille, U. H., Esq., Upper Orosrenor 

British Unseam, Loudon. 

Street. London. 

Cvlogan. Earl, 138, PiocadlUy, London. 

Chichorter Moseum. 

SoBiol, of Art., Adolphi. London. 

FiUwillinn. MoMum, Cmbridgo. 

Y^rk, Mn«nmofPliilo*,phiaLl8orfrtj. 

Porman, W. H., Dyet.' lUll Wlmrf. 

Fartnnm. E. C, Esq., atanmora. 


Qr»j, EoT., Hamilton, BoIsoTer. 


OnildhAll Musenin, London. 

Bibliothique Inip*ri»le, Rne RicheUeu. 

Hamilton, Dake of, Huallton, ScotUnd. 


Boulogne Muwam. 

Ho»«, B. R. C. 

M. PooH P»ri«. 

lekjH, E.. Enq.. 2, Grafton St., Bond St. 

Connt Ponrtal^-Gorgier, P«ii. 

Dno de Lujne., pjui. and DamperTC. 

Lnke, W. M., Biiq., Queen Anoe Street, 

Lfoiu Uuanin. 


H. Fanckoneke, Fari>. ^^^ 



BmaaeUa* Mnseiim. 


linden Mmeom. 


Berne Mnaenm. 

King^B Collection, CopenhAgen. 
Thorwaldsen MoBeom, Copenhagen. 

Hennitage, St Petersborg. 
Odessa Mnsenm. 

Berlin Mnsenm. 
Uniyersity of Bonn. 


Antiken-Kabinet, Vienna. 



Palagi Collection, Milan. 


Moseam, Florence. 

Casnodni Collection, GhiosL 
S. Francois, Leghorn* 
Moaeo Rossi Baooi, Areno. 

Papal Statbs. 

Mnseo QregorianO) Rome. 
S. Campana, Rome. 


Mnseo Borbonico, Naples. 

Conte di Siracusa, Naples. 

Gayaliere St. Angelo, Naples. 

S. Barone, Naples. 

a Betti, Naples. 

8. Tormsio, Naples. 

S. Qargiolo, Naples. 

8. latta, Rnvo. 

S. Fittipaldi, Anzl. 

S. Rainone, St. Agata dei Qoti. 

Museum at Syracuse. 

Museum at Palermo. 

Principe della Trabbia Palermo. 

Qiudica ColleotioD, Palasxuob. 





Abbittixk, C«Itio vanca of the Roman 

period (band at, ii. 387 
Aene, in Sicil;, tiles foqnd at, i. 163 
AdonU, ane of flover-pots M llio featiTn! 

ur, i. 202 
Jtgin^ potlerie* in the eartieat timei, 

fomid Rt, ii. 42-120 
Sgop, fable of; ahowing tha market 

Tsloe, in Greece, of terra-cotta figures, 

i. 160 
Jtttiieted olil styles in Greet vaaea, i. 2y'fi. 

Africa, Hcpu!cbn» imd tuu found 

Fiuvatbenaic va-tea, ii. 171 ; Toaea 
Berenice, imported from Athena ; eics- 
T&tionK of M. Vattier de Bourrilleiiiid 
Mr. Weny, 17fi : Mr. Newton'f 
oooDt of rana in tbe Louvre, fram bhs 
CfroDuca, 17S, 178; nm foi " 
Tripoli), 1 76 ; vuea firom Gaptoa, miulf 
of as aroinatiu euth, pbialie ol 
Tfancratis, vith a glaie reseiabling 
■Uver, painted rasei tnnx the cata- 
comba of AUvmUria, 17S, 177 

Agata, Bt. dei Uoti. haa given ila name 
to a elau of Greek Taae^ L !88 

Agrigpiitum, terra-cotta Tuea in imita- 
tion of metal, found at, i. 20S 

Atrrolaa. t!te Hyperbiua 

Akerkat, tbe nm-dried bricka of, with- 
out itraw, i. 133 

AtabastroD, oil Taae, ii. 86 

Alesai, the diKorer; of triw at Aicuo, 
mentioned bf , ii. 310 

Alexander the Qn«t, life of, b; the 
giwado Callicthenea, reference lo the 
" dinb divinatioo," ti. lOU 

Aloxandrin, Bhodian anphonc^ Tuium) ai, 
i. ISO 

Altibar, AuTrian king, name of| in- 

BcribeJ on covering slab of an earthen. 

sarcophagus, i. 120 
AtoaaiB II., wint-ed poreelain box, in- 

Kribed with name of, i. 75 
AmaEona on Greek raaea, i. IfiS 
Amenbept or AiDeoophia, name of, 

inscribed on human-headed BcarabieaB 

in Britiiib Maeeiim, i. 21 
Aroenophis III., acarabiei inseribed with 

lines of bierogljpbita, isaued in rviga 

of, i. K" 

ent, tbe] 

i. SI 

Ammou, oasia of. Stt Sobah 
Amphone, Qrcek, i. lSU-201 ; aUmped 

handlcBof, 191. SteVas^ ; doKription 

of, n. 77-80 
Amram, Tuea vith inncriptiona in the 

Hebrew character, found at, i. 163 
Ainraphel, name inscribed on brieki at 

Kalah Shergat, i- 112 
Amaleta, porcel^ beads and oraamentn, 

i. 80-fi£ ; porcelain figures of Egyptian 

deitiea, 86-89 
Andocides, a potter, himself painter of 


a vasea, ii. G-9 

Autefixni, ornnmeut oi 

Aphrodite, repn»ent«i on tsiks, i. s'iis 

Apullo, temple of; bailt at tem-cotta, i. 

167; repreunted on Tases,i. 324-326 
Apnleius, lamp* used in retigioiu eesre- 

monies, mentioaed bj, iL 297 
Apulia, fincat examples of tbe florid atjie 

of Greek art found in, i. 290 
Arataino, lue (or drawing liqaida, ii. 9S 
Arban, ponelain bowls with Biabe«qne 

pattern, found ai, I. 130 
Archaic aijie in Greek vaami, i. 257-2rtH 
Archoni' names, found on inicn, ii. 174 
AroeflilauR, the cup of, dale of, i. 234 
Ardaiiion, rase nsed [m an emblem of 

death, ii. 102 

Ar*», ropr«aaiit.iJ on rues, i. 32S 
Areuo, walln nf, built of tiles, ii. 133 
Argidumts, reiiRBCDted on tu«, I. 362 
Arintopbuics, Mpnlcbral tucs sIlndBd to 
""" ; illusion oil ^ liveltJng 

naet, 221 
Art. Oreciui. 

I nUtlnn 1 

nni tnieca oi, in aiu Hinor. i 
SGI ; nrnpliuttj of ornuiient in vases 
in ibe eorlivHt stjU of, 292, 2S7; 
uma, general description of tbs 
style meceeding the cartieit of, 2G7- 
SfiS ; tase of, an euinple of the 
gndiul poaxing from the piimitire to 
tlie archaic st^le, 258; flowen * 
ftvourito oniameDt id tbe ucliaic style, 
260 ; coiamoner ibapc* of tbe archaic 
style of, 2'^l-2fl2; tbe Dodirell Tue, 
2ns ; origin of the archaic ityle, 266- 
Sflfl ; firat examples of colaared figuna 
on Tues, 206 ; chuacUristics of niaes 
iTum different dtieii 3S7 ; TBsea of tbe 
tranBtion period. 289-271 ; Tariety of 
oolour in relation to more scciiist« 
drawing, 272, !7fi ; the tnuisitiuaal 
charaoteriiticg of, 276-278 ; change io 
the colour of Sgores on lasea, 2 79 ; 
"the strong atyle," 2S0-2S1 ; age of 
TBses In this style, 282 ; improvement 
in designs on vases, 284-28S ; age of 
Tases, 285 ; ihapei of tims, 286 ; 
peonliarities of the great Greek paint- 
ers followed in Tsses, 237-288 ; negli- 
gence in oiecntjon of designs, S8G, 
2S8 1 the florid style, 290, 281 ; 
perspcatire Arst olaerred in designs, 
SSO ; polychromo Tases, 291 ; charac- 
ter of the drawing on funereal sabjoota, 
292 ; date of polychrome laacB, 293 ; 
Tariety of forms, 293-285 ; the de- 
cadenoestyle, 295 ; cities and diitriots, 
vhere they are chiefly found, date, 
296 ; subject of decadonw yams, 297- 
298 ; chamoter of deaigni on vaaci of 
the hut olua, 298, 29B ; fictile rasea 
superseded by metallic, 300 ; figures 
disposed in continuous friezes, laiger 
space allowed to accesBorieii, cbarae- 
tariatic of early tcsbb, 301 ; more 
careful treatment and diminished num- 
ber of figures, aimplicjty in delineation 
of accessories, aeoompanied improTe- 
ment in art, 302-303 ; attempt at 
pictorial eSbct, greater importance of 
mere omamDnt, ohsorred in tbe Ul«r 
dsrelopment of style, 301-30S ; impos- 
sibility of clBBSifjing rases lij their 
place of manufihrture, criteria of tbe 
age of Tsscs, 30S-:iU7 
, the liecoratioBB of, not re- 

stricted t 
relief oi 

fictile I 

subjects i 

■ of wood nt metal, o 

amber and glass, 1. 3SS-310 ; arrange- 
ment of Tasss according (o the deeoi^- 
tinns, SIO, S12 1 HitUngen's clasnfia- 
tion of subjects, 812-313 ; Panofka'a. 
313 ; order preferred, adopted by 
Mnller and Qerbard, 313-314; Eub- 
jects generally Greek. 
Art, Oreciao, onuawnts of, applied to the 
deoorations of tsshi, ii. 1 ; raaes with- 
nnt oraament, 1 ; porerty of ornament 
obancleristie of the beat tiraea, 3, 8 ; 

S, i i use of the fret on early ti 
4 ; ringed Dmamenla, 6 ; egg and 
tongue used at all periods, omameDt 
imi lating scales, 6 ; of the solofim 
or belli, G-fi ; amngemeut of orna- 
ment on viaea, 10-13 ; Tose puntings 
not serrile imltatians, 12 ; aulyeoM 
furnished by the works of seulplon 
and artists, I S, H ; rase puaten nut 
artists of distinction, 59 ; nainw of 
painters, rare on vases of e«rly and of 
late styles, 60 ; alpliabetical liat of 
rase painters, 60-65 

Artemis, represented on vases, i. 32S 

Aryballo^ oil flask, ii. 95, 96 

Aryseia, arysl^r, arysane, arystris, rases 
for drawing liijnids, ii. 96 

AryatichoB, vase for drawing irine, ii. 96 

Aiyter, vase fur wine, ii. 96 

Asaminthos, vase used in batb^ ii. BS 

Aschersleben, funeral urn (bund at, iL 

n imitation of wine skin^ ii. 



Asia Minnr, Greek cirilisation fint ap- 
peared in, i 261 

Assyria, bri(>ka of, manofactuic and nse, 
105-109 : Boulntuim of, geldom repre- 
sentations ofprirale life, i. 105 ; edifices 
of, built on brick platforms, 106 ; 
liiatory and geography to be teamed 
from inscriptions on palaces, 109 ; 
cylinders naed for historical reciirds in, 
113 ; porcelua colleoted by Buphmtes 
eipedibon, 130 ; vork of (Jreek 
artists in, 121 

Athena, coins of, with impres^ons of 
amphoric, i. 63 ; composition in terra- 
cotta in the temple of Bacchua, 170; 
graves in early times snnk in the 
ground, 210 ; rasea o^ imitatine 
metallic reliefs, 232 ; two-handled 
bowhi found at, 259 ; rase with alle- 
gorical subjects and gildnl omaments. 

ADonSTUS. 419 BRONONIART. ^^^^| 

3P1 ; MTly potterj ot, u. 12 ; the 

Bricks {Eji/ptiaii), sun-dried, forma o^ 

pottarien o^ the laaat celebrated {q 

anitwi to the climate of Egypt, i. 10 ; 

Oreeoe, 131 ; export trade in them, 

pynimidB and other edifices of, 11-14 j 

121-125 ; the invention of the potWr's 

materials used in constmctioo of. 12- 

wheel claimed hy, 121 

Aognstne, lie b«Bt of, U. 228, 240 

BtaaipB for markiag, 10 ; from Tanis 

or Zcian, 17 ; manufacture of, repre- 

»nted on a tomb at Thebes, 19 ; arch 

of, 20 : fire-baked, 22 ; colour^ aiie, 

nso, probable daW of, 23 ; Koman, 


fonnd in Egypt, 23 

{A«yrian). sun-dried, of Tigris, 

Riisiioi, poiToUin iisa, fonnd at, I 

or Biiphiatee mud and stubble,!. lOH ; 


chief uae of, lOR ; faced with marble. 

Babel. Tower of, built of britk Mmented 

painted and gilded, 107 : Gre-baked, 

with litumen, i. 13» 

Babylon, aaeieDl liW of, i. 133 ; proper, 

dimensions of, 108-109 ; character of 

arai of, 137 ; ruined cities of, 137 ; 

peOBliar muiner of biking bricks in, 

133 : bricks from, 138 ; terT»-cotU 

lours and Dmomenta of, 127 

BlBt™. 116 

(Jafi,fo«ia-), .un-dried, i. 131 ; 

330, 337 

133; stamped, 134; staged of Bin 

B&l, or Set, modtlled on Roman naler- 

Mimrlid, 135; partly ann-dried. 138; 

bottlea, found in Egypt, i. 39 ; eagnY«i 

on ring plalee, 91 

fitimthe mioB of Works, 141; reeds 

Bwcanda, Britieh mmJi, u. 331 ; Sool- 

tiHh, 984 

1 41, 1 42 ; day for, dag i^m the ditches 

Baalicala. tmw from, tbair ityle, ii. 

aurrtwmding citiea, 140 ; invention o^ 


(Or«t). n.n-dried. used till the 


Hauls, Bgjptiui, i. 80 

Beger, L&nrent, pnbliibed plates of vawi 

baked, used in the Homeric age, 

is the collection of the Elector of Bnn- 

buildinga of, 130 ; oames and dimen- 

denborg, i. 215 

■ions 0^ lei i so light u to float io 

water, 101 

Belmorc, Lord, ooUectioD of, cow of 

— {Somati) ludoruB, derivation of 

Athor, inUid in blue porcelain on 

the Latin Urm for ; Tarioaa luea 

takareouB rtone, i. 70 

of, I 223 ; mn-dried, Pliny's nommnt 

of, 2S4-22S ; fire-baked, mode of ma- 

i. 21 

nufacture of, 228, 227 ; varieties from 

different pl»e<«, 227; edifices o^ 

work. i. iB 

periods of thur use in Rome, 228 ; 

Berenice, date of vaM fonnd at, i. 224 

modes of Ujing. 228-228 

Be«a, Egjpti-U" ««. ii. 83 

British Museum. Set Unsanm. 

Bic«. wine Tose, ii. 75 

pottery, ii. 380 

Birs Nimrftd, de«!rip(ion of, i. 135, 136 ; 

Brongniort^ M., by, description of a sar- 

cophagns in the Museum of Sevres, i. 

Bitmnen used to eement bricks in Ai- 

ayrio, i. 108; used to cement brieka 

type of vases, 4fi ; opinions of, on 

in Babylon, 130 

polished pottery, £4 ; onalysia of rod 

Bombyllo^ Blender neckod xue, u. 83 

ware by, SI ; quoted on the subject 

of paste, of lerra-eolta vasei, 220 ; 

cities of, i. 199 

Grecian glaie dowribed by, 247 ; vase 

Botla, M., exavation. of, i. lOS ; fonnd 

vaiwfl containing burnt bones at Klior- 

now in the BiblJothSque Iraperiale at 

•ahad, 122; glaied acarabxnu at 

Paris, iL 178: descripUon by, of 

Khoreabad, 130 

BuKiooor, Roman (lies from, ii. 282 

of Romiui terra-cotla vanes, H24 
■ ■ 2 


BriiiiilAeil, M., dute fixed b;, of the uld- 

tst Fuiatben&ie tdtcs, i, 224 
BncknuD, PtoreBBor, olnniflcatioa of Eo- 



finrgODf Mr.p truui^lar bricka foond bj, 
&t Alenuidria Trou, L 100 ; ■■belled 
tiles fouDrl bj, in eicsTBlJans alAlheus, 
165; aiopbDra diKOTered bj, 271; 
fine poljchroDie nee fuuud I7, neu 
Uio Pineeiu, 293 

Byie> of Noxos, tlu inTentioi] 0^ L 1'66 


Casmdb an Qroek ruei, i. 3S0, vine tue, ii. 80 

Ciere, or Cervetn, tanDcllcd lomta of, i. 
210 ; eu-liest coloured Tiuei fnaud ftt, 
s found in sepalchrea of, 
be BepnIctirEB of^ tbe oldeet 
BCruK&n nset foond, ii. 120 ; ante- 
Bxal omameiiU painted in engoke, 

Cales, ancieDtly poaaesaed b Um-cotta 
manubctor;, i. 2S0 

Callitrlioe fonatun repreNuted on Oreak 
Tue, i. 273 

Calliathenea, informed by Chaldean 
prieabi of aalrimomiHil obeerTnliona 
inacribed on bricks, i. 117 

Calpia, VHter yaae, ii, 81 

Caijnma, tilea with circular labels, foand 
in the grsTes at, i. 166 ; man^ Bmall 
terrs-wtta fignrea diaco'ared in, 172 j 
Umpa from eicavationa it, 180 

Cuupana, M., mode of adjusting tilea de- 
scribed bj, i. 166; collection, cjlii 
painted with tbe Bubject of ThoBeue 
atrelcliing Procruitca on bia bed, 296 

Candelabra, for mounting lamps, i. 62 

Caitina, M., mode of adjusting tiles de- 
nribod bj, 166 

CaaoBs, Guest Italian vases found, at, ii. 


Conoun, canastron, vase for food, ii. 
CaDtha.rnii, drinking cup, ii. 104 
Capua, Tales frnm, ii. 149-150 
Carcheeion, drinking cup, ii. lOS 
Casks, BBrtJienware, Bgjrptian, i. 41 
Cairter, Eoman funiace at, ii. 305 
Cattle canes, i. ISl 
GbjIuh, engravings of vases in 

"Rocueil" of, i. ai5 
Gelebe, Bpoc[» of crater, ii. S7 
Celtic pDttsrj, ii. S77 
OentaarH, qbhI pithoi for auks, i. 1 

iepr«seDt4)d on Tases, i. 368 
Cerretri, tem-<!Ottii group from, ii. '. 


Cephiilos, a potter alluded (o by Aristo- 

pbanes, ii. 47 
CheirDni[}tron, clieironipa, chemibon, 

wash hand -basin*, ii. 101 
Cbona, earlhenwaie measnre, ii. 112 
Chytna, earthenware puts, ii, 60 
Cbjtropnna, earthenware trivet, ii. 93 
CinjraB, inventor of tiles, i- 162 
Civila VecuMa, tunnelled tombs of, i. 

CircoB, gamei 0^ on a Roman blmp^ U. 

Clajr, Bon-dried, naed b} Egyptian mo- 

ildlers. i. 20, 21 ; mana&ctiir« ot, 

into pottery, 46 ; unbaked, GgancB of, 

found nuder pavement slabs of Aasy- 

rian palacei, 1 07 ; from the ditches 

surrauniling dtiea, used fur Irick- 

making in Babylon, 140 
Clemena, of Alexandria, ascribes the 

inrentian of lamps to the Egyptians, 

i. IBS 
Clitias, painter of the Francois vTlae, U, 

CniduB, amphoTO from, L 196; tbe fine 

days of, 22S 
Coiners, Roman moulds, found in York- 

Colchester, Itoman kiln found at, ii. SOS 

Coliao, Mount, promontury of, mine near 
the, funous for ill claya, L 228 

Collections of pottery, b«it of, in Eng- 
land, Italy, i. 209, 210 

Cones, BBpulohial, of earthenware, Egyp- 
tian, i. 24 ; dimensioua, probable nae 
o(, inauriptiuns oa, 25-29 ; pine in 
earthenware, architectural ormunenta 
inKgfpt, 63; of brick at Warka, 1 41 - 
142; vertically pierced from Corcyra, 
ISl ; Etiuaran, of tecta-cotta, tound 
at Vulci, ii. 199 

Constonliae, Coptic inacribed tilei belong- 
ing to the age of, i. 65 

Conventional mode of distingnisbing cer- 
tain persooagea on Greek vaMs, iL 

Corinth, the NympbffiUni o^ Grit flgnre 
manliled in terra-colta preaerred therc^ 
L 163; amphono handles fimn, de- 
scribed by Mr. Stoddarl, 199 ; tombs 
of, contoining vasea, 210 ; tie fine 
dajB of, 22s ; the earliest eaubliah- 
meat of potteries at, ii. 42 ; Taws of, 

Cothon, drinldiig cup, ii. 82 

Cotytos, wine cup, ii. B64S 

Covelli, Niccola, uialysia of paste forTaaea 
br. i. 229 


preum, the northeramoat point where 
Qivek Tuaog have been found, their 
>[tialic iletails, uae hnviLg for anb- 
jecl a t^ornbst dC gryphoDs and the 
Ari>nu{>i, date assigaed them, ii. 177, 
Croasus, twn-hondled water rmse, ii. 82 
CuniiB, nee discoTered at, with gilded 

ftieEBS, i. 233 
Cnminodooos, gpioe-hoi, ii. Ill 
Cjathoo, cup foi drawing wine, ii. BS, 

Cijlicta, drinking vnps, iL 105-lOS 
Ojlinders, Egyptiun, of glued itone, 
iUHCrilied with namea of kingH, i. 101 ; 
historical, of terra- cotla, Aaayriiui, 
113; manner of writing on, in Ai- 
Bjria, lis J of KebnchwLieEur, H&; 
lialjytoaiui, enumenkted by Sz H. 
RanliniDn, 145 
Cy^^ma, tilee invented in, L 162 
Cypselia, vaae for aweetmoats, ii. Ill 

D'AanrooDHT, tem-cotta money-boxes, 
engraved by, ii. 267, 26S 

D&maratUB of Oorinth, ittatt unite in 
the time gF, ii. 120; Bottled at 
Corueto, 131, 111 

Darina I., cylinder of, i. IIT 

Dashoar, pyramid oi; i. 12, 18 

Deeadencv style in Qreek vasea, L 295- 

Deities, Helleniaed Egyptian, muitelled 
in t«rra-cotta, i. 61 ; on Greek vowa, 
317-348 ; porcelain imagaa of, lunn- 
leta for the dead, 85-90 

Dulta, the, of £gypC, andently a vait 
briekiield, i. 12 

Demctar on Oreek Tasea, i. 325 

Uempater, plalea of vucs publiahed by, 
i. 215 

De nitte, H., ot, the cUuifiaatiou of 
Italian (uea, ii. 128 

D' Hancarvillc^ classification of Qreek 
vaaea, i. 23G ; remark* on the mate- 
rial and painting of Qteek rasea, 
242 ; opinioDB on the CDmpuaition of 
the black and while used iD paint- 
ing Oreek tsscs, 245, 240 ; furnace 
for baking vsmb, described by, 268 ; 
opinion with r^ard to large rues, ii- 

Dibutadea, firvt potter who pUoed laatki 
on gutter-tiles, L 1(12: iurenlair of 
modelling in lerra-culU, ltt9 ; of 
culonring city for Matmn, ITO 

Dinos, wise vaac, ii. SO 

DiDgeaea, domicile of, i. 133 

Dionysos represented on Qreek vues, 

i. 380-337 
Dionyaina of Syracuae, use of emben 

Irom pottery kilns, i. 250 
DIscoa, earthenware dish, ii. Ill 
Dodwell. dale assigned by, to the oi 

in a aepuichre 
ii. 12B 
DuUh of Oreek pottery. 

Drain-tiles, i. 1^3 

Dnrand CiiUeotion, lamp in tbe, rapre- 
aenllng ■ potter modelling, i. 231 

BiBLiESl style in Greek vases, L 252- 
267 ■ 

Earthenware. Set Pottery. 

Ecbatana, walla of. jiaiuled eiteroally, 
i. 107 ; the Median, walls of, built 
of coloured bricks, 130 

Bgypt, uldest pottery from, i. 9 ; put- 
lary extensively used In, 13 ; laaat ot, 
wanting distinct type of fabria, 44 ; 
early BlatueB of, frequently poroehun, 
70; invocations to the gods of, in- 
acrilied on vaaea, 74 ; commnnity of 
art in Asayrta and, 102 ; bisMi? of, 
llluatrated, by porcelain gema and 


Quleta, 102, 1 
Elgin's, Lord, Greek 
Ellis, Mr., Hebrew mseriptii 

phered by, L 122 ; inserip 

ciphered by, 154 
Bmbaphia, vases, stuipe nnki 

Enamel, analyua of, uaed to coat Assy- 
rian bricks, i. 1 28 
Epiehysis, oil flask, ii. 95 
Bpicletoa, a celebrated painter of vaaea 

with red figures, ii. 61 
Bpiganea. See Fliny. 
EntoclhencB, "Account of Vasea," i. 

Brena, vase for sweetmeats, ii. 1 1 1 
Brua reijrvsented on Greek vases, i. 310 
Erythne, thin and light amphuim in tbe 

lemple D^ L 228 
Esarhadilon, cylinder n^ i. 113 
Btnerytis, vasa for palse, ii. Ufl 
Etmria, Bucheir, and Bugiammus brought 
ths art of va«-makiug from Coriotli 
to, ii. 137 : vases of the oldest atyla 
discora^ 131 ; at ComsW in, biaek 
vaac* with embossed flpurea, a few 
painWil v«M», dlaintiTted, 132 ; at 


TokuhU*! Ohinn Mid Suicano in, 
dMuipUoo of Tues foimd, lumea of 

Clf, 133, 133 ; uf Orb«Ml1o uid 
Tm, 133, 134; Grum Sieu, 
Bonuno, mnd Ortiato, *um, 134, 
136 ; Bt Film in, pottei's tntablish- 
ment duwovorcrd, 134 ; Veii, black 
EtroKwi Tu^ oi. 135 ; Vmin aepvl- 
chna uid punled T5M*, 135, 130 ; 
Oktb tuw, 136, 137; Vnlci cues- 
TBtimu dnmi from H. Gvibard'a 
report, beaut; and Tarietj af the 
lues, 137-139 ; tbe Qr^k oripn of 
theae dupnted, ISS ; the preseace of 
■0 gmt > Dmnber accounUd Tor, 142 ; 
probsUy imported from Greek mlo- 
nies, 142 ; fine arte, early introdaued 
into, 143 ; mBcka of Etnuoii uriitiD 
in tasea, 143; relation in whJcb 
Qrcece stood to, 144 ; Vulcku Tases 
(bund in all stfles, 144 ; their dii- 
tinguiiMiig pefloliarities, 145 ; otter 
■it«i of, where Tues hare bepa foDDd, 
H5, 146 ; BgyplJan perfamo Tnaa in 
the •epulchre* uf, 178 ; eitcoaiTB trade 
of, in tbe 7th and 6th nnturieo, B.o., 
ii. 213 ; in, gnater akill dinplajed in 
eDgraviDg gemi and ToriLing in metals 
than in die art of potter;, 214 

Kncheir laogbt tbe Btmscani the art 
of TBae making, ii. 127 

Engranimiu carried the art of van uiak' 
ing from Corinth to Italy, ii. 127 

Euphratca, da; supplied bj inuDdatioDB 
of, i. 106 

Baphroniui^ tbe most celebiated potter 
of his da;, ii. 49, 63 

Eocjalns. Sa Un>erbinn. 

Biaieiptron, vbm far ointment, ii. 100 

Execiaa, potter and painter of vasei, ii. 
fiD, 63 

FiBROBi'a disooTory of potlcr'a Bare and 

implemenlB at C^ncelli, ii. 340 
Fajreace. 5m PoreGlain. 
Payoom, in Kgypl, anciently a raat 

brickfield, i. 13 
Fine style in Oreek rases, L 283-288 
Fhit-Hhaped Tasei, Etroscin, ii. 196, 197; 

Teutonic, 391 
Florid style in Qreck vases, i. 288-291 
Fondi, Pifltro, manofauloriei of, at 

Venice and Corfu, fur the imilation of 

ancient pottery, i. 219 

Prance, Roman pottery Gntnd in, iL 870- 

Frantoii, H., amphora diaeorered by, al 
Cbinsi, i. 271 ; laH firand b;, dmt 
Cbiom, monided by the potter CUtiao, 
decorated with designs by the artiat 
Rrgotimo^ 314 

Pranda of dealera in Greek vases, L 218, 

Frieie*. Sa Terra-oetta. 

8iBU, Una-cotta buste fonnd at, ii. 

Oanlisb pottery, ii. 3S6 

Gerhard, M., " AoseileMne Taseu- 
bilder" ot, i. 216 ; dates giTen by, of 
the art of Tase-moking, 232 ; name 
given by, to biuuitional arehuc Tsnm. 

Qigantomachi* represented on Grosk 
vasea, i. S16 

OisT-el-Agoos built by Seoostria of sun- 
dried brick, L 12 

Oindica, Baron, found rare tiles at 
Afflie, L 163 

GIbsb, opaque, imitated ia pottery, i. 43 

OIbdcus, son of Minos, tradition cob- 
ceming, i. 187 

Olaie, ^yptian, composition of; i. 67 ; 
metals nBed in colouring, 63 ; blue, 
must andcnt, 68 ; vitreoDe, applied to 
stone, 96, 97 ; method of glasiug 
stone, 07 ; glased stone inlaid with 
porcelain, 98 ; flat intaglios eograring 
on amuleta of glazed stone, 100 ; 
cylinders of glued stone, 101 ; biinka 
coited with, in Assyria, 126-1S9; 
Babylonian, analysed by MH. Bnmg- 
uiart and Satvotat, and by Dr. Percy, 
14S, 149 ; composition oi, manner of 
applying, to lustrous Qreek vases, 
217 ; of Roman lustrons vases, whe- 
ther alkaline or metallic is dispniedi, 
its character, ii. 312 ; of ><»ininn 
vases, Bccorciing to French antiqua- 
rians not metallic, Brongoiart'sapinioti, 
350 ; block, carbonaceous uf GFaoliah 
vases. 337 

Qori, vasea in the " Museum Btnunun " 
of, i, 215; tiles with inicriptioni fhuD 
the Museum Buecelliannni, pablished 
by, ii. 187 ; by, engravings ef KlruB- 
Can sarcuphngi, 194 

Greece, pottery of, described, i. 157- 
350 ; from its abundance of ston^ 
little dependent on brick-making, 160 ; 
utenaivc range of subjects of art, 10 ; 


gratesquE, forniB intradnMd by the 

Inghirami, engraringa by, of EtrnKiui 

aarcopbagi, u. 193 

Qualoa. Di-ric ouae of a cup. ii. 110 

In«riptJona on cone», i. 29-20 ; hletalie, 

Qiitturoin, Kom»n water-bottleB, i. i2 

on tribute vaae, 86 ; on Bgyplian 

lamps of the Cbriatian, G2 ; on 

glatad tiles, 64, 65 ; on bricks of the 


paUcBB at KimrGd, 110-112 ; Hebrew, 

ou Anayrian pottery, 122 ; cuneiform 

Hjide» on Greek nms, i. 3*3 

on Babylonian briuka. 183, 137 i on 

BadriH, ii. 130 

Greek amphoin, 106-202 ; peculiar to 

Greek yasi» of tbg middle poritd, tb« 

U-mba in CampimiK, i. 212-214 ; yaam 

lateet iioinetinie« id the Oacan, and 

in tbe collectiuD of, 2U ; the, ouUectiou 

in, OD ucliitic raae fouud at Capua, 

letter* of Greek, arbitrary dispo- 

2G4 ; l■^ nw of tbe florid itrle oF 

aal of, on Greek Taees, 17, 18; 

Omhut. 290 

Greek, 18-20 ; painted Greek, cobiun 

LI 154 

HBiio8oBtlrMk«u«, i. 344 

Egorea found in vasea, 20-23 ; wntenoei 

H™ on Oreek rue^ i. 844, 346 

of tho draroatia peraonsB, on raae^ 

23-26 ; salutotiona of the potter, 26- 


28; written un objerta depicted on 

Hereales on Greek niei, i. 3B0, 3S7 

Tajtea, 26-27 ; mod™ in which artiata 

Hermes on Greek tum, i. 829 

and potters inscribed their names on 

nuat, 27-30 ; of namea foUowed by 

or rtoQS caxt, L 3G 

IUA02, or KAAH, probable iveanlng 

HerodiitDs, in dajB of, wine exported 

and object oi; 30-3S ; lei^ble but no- 

from Sjris to Egypt in T»«e», L 35 ; 

meotioDs neea a«ed in reli^ouB ril«s, 

not peculiar to Taws found in Italy, 


35. 3S; manner of iueiaing, 38; 

Boldon, earthe«.«e bowl, u. 101 

object of. Indaed on tho body of tbe 

Holmoa, «pedB of Ciller, ii. 87 

T»»e, 37 ; incised on feet of earlier 

Homer, ml^JBEta from, repreMnted on 

Taae^ memoraodnms of the potter. 

Greek ™««, i. 309. 40fl 

Homer. aUiuiQiuto pottery, i. 2B1 ; eupa 

mentioBed by. iL 102, 103; hymn of, 

afford some inaight into the pottei'i 

to tbe potMn ofSamois iL 116 

trade. 44 ; bilingual, on Btruacan tilea. 

Horace, reference of, to Tynheue pottery, 

iL 210; altnaioD of. to modelliug 

tial part of tiie subject. 207; of 

a Qr«ek alphabet on Etruacan Taaa^ 

by, 270 ; referencB of. to the pottar'B 

abaence of the putler'a nune proof of 

wheel, 320 

their antiquity, 207 ; of EtrnKan 

Horns, mummy caw ofL inlud irith 

alphabola. SOS ; painted on Etmacaa 

porcelain, i. 71 

raiwa, 318, 219; inaiaad, 219, 220; 

HjdriB, Greek w»ler-botl!«. !. 38; 

Oacan, on Taaea from Nola, and 

.aK for drawing water. U. 80 

lem-cotla Ubieta from la Motte near 

Hyperbiu» of Crete and Euryalu,. or. 

Hadria, 330 ; Latin, painted in -hit« 

Agrolus areolad tbe firat brick wall. 

oD «.«, 220, 221 : on Roman tit» 


n«d tot pobUc bnildinga in Italy, 

HyiM^ialeria, eartlieaware stand for 

their hiMorie T»l«c^ 239-241; ex- 

iTatera, ii. Bl 

ample of potWr'a alamp with, 212 ; 

□yrche, amphon with narrow neck, iL 

period, dnnng which attmp* were and. 


of eatat«^ 344, 245 ; of tbe pottecy 

proprietor'a name, 246 ; ofnamn and 

motloa atamped in the wark-ahocs 

246, 248 ; ou Romaii Ules made by 

iBH-mumniypoU. i, 3* 

aotdiery, or for Ibe uae of the »hliery, , 

Iliad, ti.e. rcfvreucei to tho urt of 

24S. 219 ; til« with l<«ianary. fouad ^^^H 

pulleiy in, i. 261 


along irith, oa Romui tilea, S51 ; im 
Booi&a Uiii|>B, nmuged Daitcr niiw 
btaila, QSl ; on InmpB, of nuncB, 
their TU^ona aigniGcaUoiim 392-365 ; 
on luupH. of Totii« eiclanutiiina, 2Sd ; 
of potUn' Dftines an Aretine Tates, 
34^ 345; of pottera' name« on 
Skmi&D vftre, philologial pecnliuitiea 
ID, SSS ; oijiricioiu, or arddentol, on 
Bomui Tuea, lil««, uul briclw, 3S0 ; 

Iriih pottoij, ii. 385 

Ittlf, in Soathem, Uic tombs, large nndcr- 
grannd clumban, L 21 ; in, gredter 
number of Qreek nws found, tluui in 
Greece, U. 128 ; In, Greek ™.es 
clualfiotion ot, b; Lenonnwit ud Be 
Witt«, 128-131; in, naea found in 
EtrUMan luwns. Sn Btmra ; oen- 
tnl and lover, mu-lu diHingntibing 
the yues of, from the Etraaeui, 
its, 147 ; Hoothem, roaBon fur the 
TwUtfof gtjiaaftlia tas« from, 14T, 
143 ; Taaea from Naplea »nd ita 
Deighbourhond, 148, 189 ; Southern, 
of Capua in, the Tuea ehieS; of the 
decadence itjie, 149, 150; rases of 
Teanu, of Alclla, 150, 151 ; cLar- 
scteristiee of Nolan niisca, 151, 153- 
154 ; sketch of hiatorj of Nota, IBi- 
ISfi ; vsaei of other dlies of Ihfl 
Terra di I«Toro, 155, 156 ; Bouthem, 
the Prind|iato CiUriore in. cities <>F, 
where Tsses haTB been (bond, dmcrip- 
tinn of Tuco, 156, 167', Sontbern, 
tha trincipato Ulteriore of, eitea 
where raara have been found, IRT ; 
Taaee of the Baailicsta, of the later 
stifle, apparently of natire fabric, 15T ; 
excaTations in Lueania, descriptions of 
vases discoTered, 168 ; descriptions of 
vssee fmm other sites of the Built- 
cats, 16S-iaO; epoch of the tmcs of 
Foglia, their diitinguiBhing marks, 
dialrioi of oountrr where they have 
been found, IflO, 161 ; Tases of Bari, 
red figures upon a black ground ; of 
Canosa cJiieSf craters, the finest of tb« 
luler Surid style, vases with subject a( 
Darius and Hellas, 161 ; vases of 
ConrerBano, of Fatignano, 162 ; oif 
Southern, the finest rssra, from Ravo, 
of the Sorid style with numerous 
figures and arabesque nmamoDts, re- 
sembling tho young Athenian school, 
162, ISS ; rases from Ceglie, re- 
mnrkablo for eiie, thur fomiB and 
subjects, 163-lSl ; the Loori a Doriui 
oiilonj, destroyed by tho Lucaniana, 
sueceeded by tho Brettii, wins found In 
tlii;ir country, vases, not dieinlerreil 

&om sepolchres, bnt fivm the Gelds ; 
description <■( vuea, 164-166; vases 
from Otmotu, cxeavatutns difficolt, 
Boman tombs being bnilt over the 
Greek, 166, 167 ; few vases found at 
Tarentuui, their bean^ ; importance 
and wealti of ancient Tarcntum, 167- 
168; apeeimens from neighbouring 

Jjtits. Ste vases. 

Jewish pottery, L 152 

JercTuIab, the prophet, potter working at 
his wheel dcseribeJ by, i. 152 

Jugs. Sa vases. 

JuYpnal, age uf Btmscan black vats 
slated by, il. 200 ; allndes t" the price 
of lerra-cotta vases, 307 ; refen to Uie 
slight esteem in which vases fur com- 
mon use were heU, 31G. 

Kalis SHKBOATidimenmons of bricks At, 
1. 109 

KAA02, or KAAH, on Greek vues, 
meaning of. ii. 3(1-35 

Kertch, labelled tiles from, i. 165 ; 
terra-cotta moulding from, 167 ; eanea 
found in eitavaUoDS near, 181 ; Greek 
vases found al, ii. 177 

Eestner, Chev. excavations of, at Cor- 
neto, it. 182 

Khorsabad, vases containing bunes from, 
i. 122 ; teiTB-cotla figures from, 124 ; 
enamelled bricks at, 139 

Kinneir, Lord, excaTstiool of, at Coneto, 
u. 132 

Konynnjik, priim inssribed with reeorda 
fraai, i. 113 ; archives, in the palace 
of Sennacherib, 116 ; seals in the ruyal 
archives of, IIS; &om, vases con- 
taining liones, 120 ; &oni, u terra- 
cotta dog, 135 

Eramer, H., dates assigned by, to the 
art of vase- making, L 223. 

IiACEDJiHOR, drinking cups of^ ii. 125 
Ls Chausse, plates of vases in 
"Mnienm Romanum " of. i. 315 
rjocouiancylices, ii. 127, 128 
Lagiena, Egyptian, i. 5E, 60 
Liigj-noB, wine vase, ii. 75 



Lamps, Eg^tiun, of eutheDware, i. 
61, Hi ; of the ChriiiUaii periuJ in 
Egy{'t, with inscriptiotui, 62 ; Aujr- 
rian, 12i ; of Greek fabria brought 
liy Mr. Lajard from Nimrliii, 121 ; 
iiivenled id ^fp^i 1^3 • u*^ '" 
Greece in the time of Hemdotui, 
181 ; differSDi^ between Qreek and 
RomBD, ISl ; in sfaape of a, trireme 
&oia PoiEBoli, I8fi object of inserip- 
tiouH gn Qroek ; of the Romui penod, 
IBS ; Roman, of glued nrthenirare, 
more [requentlj of lerm-cotbi, deaig- 
mitioni of the diSerent pvta of, 
vnrions fonas, moJes of banging, 
cnrlicHt mention of^ li. 271, 272 ; 
terru-cottBi not earlier than Auguatos, 
chief ittrtH of these, S72, 273 ; ak&pe 
of earlicrt, tunied on the wheel, com- 
mon sbapefl of) 273 : examplea of 
pevnliar ibape* of, 274, 275; made 
daring the period between Auguiitii!i 
nnd Gunntantine, the style gradually 
degenerating, 275 ; gave ligbt aucord- 
ing to the number of wicka, dimen- 
sionB of, days used in their miuiofac- 
tore, 278, 277 ; mode of prepsring 
mouldit Ibr, 277 ; of the earliest style, 
aimplidty of omameut on, the mure 
elabonta borders on later examples, 
2T8 ; with well preserred snbjecta, 
rare, trifling ebaracter of the snlijecM, 
27Q 1 subjects of, generally from popu- 
lar mythology, or the games, aome- 
timos rnim bbles, 279-280 ; the Ro- 
nuin gods most frequently represented 
on, manner of their repnwentation. 
2S0-281 ; foreign gods, the emlleuis 
of gods, or Moriec from tbe poets taken 
as BubJGCta for, £84-286 ; illualratious 
frum fiibleB, 286 ; on, aeenea ^m his- 
tory rare, moetly tntditiouary, scenes 
&om ererr day life, 287 ; on, socnes 
fn>m the drcUi, examples of, aoimals. 
287, 289; wnglo ofajecla reprewnUil 
on, Chriatiao symbols, 2S0, 291 ; in- 
BcnptionB on, Srt Inscriptlaus ; — lued 
in festivals, in vorsfaip of tlie god«, sb 
well as in eommon life, 2B7 ; mper- 
slitious uses of; 297, 2Ua ; of red 
earthenware, stamped on a flat boa- 
relief, with CbristJan symboU, 329; 
of coarse brown earthenware, 33ti ; of 
euameUed ware, 375, 37S 
Larlssa, walla of domi-revetted, L lOS 
Luanon, pot of metal or eiutbcnware, ii. 

Lant ityle in Greek Tases, L 3U8-301 
Layard, Mr., excavations of, 1. 105 ; litUlo 
of dimenaiona of Assyriuu bricks 

meBHured by, 103 ; patera found by, 
built into a wall at Nimrfid, 119; 
sarcophagus found by, with the name 
Altilar inscribed, 120; brought vases 
Nimrlid, 120 ; enamelled bricks found 
by, 127 
Lccane, deep two-handled vase, ii, 100 
Locoms, («rthenware dish, u. lit 
Lecythi, Egyptian, Taees, resembling 
lachrymatories, found Id Rfiman sepul- 
chres, i, 42 i found at Jerasalem, 164; 
of Egyptian porcelMU, at Tyre, 164 
Lecytbus, toss Soi oil. iL 84 
Lfmormonl^ Af., of, the doaaification of 

Italian vases, ii. 128 
Libyes, sepalchral vases of plain black 
gtaie, L 252 ; found in sepulchres of 
Nola nnd Campania, ii. I, 2 
Linen, cloths o(, use in gloiing, 1. 63 
Locri, at, in Magna Umcia, the Brat 

Italian potteries established, ii. 128 
Lollus, Mr., enamelled bricks in the 
paUce of Suaa found by, i. 129; 
examined ruins of Warkn, 137; found 
ediGix built of cones, 140 ; ei 
of, at Warka, 141), IBO 

i. 23 

Lnynes, Ddc de, clMsiflattioa of GFreek 
Tases, L 225 ; cup representing Aree- 
silaus watching tbe weighing of the 
ailphium, 268 ; date of the cup, 209 

Lyaistratna Brst made caste of statnes, i. 
170 ; mode clay models of bronic 
statnea, ii. 262 

MAPDosiLP, Major, eicarationa of, i. 78 
Moqihenun, Dr., labelled tiles discorered 

by, i. 165 ; joint tilcsat Kerteh, 166 
Blacrobias, account of tbe Sigillana by, 
li. 263 ; reference of, to Aietine won^ 
Mieooder ornament, ii. S, 4 
Han modelled oat of Nilotic elay, i. 10 
Marajos, on Greek raaes, L 339 
Martial, Forsenua's dinner serrioe men- 
tioned by, iL 210 ; allunon of, to the 
Sigillana, 264 ; cadi Taticani men' 
tioned by, 307 ; T«fen to the common 
use of raaei, 316; rehrence of to 
Bomao potteiy, 320 ; Arslino waro 
menUoned by, 339 ; reference o^ t* 
the ware of Cams, SIT 1 common iuc, 
in Rome, of red earthenware alladed 
(oby, 363 

^^^^^^L MAYENCB. 120 UUSEIIH- 1 

^^^^^^HBfek Bomui tntUi7 found, 36» 

pyroB of arehitertural omamenta round 

^^^^^VVHKK'., in the collectioa of, a temi- 

the shrine of Oairis, 53 ; lecjlhiia of 

^^^^H ' U& figare portmit of one of the 

black t««8, 56 ; «« of red wait^ 

^ CorMlUn fiumlj, u, 2()S 

modelled in human form ; vute naed 

^H He^m, tem-cotU temple it, i 1S7 ; 

by Kribes, S3 ; two tabl« of polished 

^M BUtne of Ibe Olympitui Jnpitei u 

^B desciibLKlb; Paanaiw, i. 171 

70 ; coffins inlud with poreelain, 71 ; 

^M Ueidiu, poller of the Uamiltoa nM, ii. 

boi with poroelaln lessem, 7 1 ; por- 

H las 

celun tilea for inlaying, 73 : niUoni 

^B Hel«, p>bt«d rase bom, suppoaml to 

cue of poroelain, 73 ; poroelain bma 

^B be n koraoe. i. 200 

priotoM with poreelaio beads, SS; 

Hei>>, walt« of deuii-revettad, i. 1I>S 

amulet image of Jupiter Serapis in 

poreobiin, Sfl ; footstool leg of glmtad 

Micali, engravingj of Btnunm vue^ u. 

■teaschial, 97 : tbsc of glaied sWne, 

130 1 bv, engraniigs of Btrnnu sar- 

«,ph^, 1B3 

two cyUndera of glawd rtone, befcring 

names of Oaerleaeu, or Se«>rteeen, U. 

TOMS, i. 21tl 

and IIL, 101 : sami-dicnlsr AssTrian 

Kaiingen, cI&uiGeatian of eepulcbnil 

brioka, 109 ; gbued bricks, oorbeU of 

yaK< bj, ii SB ; ei«:ha unigned bj. 

bine porcelain from Nimrlid, 127 ; 

M perioda in the krt of vue-mkkiag, 

Assyrian porcelain ampbone, 12tt ; 

fragments of porcelain collected durins 

tnjed on OnA vura. S12. 313 

HontcB teitacvi, mouDds formed of 

pottei?, i. 10 

from Babylon, 146; Oreek painted 

u. 331 

Muaes from Puzmoli, 171 ; fig«r« in 

Moaal. mwbU of, nied for fedng briak 

terra-ootU coloured, 178, 177; por- 

wai!«, i. 108 

Uona of baa-reliefa in terra-cottt paint- 

Uomidi of potaherda roaod indent 

citieB, i. 10 ; artificial, of brick, aub- 

nSSi sepnlchral rase coated iritb 

rtruptnre of Assyriiin edificea, i. lUO ; 

stnc«o, 303 ; in the, 3600 Oraek 

tenanted by Tirioua peoples, after the 

m of the empire, 133 ; of Aaiyria, i. 

12P; ofBabjlop, 131 

period of Greek art, 266, 256 : am- 

MnjeUibe, th>^ brick, from, i. 138, 137 

phora in the arehaio style of Greek art, 

MiUler, date uaigned bj, to the oldest 

Greek Taae, i. 224 

ofCftllirrhiJe, 278; rwes of the affected 

Hnnich, fWnaue with a Satjr'. head in 

old style of Greek art, 876 ; ojnochoe 

front, dtpieted on a rase Bt, i. 248 

of the fine style with gilded ornaments. 

Wurrbine, EgjpUttD, imiUled in pottery, 

28S ; lecythns, with allegorical snb- 

L 4S 

jeet of the ■' florid style," 290 ; vaae. 

Muaeom, Alnwick Cairtle, part of a 

figure of Amanophia III. m glued 

bracehes, 9 ; amphora found at Rnvo, 

, Berlin, baa-teUef of Hellecrow. 

79 ; paycter, tlie apace between the 

ing the BellcBpont^ i. 179 ; uup and 

walls filled with a Uyer of chalk, 90 ; 

gema representing Greek furaacea. 

rhyton in shape of a boat's prow, 103 ; 

249 ; amphors with double TOTer, u. 

Somian lecythus, procured by Mr. 

70 ; Taaca from Lorn, 165 

Pinlay, 117; vmks from Melos, i«le 

, BritJsh, figures in sun-dried clay, 

yellow, with black figures, 118; the 

i 30 ; Egyptian baked bricka, 23 ; 

colleetiona of Lord Elgin and Mr, 

vaaea, beade hninan-Bbaped, 32 ; atu- 

Iflrra-cotta found near Athena, 121 ; 

Tose from CiTita Vecchia with Ggurca, 

36; imall Taae of pale red irare, 

136 ; calpia from Anu, 168 ; cnt«T 

resembling a Greek oU-cruse, 40; 

with black figurea from Armonto, IfiS; 

large EgTptilin raae with demotic in- 

vaae of the potter Meidias from En»o, 

168 ; fiagmeut of a crater &om Taren- 


tam, Follu Athene, red on a biwik 
grounil, 1S7 ; vawB from eicaTatiuDH 
of Mr. Wen7, ut Berenioe, I7G ; Twes 
(ram the cuUcombB of Alexandria, 1 77 1 
calathns-aliaped jar of Qrwli porMlain, 
17B ; nrcophaei from BtombatVuld, 
1 93 ; paiuted temt-cottu BircopliagaB 
from Ploreace, 164 ; Raman hiick 
foonil at Queraaej, 22B ; Roman Ulea 
found at Baimoor, 232 ; tile atamp, 
242 i terra-cottft UB-reliefB found in a 
Bomau well, 256 ; torui of Bumaii 
tom-cotta statue, 261 ; noman ienn- 
eotta figarca lued to decorate girdcoa, 
262 ; coiners' tem-cotta moulds found 
in Yorkshire, 270 ; Roman lanipa of 
unusual ahnpe, 274 ; lamp engrared 
vith the fable of the fox and crax-, 
286 ; lamp with illuatnifons of Circus 
games, S3S ; Be|>u1i;hniJ cippus with 
inncription, 297 ; barrel -shnped vase. 
Human laseauf red ware, 327 ; Roman 

a master-mould, found near Slajence, 
3S2 ; bricks found at Coldiester with 
inBcriptiona seratcbed on them, 361 ; 
bottle of Boman enamelled ware, 376 

MoMUm, Floroace, the Francois rase at, 
i. 314 

, Jena, polyehrome tom, moulded 

in farm of Aphrodite, i. 294 

, Lajden, «nn-dried bricks with 

reli^ons inscription, L 17 ; poraelain 
Tase ioseribed with same of Auuuta, 
75 : Tasei with figures and inscrip- 
tiuus, 70 

, Malta, vases with BacohaniJian 

subject!, ii. 173, 174 

, Naples, large lasee, modelled on 

a frame, L 240 ; specimens of terra- 
cotta cages and butterflj traps, ii. 
267 ; specimens of Aretine ware, 348 

, SiTiea, Bgjptian terra-eotta aar- 

cnphagns, painted, i, 24 ; porcelain 
lecythus fonnd at Tjre, 154 ; bag- 
menU of Oreek brioki and titea, 160 ; 
drain-tile of terra-ootta found at 
Kpheaus, 16B ; vase* bvm the tombs 
of Banlorino, ii 118 ; Bomon bricks, 
226, 227 ; Boman bas-reliefs, 2fifl ; 
imp found at Souairo, of reddiih-bruwa 
paste, 323 ; Scandiuaviui vaaes, 363 

, Shrewsbury, Roman bricks 

marked with foot prinU, ii. 227 

, Vatican, lerm-i-otlA statue of 

Mercury, life size, i. 172 

Mntina (Uodena), celebrated in Fliaj's 
daji lor diinklng-cupa, ii. 130 

NuiBB of Tnae-painlCTS, iL 60. 

Naples, potter; from, ii. 140, 148, I4S, 
168, 170 

Nebucluuineziar, cylinder amtoining the 
hieratical atatistiunl Tables of, L 145 

Nicosthcues, the potter, one if the 
earliest makers of vaees with bUck 
figure*, iL 63 

Niffsr, snppoied site of old Babylon, 
briaksfrom, L 133, 137 

Nile clay or mnd used in brick-making, 
L 12-1* ; otherwise in potterj. 22 

Nimrdd, inscriptions in palaces of, i. 
110-112 1 '"''<''* ^'"i 119; terra- 
cotta figuroB from, 124 

Nola distinguished by th« great number 
of its "Libyea," or uDomomenled 
Tsaes, ii. 1 ; potteries of, 153 ; cha- 
raeteristiea of its Toses, ii. 151 ; his- 
tory of, 154, 155 

Northsnipton^iire, Roman potteries, kiln 
disooTered in, iL 304 

^farthnmberland's, Duke of, seorabieua 
inlaid with porcelain, i. 72 

Nam, first potter, modelled tnan from 
Nilotie oloy, L 10 



OoDliin, stamp o^ on Tise, iL 38 
(Edipus, story of, on Qreek vase, 
(Eneiysis, oup for drawing vine, ii. E>6 
(Knoehoe, wine jug, ii. 82-94 
Olbio, ampbone from, i, 197-199 
0!d style In Greek vas», U. S72-27S 
Olpe, wine jog, ii. 85 
Omphalos, cup with boaies, Ii. 109 
OrbiteUo, vases from, ii. 133, 21T 
Orestes, story of. on Qreek vuea, i 
Orneto, vases from, ii. 135, 303 
Oiis, cruet for vinegar, iL 111 
Oiybaphoo, oruet for vinegar, iL 1! 

PatH-rlBRH, cord of, used for slinging 

rases, i. 37 
Palmyra, lamp with ioscripUonirunndat, 

i. 150 
Pan, on Oreek vases, i. 337 
PanphnoB, the potter, name of, oocnmng 

on serentoSD cylioes, ii. 64 
Panofka, M. " Vasi di PremJo," L 317 ; 

daasificatioD of subject* pourtrayed on 

Greek vases, 313; ingenious attempt 


M «onDcet tbe iabject* of tmcs with 
the namea iawribed on tbam, ii. 31 ; 
fint proposed tbe idenCiGcation of 

Puilics|iteDai, amphora froin, i. 197 
Fu-ia, Iioperial Ijbrai;, ojUoder beariog 

mtnie of Sfaabs, i. 101 
PKTDpAiB, earlhimwarfl dish, ii. Ill 
fasseri, engranngs of tss«s, published 

bj, L 215 
FeliDui, BuiaUBguree ill Uim-ootta, i. 172 
Feniug, Mr^ aecouiitur briclLB from tbe 

Memuoniiim, I. II 
FeriirhuiUnoii, rue nwd u s Epriukler, 

ii. 101 
FeniaB, AreUne ware roeDtiooed bj, ii. 

Petertlinrg, St., CrimeuiTueiiiitliaHeT- 

milage of, ii. 177 
Phiale, eartlienware paten, ii. 108 
Phociti temple of Diana, built of tile^ L 

Phoguicia, no apeeimeiiB of potterj from 
early ages, foQDd in, i. ISi ; the art of 
working in ghua and melAla, prefer- 
red to patt«rf, in, 16G ; brick- making 
inTenled, in, 165 
Kndai, painled amphorv described by, i. 
220 ; Tawa mentioned bj, given H 
priiei, ii. S9 
IHnai, eartheDware diah, ii 110 
Rthui, earthenware casks, Greek, i. 41, 
187; ii. 74; perfect, found in Italj, 
only ftngmente in Qrewe, 187 ; Qreeli 
proverb loncbing, 188 ; found in exca- 
vationii, 1S9 
Flaatua, an anthority for the nfie of vaabb 
in religious rites, ii. 314 ; refera to the 
earlj nse o( earthenware in Koine, 
320 ; atluBiou to Satoian ware in, 34S 
Pliny, atates Epigeoes lo Iults found as- 
tronomical obserrations on tiles at Ba- 
bylon, i. IIT ; pwnl«r on lerra-totta, 
mentioned by, i. 17^ ; remark of, un 
the anttqnity of slatoary, ii. 190 ; clay 
model of a bronie statue montioned bj, 
262 ; fittest seaion for hrick-makiog, 
filed by, SOI ; Roman pottery men- 
tioned by, S20 ; meatious Tasee, as an 
article of eiport, 3^1 
Plutarch, anecdote of, i. 228 
Poilauipter, bronie basin, ii. 101 
FoUedrara, the, sepulchres of Egyptiim 
Tascs found in, L 75 ; Egyptian por- 
eetain linga, 09 
Forcelwn, {Sj/i/ptian), term as applied to 
Egyptian glued pottery, not strictly 
correct, i. 68; oomposition of, 68, fi? 1 
Btamped in moulds, 67 ; tiles of, for 
inlaying, 69 ; u»eii iu inlaying, TO- 73 ; 

niscs of, lie Vases ; — dmnghlmnen and 
toys of, 79; ear-rings of. 7» ; amnleta 
of, eiportnl to Greece and Italy. SO ; 
amulets of, manatnetare, deacriptjon of, 
80-90 ; rings at *ith hieroglyphio 
inscriptions, articles of export, 91 ; 
description of sepulchral fignrea iii, 
92-B6 ; M1od lo attain tJie higbedt az- 
ccUoncB, 104 
PorceUun (Jiaynan), few eiamides re- 
maining, inferior to BgjptiBii, ISO; 
vessels of, ta Vasea 

(Sabyloninn), bagmenta «i^ 

found all over the ruins of Bkbyloo, 
148 ; mosaic of; 149 ; eoffins of glused 
eartbenware diMorerfd by Hr. Lofla^ 

(Oreat), Egyptian in origin, or 

imitated from Egyptian, by Qredc pot- 
ters, ii. 178, 179 

factnre of; Egyptian of the seventh 
century B.C. ; enamelled battles fouud 
in Etruscan tnmbs, 221. 

{Roman), yellow paste, coated 

thickly with enamel, naed ohiefiy for 
lumps, 37S 

Portelette, Celtic vases of Boman typ« 
found at, ii. 387 

Foais, imilatioas of &uila in terra-ootta, 
by, i. IT* 

Potsherd^ used aa slates for writing on, 

Totters, Egyptian, ilistjnguished Enim 
Greek, i. 45 ; attached to palaces or 
honasBof nobles, 45; lowpoulion of, in 
Egypt, 60 ; art, few rei-erenoei t« the, in 
Scripture, 152; tradition o^ with[«gaid 
to tiles, 162 ; wheel in Bgyptand QrMM, 
a low, circular table turned with the 
foot, 229 ; wheel, Grecian baditione 
desoribiug the invention of tlie, 230, 
S31 ; Greek, toula for tlie pauiting of 
vases, 244, 245; Greek, ceased to 
employ skilfol artists when chased 
vaHes of gold and silver were iatrodncad, 
300 ; art, bigb antiquity of the, prored 
by inscriptions on Greek vaaos, u. 18 ; 
names of, inscribed on their vases, 29, 
30 ; old Qreck, guUd of, their wealth, 
42 1 not held in eeteem, Athenian name 
for, 43 1 tbe workshop, number of 
workmen necessary, 44 ; Greek, alpha- 
ht'Iical list of, 49-56; the cooaectJOD 
between the names oC, and tbe designa 
on vases too vague to be established, S8 ; 
of &imos, the. Homer's hymn to, 1 1 S ; 
wheel, invention oi^ claimed by Athens, 
121 ; tlie two quarters for, or Cera- 
nici, at Athens, ii. 131 ; wheel invented 

BtCorinth, ISO ; mrporatiDD of, faunilect 
MHomebjNora*, B6B;» potter, of MttB- 
tniK, Virgil'i Either, 280." ' , 

aocwi ctmdi^Dn of, 266 ; wheel, fnund 
at Cincelle, described, 341 . 
preesed on Aretine vara, with a. metal 
stamp within theTsse, 344 ; of Aretiam 
staifS, liHta given h; Fabioni, 34S ; 
uBmee of, on vaaeB fonnd near Modena, 
34fi ; name*, dies for gtampiDg, fonod 
at Leioax, 354 ; Dames, manner of 
inscribing on Sunian vnro, S59 ; of 
Boman Tasei, mutt part alares, their 
diatinctiTfi appellatioiu, 3S1 ; art, 
noiTeraal application of, to aopulclmil 
pnrpoaea, 394, SI'S 
PotUiiea of Somos, Corintli, and JKgina, 
ii. 42 ; Greek, sites of the oMeat, in 
Asia Minor, 113 ; names of the best- 
known litea, warM for which they 
celebrate description of vodea fonod 
there, 114-llS 1 of Samoa, 117 ; of Me- 
loa. lie jother Greek islaniU, 118, 11» ; 
vuses of Jigina, 120 ; of Athene, the 
most famooa of Qreece, 121 ; fonnd io 
Athenian tombs, character of drawing 
tha eiport trade of Athena, 121-125 ; 
of other parts of the Greek continent, 
drinking cnps, peculiar to lACedicinan. 
125; of Coriuth, carried by the Ho- 
mona to IbUy in ; Taies of Ur. 
Burgon's collection, 126 ; the potter's 
wheel inTenied at Corinth. 127; the 
soft paste, of Megara, and other cities of 
the Qraek continent, Laeonian cylicea, 
127, laS : of Italy, first esUblisbed at 
Locri and Tarentnm, 128 ; finest spe- 
eimens found at CanoaaandRuvo, 128; 
of Campaoia, 129; of Btmria over- 
spread the country, 12B ; of Hodria 
slillworking in the timeof Pliny, 130; 
Gr»k Taaea funod in Italy~:^» Italy ; 
of Naples. bmoDB in the time of the 
Eomana, 149; Greek, at NoU, IGS ; 
of Snrrentum, faiaona in the time of 
Pliny forcupa, 11)7; of Sicily, renowned 
in old times, 169 ; discovered near 
Terranova in 1792, 170; Roman tile 
makers', of two kinds, 24fi ; dis- 
tingaished on tile-stamps by the pro- 
prietor's name, 246 ; Roman, in North- 
amptonsliire, construction of their 
kilns, 304 ; of Ronu^ 320 ; of eight 
districts in Italy mentioned by Pliny, 
foreign mannfactories of Roman vases, 
320 ; of Aretinm, 333 ; foond at On- 
eelli by Pabroni, with potters' imple- 
ments. Ice, 340, 341 ; Roman, of Hei- 
Ugeaherg and Bheinsabom, rnmsees 
of, descrilnd, 354, 3SS ; of Bainlan 

Hulknd, 373 -3 T 5 

Potter'a wheel, invention of, L 121-127; 
represenlatiou of, on a vase, 230 

Pottery, earliest specimens in Bgypt, iu- 
liun of the gods, i. 9 
- (f^^rtun), first ascertained epoch 
. 10 ; monad of potsherds round an- 
t cities, 10 ; dates of vases deter- 
mined by hieroglyphics, 11; of clay, 
sundried, used for bricka, 11 ; 
in figures, sometimes coloured, 21 ; of 
clay, firebaked, material of red un- 
potiahed earthenware (terra-colta), 22; 
of polished terra-cotta, G4 ; of polished 
ternt-cotta inferior to Roman, 61 ; ut 
glaaed earthenware (porDelain), 66 ; 
constituent parts of paste used for 
glased, 06, 67 ; composition of glaie, 
67 ; uialysis of oalouring matter, 37. 
63 ; character of glaie, 68 ; species of, 
formed by costing stone with glaze, 96 

{Attifriaa), points of difference 

between Egyptianoud, i. 105; ofaun- 
dried clay, 106 ; of clay fire-Inked, 
107, 108; ofterra-cotla, a sulwUtute 
for parchment, 113 ; terra-cotta figures 
resembling Greek, 124 ; of glazed 
earthenware, eitenaively used, inferior 
to Egyjjlian. 126 ; fragmeut< of, found 
in the moUDds, 129 

{Batii/loTiian) of day, sun-dried, 

nsed cbiefiy For bricks, L 131 ; ofohty, 
fire-baked, 132, 143 ; relics of, from 
the great mounds, 143 ; resembling 
Assyrian, 144; docnmenta of, 144- 
146 ; of brick clay, glased, 148 

{Jtutiih), no relies of, for tbe moat 

port imported, L 152 

(P/umieian) probably for domes- 
tic use. no ramunl o^ L 15S 

lOrtei) tenna used in the art of, 

explained, L 1G7; of sun-dried clayosed 
for bricks ; statue of sun-dried clay ei- 



of ciuy fire-baked (tem-cotta), '. 
teiture and eolour of the term-cotia 
paste used for atAtues, manner of work- 
ing it, 163, 106; manner of making 
figures from ■ term-cotta mould, 173 ; 
e&rtbs, minerals, kc, eoiapoeing tha 
culonring matter, nsed iu painting terra- 
cottas, 176; of a finer terra-cotta, 
polished and varnished, 203 ; of fine 

tgim-cotla, duncter, UiturCi colaur, 
oamporition of^ mode of prepaHng the 
pule fur, S3S, 237 ; ipota bmoiu for 
the finer olaja of, 238 ; uulfus of 
paste of pale red Etroann Taaea, S29 ; 
vheek oaed in the ancient Aretine 
potterisB, 229 ; vaaea o^ manun- of 
using tbe wheel in the msDufaeture of, 
trndiUoiui of tbeiDTentionoftbewlieel, 
230, 231 : iu, manner of modelling 
paMc with tbe hand, 231 ; in, paste 
■tamped in moaldi, 233-237 ; the vt 
of, cvried from Corinth lo Ila!;, ii. 
127; apecicaof, resemblingtlis EgTpUan 
eoKiDelkd Btune-ware, found in GtmIc 
and Italian Kpnichrea, 17S 

Patter; (EtnucaH), with tbe eieeption of 
Taaee, few remaini oI| ii. 187 ; of baked 
day only, 187-189 ; in, clay mU*d 
with Toloioio land, 1 89 ; never at- 
tained liigh eioellenoe, 214 

[HaoiaH] of clay, eon-dried, osed 

for biicka, ii. 223 ; of clay, Grs-hati«d 
bricks (lerrveotta), 224 ; of a !«■ fine 
clay, mixed with brick or pebbles for 
of terra-eotl*, for worki * " 


ir), peouliaritiea o^ 

art. '. 

of t 

compoaition of the pnate, procen of 
preparing it, care of tbe aneienta in 
mixing their clays, SOD, 301 ; in, Tnaea 
made by mean* of moulds as well as 
turned on tbe wheel, 302; conttruc- 
tii>n of kilns oeed in, manner of pack- 
ing Tsses, fumuwe of peculiar con- 
struction, use of pistilla in kiloa, SOS- 
SOS ; of glaied earthenware, resem- 
btingBtnucsn rather than O.eek, 338; 
glaied, dialingnished by ita bright-red 
eoloDT and silicsl«d alkaliue gliue, S3S ; 
of red ware (Aretine) quotations from 
ancient and modem authors, referring 
to, ii. 338-340 ; ofSamiaQware, analj' 
sis of paste used in, 349 ; ofSamian 
ware, procraa of mnkiog. mode of bsb. 
ing deecribed, 35D-35il ; of lenaciniu 
clay blackened in fnmaee smoke and 
polished. 384 ; distributed over the 
greater part of Earope, 3S0 ; of en- 
amelled paste, 37!i 

{Brilitk) resembling Celtic iu 

compositioD, ruder in form and orna- 
mentation, ii 380 

(Cellk) of the Soman type, i1« 

OOloDr prodnced by means of carbon, 
iL 377 ; earlier, of coarse clay, miied 
with pebbles, imperfectly bakeil, 37S 

(OauZwA) of a peculiarly friable 

paste, earlier than the Koman period, 
ii.386; laterof blaokclay mixed with 
pcbblca, 386, 3S7 

(Scoltiih) of the period before 

and during the Roman dominion, in 
rudeness resembling British, ii. SS4 

iTetUoHie) of three di "" 

397; early, native, clny ■ 
mixed witii particles oif n ' 
Rtilt unclassified, S90 

, historical value o^ ii. ! 

Pourtalea ooltection, vaie in the, in form 
of a dove, with two separately moulded 
figure! of Aphnidite, i. 240 

Fouaoli, vase from, representing a Qreek 
^ttery, 1. 240 

Fricea given for pottery in ancieut tinea, 
ii. 181 ; in modem, 182-184 

Frocbous. water-jog, ii. Oi 

FtolemyofFbilailelphas, date of the drink- 
ing cup |«rfecl«d by, i. 224 

Faycter, wine cooler, ii. 89 

Fuetoo, vase used in baths, U. 9B 

RiwLiKBDH, Sir H., inscriptions deci- 
phered by, L 110-113 ; brought bo- 
sins from Cbaldiea, Inscribed with 
Hebrew characters, 122 ; inscription 
00 brick deciphered by, 135, 137; his 
enumeration of Babylonian hirtorioal 
cylinders, 145, 143 

Bekabara, tomb of, Tepeeaentation of 
brick-making, i. 13 

Bheinrabeni, Eoninn pottery kilna at, iL 
SU. SS5 

Khonua, inventor of modelling, i. 160 

Rhyton, a form of drinking-cnp, i. 324, 
ii. 83 

Boman pottery, ii. 2S3, 336, 309. See 

tiles, ii. 229 

Rome, Arcbavlogicat Institute of, know- 
ledge of ancient vases diffused by the, 
i. 217 

KomuluaandHemua represented on vaaeii, 
i. 332 

Rosellini, wall at Luxor described by, i. 
23 ; engraring of E^jptian vase raaem- 
bting Greek, 40 ; painted vase from 
wall painting of a tomb at Thebes, 48 ; 
repreeontation of threading beads, found 
in a Thebau tomb, 83 

Rosa, Colonel, lerra-cotta impression of a 
coin found by, i. 180 

Euro, finest spedaen of Italian pot- 
teries found at, ii. 129 

SiBico, Kisg of Egypt, seal o^ i. 118 
Sa^untum, polterjr of, ii. 371 
Sallier, M., hlBloricil eapjci of, L 163 
Saniim wura, ii, 42-llT ; diitinctiTB 

ntarlH, StS ; PUaj's ratimatc of, »17; 

pnxiea of making, 3t6-S63 ; baking 

of, S5i ; fouDd in England. 36t, S6B 
SnmianB claim the iaTeDtion of modelling, 

i. 169 ; lecjtbas, ii. 117 ; ware, ii, 

117 ; inscription*, thidr philological 

pocaliaritis*, 3fi0 
&inoi, the fine clsja of; i. 223 ; one of 

tlie oldwt aitea of potlcriea, ii. 12 
SaoDhomatbo, legend of, recording the 

origin of brick-making, i. 155 
Sand, lajan ofj laid between tian of 

brieki in Aaqrria, L 108 
Saqqara, plaini ot, ibiB-mumm; pots, 


g offerii 

o ths 

gods, 37; the prramid of, dwiijambl 
drroiatcd witb lilei, 69 

Siinbut el Khadeni, fngment* of por- 
oelnin found in minea of; i. 78 

Scandinavian patterj, ii. 3B3 

Sanvphagi, of baked clajr, i. 23. Ste 

Scnphe. nse for waihlng, ii. 100 

ScarubteoB, porcebin uonlela iu fonu o^ 
acarabsi, i. 81 ; winged, on annular 
beada, 82 ; reprewnting OBiHs, on pec- 
toral platA, 34 ; on bead of porcelain 
amulet, figure of Fbtha Socbaria, 87 ; 
in InB-relief on pircelain riug-piatfs, 
91 ; on aignet ring of glaied sleoacbiat, 
99 : email glaied, fonnd bj H. BotU 
at Khuraabad, 130 

^oyphos, drinking-eup, iL 103 

Bc«Ii of glaied atone, i. 99 ; of terra- 
cotta, from KoBTuojik, IIS ; of dvk 
oUj from Khorsabad, 12G 

Sennacherib, lecont* of) inmribed on 
priimi of terracotta. 113 

Seinattia, brick wall built acrosa Egypt 
by, i. 12 

Sat. SerBtl 

Slinbti, Egyptian lepnlchn] ftgurei of 
elaj, BBD-dried, i. 21 ; of terra-cotta, 
29 ; porcelain, 93 ; manner of insert- 
ing hieroglyphic inseriptioD, 94, 95 ; 
belief of Egyptiaiu regarding them, 
90 ; of gland atone, 98 

Shergkt, cylinder, containing the hiatoiy 
of TiglMh l-aeaer, i, 113 

Shinar, ruined citiee of the plaini of, i. 


> Irorn, their g 
artiatic detaila, ii. 168, 173 

Sobah, aepulchres of, aareophagua r 

d hyB 

i. 24 

Staokelberg, the work of. pngravinga of 
moulded Toaea in, i. 235 ; vuea of the 
carliett period of Greek art, 2SS ; of, 
etcatationa at Cometo. ii. 132 

Stanmoa, vine Taae, ii, 75 

Stampa for tilea, ii. 242 

Statuea of rromethena nf unbaked clay. 

158 ; 


maleriala, 171 ; competitJTeexhibiliona 
of, in Qreece, 1 71 ; ua Urge andcnt, 
sf turra-cotl* eitant iu Qreece, 172 ; 
moiles of colouring, 173, 175; gilding 

(Blrjaam,) group from Corvetri, 

life aize, eolonred ; ii- 189, ISO ; terra- 
cotta, chiefly known from Roman 
writers, Btniaoan artiala employed by 
the Rotnnna, 190; high antiquity of, 
declared by Pliny, 190; itatuary m 
Italy derived from Egypt, chiefly cnlti- 
tated by Btruacana. atetuea exported to 
GreBc«, 190 ; of terra-eotta placed in 
the Capitol by Tarquinioa Priacm, 191 ; 
Eoman auperatltiooa regarding, 191 ; 
no remsina of, buats and moilola in 
t«rra-cotta, found at Oabii and Vnlci, 
191, 192 

(fforsan,) of tcrra-cotta, under 

the republic, (be works of Elnucan 
artiata, IL 258, 259 ; by Sicilian artials 
in the temple of Cerea at Borne, cauie 
of the eitenaiYe uae of terra-cotta in 
Italy, 269 ; of Greek artiata preferred 
in later timea, ioTeighed agiuuat by 
Cato, 260 ; of terrvootta above three 
feet high, forbidden by Noma, 261 ; only 
a few of lilie size remun, 261 ; of bronia 
or marble, modela of clay for, highly 
Talned among the Bomaoi. 2Q2 ; Tsr? 
nuuy email fignrea made by the Ko- 
mani, fur Tarioua purpoaea, eapeoially 
for the feaat of the Sigillaria, a aoqud 
to the annual Saturnalia, IL 262, 26< ; 
lerra-cotla figurea, aomutimea portrsita, 
referred to by Latin authors, 2a4, 28S ; 
■node of fabricating terra-cotta figures, 
2S£, 266 ; aigiltana not stamped with 
the potter'a name, 266 

Steaaehtat aoarsbraia inlaid witb por- 
odain, i. 72 ; Egyptian amulets inbiid 
with porcelain, 85 ; coaled with glau 
objecla, when ouring or en- 



dated apedniflu of glased, 97 
Stoddut, Mr., description of Ehodiaa 
amphora by, i. 190 ; handles, caan of 
am|ili>ine ileocritwd by, tUl : opiniani 
oi; raguiling liie stiunps of amphone, 

192, IM; hMdlca of Cni.lian *m. 
phora fuDDd b;, IBS; inscrlpticiiH Ml 
Corinthiui unfjione iteKribdl lijr, 200 

Slnbo mentions punMd Ji^ea, i. 2S0 ; 
mention of the wiklla of AmiD bj, u. 

Straw miied with briok in Bgypt, L 12, 
13 ; gnuB, or reeda, muted irith bricks 
in Babflod, 132 

Stmni; stf U in Uretk TUM, i. 27S-283 

8tnljble mixed vitb cUj for WmsBting 
bricks in Assjn-ia, i. 106 

Subjects ot vue painting, eluufication of, 
L 313 

Subjtat repreatnttd on taia, i 3 H 
gmnvll; original cDQcaptious of ibe 
artirt, tbe Giganltimachia, Slfi ; re- 
preunUtionBof Z«ns, 317-318; Hera, 
9ie ; of Athene, 319-321 ; PoHoldon, 
321, 322; Demetcr and Kora tbe 
Bleiuinian deitie^ 323; adientarea 
of Apollo, 324-326 ; Artemis,- 320 ; 
Hsphaietoi, 327 ; Area in a mbordin- 
ate position, 333 ; Aphrodite, never the 
central figure, 323 ; Hermes, 329 ; 
Dionjua, 330-331; Bltendonls of 
DionjFBoa, 331-337 ; Pan, 837 ; Dionj- 
sos and his follovera on Tasea eiiKnted 
during tbe deoliue of ait, S3S, 339 ; 
tbe adTentnres of Hu«<raa, 339, 340 ; 
Bros appear! only on raaei of tbe later 
stjle, 340 ; scenea where Broi and 
other inferior deities are introduced, 
341, 342 ; allegorical figures on vases, 
348, 349 ; scenes from tbe life of 
Heracles, 3S0, 357 i Attic MTths,— 
the exploits of Theseus, 3o7-3an ; the 
adienturss of CadmuB, 360 ; (Edipus, 
3B0, 361 ; other Thaban legends, 391 ; 
tbe stor; of Helle, tbe legends of 
Horthem Greece, 392 ; the Argonnutic 
expedition funnd, legends of the fajnilv 
ofCruOD, 362-3S4; Cepballenian tnuli- 
tioas with other mjths, 384 ; the ad- 
ventures of Bellemphon, S64, 365 ; 
Argive traditions, 365 ; Pissu legends, 
legends o( Arcadia and Amjele, 366, 
367 ; of Kortliem tradttions, hatties of 
the Centaurs and Amazons, 368, 309 ; 
Qjperboreaa legends, traditions of 
Fbrygin, 369, 370 ; eveuU of tbe 
Trojan war, 370-379; Bubjeets from 
tbe Noetoi, 379 ; the story of Uljswm, 
Orestes, 3 B0-3S2 ; the legend of Romu- 
lua and Remna, 3B2-3S4 ; religious 
ceremonies, 3SS ; scenes from civil 
lilb, 366 ; games, 387-390 ; subjects 
frum dramas, 390-392 ; feasts, amuse- 
menta, 3B2-3S3 ; nataral objects, 393, 
399 ; subjects adapted frum pueioa, 


Homer, 399-405 ; information im vises 
to be derived from ancient IHeiatnre, 
408, 407 i nsual costume and attribntM 
of the figures, 407-112 ; oonven^oiial 
moden of distan|piisliing perwmaicQi, 
emblems, coorentional treatment of 
accessiines, 413-415 
Snetonios, mention of piuuted vasM by. 

i. 220 

Snrrenlnm, pottcrj from, i 


Tsreutum, site of the oldest Italian pot- 
Tempera, Egyptian vases painted in, i. 
£0 ; figures painted in, SI ; vasea of 
fine terra-cotta painted in, 201 
Tenamen. mummy case of, inlaid viih 

porcelain, i, 71 
Touiab quarries, 23 ; sepnichlkl figuraa 
afiiersonsof inferioroonditiofi, 39, 31 ; 
vases of, Ste Vases ; — seldom nsed for 
decorative purposes, 4S ; proOESses of 
preparing and moulding, 15-47 ; votive 
and other figures of, painted in tempera, 
resembling Eodibd sigillario. SO ; %r- 
ohitectuml omamenla in, S3 ; lam[>s 
of, tet Lamiw ;— gioligbeil, 54 ; paliahed 
tiles of the Gneco'Egyptiau age naed 
for writing, 64, 66 ; tuaulds for amn- 
lets, 80 

{A isjpTiufi) , cylinderaond primu 

inscribed with enneiform obanctera, L 
113; description of title-deeds of, llS; 
hlstoriea, atmauaoks, &c., of, from tbe 
pubieo of Bennacberib at Kooyunjik, 
116; seals. 118; vaaee, Ser Visea ; 
—figures, architectural onuuneot^ 
moulds of, 124, 125 

( italigtanian ) various forma of 

terra-eottss used as documents, i. 114 ; 
cylinders of, 145 ; bas-reliefs of, 
modelled or slampeil in a mould, 116 

( (Jrcet), various nsos of, i,lSfl j 

tiles pointed and onumented, 182 ; 
tiles need in ■epnleltreo, 163 ; rat« 
Sicilian tiles of, 1A3 ; tile^ labelled 
and stomped, 161, 166 ; joint tiles 
antefiia of, 165, 166; tempjtt of. 
197; frieiea ot not of pnrs Greek 
art, 167 ; cylindrical grooveil tiles Ibr 
dnuning, IBS ; paste of, fur fignr«a 
and statues, 1 68 ; colour, manner of 
working, invention of moaldiugin paste 
of, 169 ; sMtnea of, Sec Statues ;— two 


groups in relief St Athens, 170; used 
chiufl; for aniall figares, 172 ; manlier 
of manlding tbeui, 173 ; pigmeata uied 
in ooIoDring, 176; painted bu-reliefg 
of, 173; maska, onuunentB of, 17B, 
ISO ; works of art in. Bold cUeaply, 
180 ; (woes for hmging from tho 
necka of caKle, 1S1 ; disea of, 182; 
puppelfl mentioDed bj XenoplioD and 
AriHtolle, 182, 183 ; circuinr lamps, 
184 ; pitliDi, ampliDnB. Ste Vases. 
Terracotta {klnucan), tiles piibliili- 
ed bj Gori, U. 187 ; uses serreJ by 
tiles iu sepalcbres, IBS ; walls of 
Areuo built of tilos, 186 ; architto- 
taral docoiatioas uf, slabs poinled 
with fibres in rud and black od 
a crctuD-aoloored ground, 188, ISS; 
modelling in, preoeded vorking in 
stone, 180 ; frieiea ot, bas-reUefs on 
ssroophagi, 102 ; smaller sarcophagi 
with bas-reliefs paiul«d iu water-co- 
lonrs, inscriptions pointed, n»6 out, 
lint of the paste, their forms, 193, 
194; sarcophsxi chi'^tlj' found in the 
tombs of Chiusi and Monte Puleiaao, 
IDS; four different pastes of, for 
Taws, 195 ; Tasos of, S« Yasts ;— bas- 
relief*, found at Capua, snppoaed to be 
Samoite ; statues from Ardea, 322 

(Roman), tiles of, Latin 

terms for, explained by Iaidonis,iip92['; 
paste for tiles, its ooiupositioQ and 
maoubrture, flanges tlie distinctive 
mark of tiles, 329, 230 ; tiles, fre- 
quent ocenrream of, tbrooghout the old 
Boinan Empire, varieties doscrihed, 
thoiTaBes,23U-'J3S;Tarioaa dimensions 
of tiles, 23-J, 283 ; tiles, use of, in se- 
pulchnis, inscribed with names of Ro- 
man legiona, 233 ; ruof-Ules, at Rnyston, 
ooTsring or ineloaing sepulchral urns, 
234 : joint tilea, mauaer of pla<<iiig, 
ornaments of, 231, 235 ; hollow tiles 
for flne^ descrii>t!on of, 23S, 230 ; 
broad, thin squares of, for casing walls. 
237 ; pipM of, for drains, 237 ; used 
with marble and gbisa for mnsaie 
pnTenients, no mosaic extant earlier 
than Angnstus, 238 ; estates or farms 
wlieie tiles of, wers made, 213-245; 
I'lUnsIrelj used In arcblteetural de- 
eorationa, colnmns, eorbcls, spouts, 
152, 2GS i bas-reliefs on slabs i>f, out 
in a mould and painlfd, used as bieiee, 
2S4 I ba-i-retieb, subjects of, treat- 
ment of mbjeola. omameula, 334, 3GG; 
bas-reliefs, examples of, from roofa 
nnd walls of Ronun baildings, SCO, 
2S| ; statnes of, &e Statues ; —applied 

to various peculiar uses, 207, 2118 ; 
moulds for false coins, ola; nied in 
tb^r compoiitioii, mode of impressing 
theda; and easting tha coin, 268, 269; 
apparatna for coining and base ciuns 
fomnl at different sta^ons in France 
and Bngbind, Sfi!), 270 ; dolls, astra- 
galna, and other toys of, fonnd in 
children's cemeteries, mentioned by 
Latin authors, 270, 271 ; lamps of, 
Set Lamps; — vases of. See Vases ; — 
moulds of, for making glaied vases, 
341; moulds of, for making ganiias 

!, sas 



Thns», ampbone from, i. iwe 

Tbeban myths on Greek vases, i. 360 

Thebes, Memnonium at, arclics of sun- 
dried bricks, i. 11 : bricks {[DOl, 1E- 
20 ; areh of brick, 20 ; bend-dren of 
inlaid porcelun found at, 70 

Tbeocritns, the later eoliuUast at, allusion 
tu fictile vases by, i. 220 ; boxwood 
cup described by, 308 

Theodonis, iarentor of the art of model- 
ling, i. 169 

Theseus on Oreek vases, I 357 

Tbericles, the mott Ikmona of Corinthian 
potters, ii. 127 

Tholhmes 111., triomphal pnceasion, 

i. SB 

Tiglath-Filescr, hislaiy of, on tcrra-Mtta 

cylinder, L 113 
Tigris, clay snpplled by inondationa af| 

i. 106 
Tiles, Stt Tena-cotta; Bgyptian, used 
for writing and insciiptioDs, L 64, 65; 
gissed for inlaying, 69 
Title-deeds of tena-cdtto, i. 115 
Tonrah, quarries, sarcophagi of quarrier^ 

i. 23 
Toys, children's, small vasea, Rgyptian, 
i. 41 1 terra-Ciitta fignren, Kgj^tian, 
Gl ; of porcelain, 71 : dolls of tvrra- 
ciittB found iu sepntchres at Athens, 
182 ; vases, pmlnbly, found near 
skeleton* of cbiidrsn, 2SV ; vases in 
the BtiUsh Muscnra, 2G6 ; (band in 
Bomaa sepulohrci, ii. 270, 271 ; 
earthenwaro. found at Bioiacn, Oa- 
chaU and Lubcn. 3VU 
Treves, palace of ConfilanLioe nt, ii. 226 
Tripon^ eartbenwarc [iaI, ii. 91 
Trjblion earthenware dish, ii. 111 
Tyre, KgjptJan Iwythus found id the 
luins uf, i. E5 





Ultsses, represented on Greek TMee, i. 

380, 382 
Urns, sepnlchraL See YaBee. 


Varabi family, at Venice, manufibctarers 
of counterfeit raaes, i. 21 9 

Vases {^ifptian), aepolchral, of terra- 
cotta, their offioei and forma, 81-83 ; 
of terra-ootta, for domestic use, i. 83 ; 
ibis maiumj-pots, 84, 35 ; ami^one 
of terra-cotta, used as packages for 
exported prodncts, 35 ; smaller am- 
phone for domestic use, 36, 87 ; three- 
handled, 38 ; jogs of unpolished clay of 
rariooB forms, 39, 40 ; prototypes of 
Greek, 89, 40 ; extensire use of, 43, 
44 ; distingnishing marks of, 45 ; 
roanaracture of, 45-47; decorations, 
painting of, 48 - 50 ; of enamelled 
earthenware, or polidied terra-cotta, 
their various shapes and uses, 54-57 ; 
polinhed red jars, 57-60 ; of ri9d ware, 
compared with Roman, 61 ; analysis 
of red ware, 61 ; texture and colour 
of, after Alexander's conquest of 
Egypt^ 61, 62 ; custom of placing in 
tombs, 63 ; of porcelain, size, uses 
of, 73, 74 ; porcelain, in imitation 
of metal, 75 ; porcelain, fuund in 
sepulctires of Etruria, 75 ; shapes, 
decorations of porcelain, 74-76 

{Assj/rian)y of unpolished terra- 
cotta, i. 119-120 ; resembling Greek 
ary hallos, 121 ; containing human 
b'tnea, 122; ornaments of terra-cotta, 
123; of porcelain, chiefly found in 
toiubjs, 129 ; colours and ornaments of 
porcelain, 130 

(Babylonian) f rows of, built into 

a brick wall, i. 142 ; of earthenware, 
found in mounds, 143, 144 ; of straw- 
coloured clay, with Chaldocan inscrip- 
tions in the Hebrew character, 158 

{Grcek\ various kinds of, i. 187 ; 

use, manufacture of pithoi, 188 ; dis- 
tinguishing marks of terra-cotta am- 
plione, 189; amphone used in com- 
merce, 190; origin of the long shape, 
190 ; Rhoilian arai)honp, described by 
Mr. Stoddart, 190 ; bases of am- 
phone, 191 ; seals of amphone, 191- 
194 ; objects of stamping am phone, 
192 ; characteristics of arophoraa from 
various Greek cities. 195-202; flower- 

pots of terra-cotta mentioned by Theo- 
phrastns, 202 ; of terra-ootta, ooafted 
with stucco, containing bones, 208 ; of 
fine terra-cotta painted, with figares in 
relief, 204 ; of terra-cotta in imitatioo 
of metal, 205 ; of pecoliar aluipea, 
206 ; of fine terra-cotta pottery, po- 
lished and slightly varnished, number- 
less examples still existing in Bnrope^ 
museums and collections where th^ 
are preserved, 209-210; diacorerj ci, 
of polished ware in tombs of Qreeee 
and Italy, 210 ; arrangement o^ in 
the varioas sepnlchres, 211-214 ; 
publications investigating and illus- 
trating by plates the subject of ancient, 
215-217; sepulchral, position, con- 
tents, injuries of, 217 ; sepidehral, 
pre«erved by an outer case of ctmnet 
pottery, 218 ; ancient, fraudulent re* 
pairs of, 218; fraudulent tracing of 
designs on plain, criteria for detecting 
counterfeits, modem imitations of, 219 ; 
Pindar's, the first express reference to^ 
220 ; painted, mentioned by Athensena, 
Strabo, Suetonius; sepulchral, by 
Aristophanes, 220 ; ancient modes of 
repairing, 220, 221 ; without inscrip- 
tions, £ites assigned to the art of 
making, 221-228; ornaments and 
subjects of, furnishing criteria for de- 
termining their dates, 224 ; classifi- 
cation of, by D'Hancarville, 225; 
classification o^ by the Due de Lu3mc8, 
226 ; paste, modelling of. See Pottery ; 
extreme lightness and thinness prized 
in, 228 ; parts and ornaments of, gene- 
rally modelled by the hand, 232; 
omameuts of, stamped out with moulds, 
234, 235 ; entire, produced from 
moulds, 236, 237 ; various forms of 
amphorse, jars, ar.d small vases pro- 
duced from moulds belonging to the 
latest ]ieriod of Greek art, 237-240 ; 
large, modelled on a frame, 240 ; sun- 
dried before painted, process of, diflS- 
culties of painting, 241-244 ; various 
opinions as to the composition of the 
black and white used in painting, 
manner of laying on colours in painting, 
245, 246 ; minerals forming colouring 
matters, liquid used in mixing colours 
for, 247 ; colours of, changed when 
exposed to fire, 248 ; description of 
furnace for baking, 249, 250 ; styles of 
painting, See Art ; earliest, found with 
inscriptions, ii. 15 ; all found in tombs 
not merely sepulchral, 66 ; carelessly 
executed on one side, intended for de- 
dication to the gods, 66, 67; of painted 

Wttri! odBplad for nao, but Qot for the 
eommoner purpoaeB, 67 ; med u toji, 
for dijcontinD, given oi priiea in 
games, 07, tiS ; Hil1ini;du'B clogaiGis- 
tion or icpulcbnl, 70 ; not bill Ul«r 
timoa reccpUoIea fur tbe aiihea of tlie 
dead, ntied in fonvnl ritei, 70-72 ; 
Autbors iiuoleil u uutboHcies id the 
Domencbtiire of, 72; dlfBcult; of sp- 
prapriatiiig tbe namei of, 73, 71 ; eUs- 
■i£<3Ltiaii a«cardiDg to ahapea, 74; 
naud fur gtores, 74-80; large, cbieflv 
med for drawing water, Dames uid 
dewTiplioa of, 80-S2 ; the drinking- 
cup, eallsd rbTton, 82, 83 ; imall, 
narrow-Becked, for holding oil or wina, 
88-S6 ; large, opeo, vine-aaulen, SS- 
SO ; of course ware tar pola, 90 ; willi 
feel, abuids fur wine-coolera, or used 
to heat liquidi, 01, 02; jngi &ad upeu 
cnpa fur oarrjing wine, 93-89 ; doscriij- 
tion and namen of otbera ap[>Iied to ra- 
riona parposea, 90-101 ; brukea and 
placed before bouaea, oa an emblem of 
death, 1D2 ; driuldiig-capa, uamea, 
deaoription!!, examples of, 102-110 ; 
nuioiu kiadHof, uaed for holding food, 
110, lit ; lulwtituteit for dlce-boiai, 
112 ; found near litee of ancient potte- 
tiea, SttPuOtria; found iu ttalj. Set 
Holy; of porculain, Egyptian, or in 
imilalion of Kgjpliiui, 17S, 179 ; imi- 
tated b; Wedgewood, bjr Garginlo in 
Naples, by Ur. Battam, ISO ; andeU 
connterfeita, eagrayinfe forgerj of Brflnd 
ited and Stoekelberg, ISl ; high prioea 
of, in ancient Bome, Cleopatra's value 
for them, ISl i rulue in Greece, 
prices given in diRerent parts of flu- 
rupe, in mudcni times, for collections, 
ur single woiks of art, I82-1S1 ; acci- 
dents enhancing tbe prioeof, 185, 1S3. 
Vases \Elriacan\, tbe oldest coarse, 
bnivn.imperfecUj baked, it. I9S; seem- 
ingly imilnlions of wooden laaos, L9lj ; 
in furms of batn, Toond near the &lban 
Lake, IBS, 197; how disttuguUhed 
from tbe \aXet Hellenic, 198 ; Iwloug- 
iogtotbeageorUieFelasgi, I9S, 1119; 
of bbick evtbunwara, opinious tonrh- 
iug the material and oumpoailion of tlio 
paste, ISOjufblackpoliah.aaalysiBofthe 
paste. 200 ; blaek.made with the hand, 
character of the ornaments ioetsed or 
stomped, mdenesa of forms, of the early 
acboids of Asia Minor, compared wiUi 
Ktruscan oHso, SOU, 201 ; example of, 
suggaiUng an imilabion of works iu 
metal, 202 ; forms of, their use, 203, 
201 ; canoiH, aepolohral vases, 204, 

a05 ; probabia period oC 205 ; mytho- 
logy oi; 20S-207 ; on, character uf in- 
B^^riptions, 'JOT, 203 ; sites of sepul- 
chres eantaining, SOS; diitinelive 
styles, varying with locality. 203, 'HI.' ; 
refereocea to, in Joveoal, Martial, slid 
Barace,2U9, 210; of red eai-tbiinwaie, 
jars too large tu be tamed on the wheel, 
their sb^iies and pecnliac oruauieatu, 
composition, and colour of the pmtc, 
'210, 211; the peculiar fatlsnu of, 
probable origin •>(; Ktruscan trade ui 
tbe Moditecruni^au, 211, 212; inA, 
smaUor uf Goer day, found at Vulci ; 
sepolchral vases, modellad raduly iu 
hamaa form, 212, 213 ; of flnu yellow 
earthen varc, imperTectly baked, of a 
later period, moulded in shapes of ani> 
msis, resembling Doric vsses, !13 ; 
executed in imilalion of Ureck glased 
vases, Btms^a influence appearing 
in the BubjucU, diQenut methods uf 
imltatjon, eiomplos, supposed u^ a\ 
this wore^ 214-217 ; of pale-coluured 
clay, witli dull glate found at Urbe- 
Icllu and Volaterra, 217; painlol 
with while figures on a black gronud, 
with old LaUn inscriptiuns, found at 
Orte, 218 
Vases (Ronum), at terra-cotta, nut 
works of art. adapted only to commuu 
ose, ii.29n, 300; paste for. ^Pottery; 
made on the wheel, modelled, ur 
pressed out of monids, :I02 ; the huge 
sise of, SOS ; references tu, in Latin 
authors, showing their low pric«, ^06, 
307 ; used for transport of oummudi- 
ttos, for religiuus ritos, for dotnestio 
purposes, 307 ; huge, used for stores, 
30S ; makars of dolia disiiogniiJied 
ftom other potten; dulia mentioned 
by Cato and Pliny, 309 ; oames 
inscribed on Jolia, 309, 310; om- 
phons described, their varioiu uk-s, 
310, 312; amphone lileratm, 312; 
sixes of amphorm, made by Hlaves or 
freedmea,312; enriunsstomp on an am- 
phora, 312; spots in Knglandwherothey 
have been found, 313 ; terra-callo, ei- 
lensiTB Dse uf, in early days of the Ke- 
public, disountinned, under tbe Em- 
pire, called Samian ware, 311 ; used 
in soorlfioBi, 31B ; of earthenware, su- 
perseded by gliM and mdal* as Borne 
advanced in powar and wealth, quota- 
tiuns in proof from IiUin writers, SIS, 
Hid ; uf various shapes described, with 




820 ; arch formed by jars fitimg one 
into the other, S21 ; other architec- 
tural uses of, 821, 822 ; difficulty of 
classifying, BrongniartV classifioatioD, 
Buckman's, 823, 324 ; of yellow 
earthenware, divided into three classes, 
distinguished by size and colour, 825, 
826 ; of red ware comprise the largest 
division of Roman pottery, its varia- 
tions of colour, often coated with white, 
326 ; red, commonest shapes and uses 
of, 827 ; specimens in the Sdyres 
Museum, distinctive marks of the 
false Samian, 328 ; of finer red paste, 
their shapes and uses, 328 ; ollse, 
also of unglazed terra-cotta, sepulchral 
vases of slaves, 329 ; of gray ware 
divided into two classes, description of 
the first, cooking uti>n:«ils, stamped 
sometime <i with the potter's name, 
330, 331 ; of the second class, their 
distinguishing mark, 332 ; of fine 
black paste mixed with micaceous 
])articles, polished, their colour, chief 
uses, peculiarity of their ornament-, 
332, 334 ; of coarse brown earthen- 
ware, commoner in Celtic and Etruscan 
than in Roman potteries, 334, 335 ; 
glazed, prototypes of, found in Greek 
and Etruscan vases of a fine red earth, 
with friezes in bas-relief^ iL 336, 887 ; 
glazed, made in moulds and completed 
on the wheel, twice baked, 840, 841 ; 
Aretine, collections of, at Arezzo, 
342 ; Aretine described, their size, 
oniament«, 343, 344 ; Aretine in the 
Gregorian Museum and the Museo 
Borbonico, 345, 346 ; Samian, dis- 
tinctive marks of, 346 ; of the various 
manufactories, Pliny's estimate of, 
347 ; Samian, found in remotest dis- 
tricts of the Roman world, alluded 
to by Plautus, 347, 348; Samian, 
imported from one spot, 349 ; Sa- 
mian, process of maJcing described, 
example of moulds, 350-353 ; Sa- 
mian, mode of baking described, 
354, 355 ; Samian, ornament of^ 
architectui*al in character, arrangement 
of the subject ; age and style of the 
ware, 356, 357 ; Samian, for common 
use, shapes of, described, 357-359 ; 
Samian, an article of export, 361 ; 
pseudo-Samian, described, a remark- 
able variety found at Boultham, 362- 

364 ; black, polished by friction, size, 
ornaments of, found in England, 364, 

365 ; red, with black glaze, peculiar 
prrxjess of modelling their ornaments, 
of painting on them letters in white 

slip, examples, 365-369 ; of enamelled 
earthenware found at Pompeii and 
Cervetri, 875, 876 ; poroeliun, Greek, of 
the Roman period, found at Tarsus, 
876 ; in imitation of Roman, made on the 
wheel, 877, 873 ; earlier sepulchral, 
i-udeness of their form, their mm- 
plicity of ornament, 379 
Vases {British), fashioned by the hand, 
their colour, ornaments, Roman ap- 
pellation, ii. 880, 881 ; districts of Bng- 
land, places where found, 381-383 

(Cdtic\ dimensions, ii. 379 

{Gaidiak), description of early, ii. 

886 ; of the Roman period, 387 

(Iriah), distinguished ^m Bri- 

tish by more careful ornament^ iL 

{Scandinavian), gap in the his- 

tory of pottery filled by, iL 898 ; 
modes of fiftshioning, shapes, orna- 
ments of, 393, 394 

{Scottish), of two classes, resem- 

bling British, used as drinking-cups, 
ii. 384 ; found in all parts of Scotland, 
ii. 384, 385 

(Teutonic), early, of native ma- 

nufacture, their textures, shapes, 
colours, ii. 387, 888 ; modes of orna- 
menting, 389 ; places where found, 
390-392 ; hut-shaped, 391 ; super- 
stitions touching, 892 

Veil, black ware of^ ii. 185 ; aepulehrea 
of, 136 

Vitruvius, reason given by, for brick - 
making in spring, ii. 301 ; chapter of, 
on sounding vtises, 321 

Vol terra, vases found at, ii. 133, 134 

Vulci, graves at, hewn in the rock, L 
210; repaired vase, found at, 221 
number of vases from, 189-142 
Greek origin of disputed, ii. 142 
great^t number of Archaic vases from, 
L 267; vases, in. the *' affected old 
style," chiefly found at, 277 ; the oldest 
Etruscan vases found at, 129 ; jar of 
enamelled ware found by Campanari ; 
porcelain lecythi ; scarab«ei and beads 
in the Egyptian grotto of the PoUe- 
drara, 179 ; terra-cotta busts found 
at, 191 ; cones of terra-cotta found 
at, 199 ; sarcophagi from, ii. 193 


Wall paintings compared with vase 

painting, i. 267 
Warka, cone of earthenware from, i. 25 ; 

brick wall, with layers of i^eed, 141 ; 




vases built into a brick wall, 142 ; 
ruins o^ 187 ; ornamental brickwork, 
at, 140 ; glazed bricks, 141 ; terra- 
cotta female figures in bas-relief from, 
147; ancient Ur of the Cbaldees, 
149 ; porcelain coffins of, 151 

Wedgwood, imitator of ancient vases, i. 
219 ; iL 180 

Wcrry, Mr., excavations at Berenice, ii. 

Wilkinson, Sir Ghiidner, drawing of 
terra-cotta sarcophagus, i. 23 


Xbnophartus, the Athenian potter, vase 
0^ iL 177 


Zkus represented on Greek vases, i. 317 
Zeuxis modelled in terra-ootta, i. 170 
Zomerysis, soup ladle, ii. 96 


•^UAOnir.Y AND RVAN8. riUNTLKl», WlllTKriUAHB. 





[PLORSHTni Ck>8S[P.] 

"The Mcond edilion of 'Mr. Miurjat's Huitoi; uf Paroeliun tnil PotterT* li 
fnllen like > Inmb UDong both the bayen uid lelltn of 'luodem anliiiuitiiH ' 
Klnrenoo. Ons Habrew milUonaaire, as renowned fur bU oollaction of croekerf 
u for his cnmmuid of amh, has iit oaeu coDnttnuuided all orders for Curtliei' purchuea 
of majolica. Curioaitj dealen vIid, a couple of monthi ago, were ukiag lOOl. for % 
cravkul pUt«, are now williag lii bike a bandrod peace, la as Ihoraaghlj etpoaing, 
in hia olimical work, the aukanbctare of >pnrio(u mi^oljea long carnal on here, Hr. 
Marrjat has performed & ugual aerrice to tbe admiren of fictileart."— Tft< jform't^ 
Pott Cwrt^Ktadrnt, iJoonnfier, 13S7. 





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